### FUNDAMENTALS OF CARTOGRAPHY, GEODESY AND GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS

Subject Code: 14 CGI -21

### IA Marks: 50

No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week: 04 Exams Hrs: 03

Total no. of Lecture Hrs: 52 Exam Marks: 100

**Objective**

Upon completion of this subject students should have gained the knowledge of Cartography, Geodesy, and Global Positioning System and also they become familiar with the basic principles and their applications in Geoinformatics Projects.

Cartography

Introduction to Cartography: Definitions, terms, concepts, types, history, applications, conventional cartography v/s digital cartography, cartographic process, cartographic products, cartographic materials, overview of cartography.

Introduction to Map: Types of map, map scale, classes of maps, map composition, the mapping process, map projection, Map Numbering Systems; Base Maps & Thematic Maps; Map Legend, Symbols & Border

Information; Design & Layout of Maps, geographic content of the map, label placement.

Digital Cartography:Cartography in context of GIS, Principles of cartographic design in GIS, cartographic

generalization, atlases and electronic atlases, hypermaps and digital spatial libraries.

Geodesy

Introduction to Geodesy: Definitions, terms, types, history, fundamental goals of geodesy; shape and size

of the earth, applications, overview.

Projections and Co-ordinate Systems: Classification of map projections, Datum surfaces and Coordinate

system, Transformations, Introduction to Azimuthal, Conical and Cylindrical projections with emphasis on LCC, Polyconic and UTM.

Geometric Geodesy: Earth, geoid and reference Ellipsoid, Everest Spheroid, WGS 84, Vertical datum, Mean

Sea Level, geometry of ellipsoid, level surfaces, plumb line and deflection of the vertical, coordinate system in geodesy.

Satellite Geodesy: Introduction – Normal orbits, Equation of motion and laws of Kepler, geometry of elliptic

orbit, line orbit in space, perturbed orbit, Lagrange and Gaussian Planetary equations, Gravitational

perturbation, Doppler surveying GPS

Introduction to GPS: Definition, concept, GPS working principle, history and timeline, overview.

Technical Description and GPS Observables: System Segmentation – Space segment; control segment,

user segment- types of receivers ; GPS satellite signals, GPS data, position and time from GPS, code phase

tracking, pseudorange navigation, receiver position, time and velocity, carrier phase tracking, GPS

positioning types –absolute positioning, differential positioning; Navigation signals -GPS frequencies;

Calculating positions using C/A code using P(Y) code, code phase v/s carrier phase, augmented GPS, local

augmentation; Accuracy and error sources – atmospheric effects, multipath effects, ephemeris and clock

errors; selective availability, relativity, sagnac distortion. Factors that affect GPS – number of satellites,

multipath, ionosphere, troposphere, satellite geometry, satellite health, signal strength, distance from the

reference receiver, RF interference, loss of radio transmission; GPS interference and jamming – natural

sources, artificial sources; Techniques to improve accuracy- augmentation, precise monitoring, GPS time and data, GPS modernization.

DGPS – History, need for DGPS, concepts and principles, differential corrections, accuracy in DGPS, local

area DGPS, wide area DGPS, carrier phase DGPS, pseudolites, LAAS, WAAS; rapid methods with GPS –

rapid static method, semikinematic method, kinematic method. Real time DGPS.

Planning and Realization of GPS Observations: Setting up an observation plan; practical aspects in field

Observations; observation strategies & network design; Ground control for geometric correction of satellite

imagery using DGPS. Ground control points, types, density, planning, reconnaissance survey, field

observations, Criteria for Selecting reference station, reference station equipments, operational procedures, post processing, Georeferencing.

Applications: military – airborne, marine and land based navigation, and civilian –surveying and mapping,

control surveys, cadastral surveying, navigation, RS, GIS and photogrammetry, geodesy, location,

navigation, tracking, mapping and timing, Engineering and Monitoring; Special applications of GPS, etc.,

GPS Technique and project cost.… Know More