### Download M.Tech Aeronautical Engineering Syllabus [PDF]

### APPLIED MATHEMATICS

Subject Code: 14 MAE11

IA Marks : 50

No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03

Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I

Review of Fourier series and Applications, Review of Laplace Transforms and Applications. classification of second order linear partial differential equations, Canonical forms for hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic equations, Homogeneous and Non Homogeneous equations with constant coefficients. Applications 10 Hrs

UNIT II

Vector Functions, General rules for differentiation, Velocity and Acceleration, Gradient of a scalar field, Directional Derivative, Properties of Gradient, Divergence of vector point function, Curl of a vector point function, Properties of Divergence and Curl. Applications Integration of vector functions, Line integral, Circulation, Work done by a force, Surface integrals, Volume integrals, Divergence Theorem of Gauss, Green’s Theorem in the plane, Stoke’s Theorem, problems on all the three theorems and

Applications 10 Hrs

UNIT III

Review of Complex analysis, Complex analysis applied to potential theory, Electrostatic fields, conformal mapping, Heat problems, Fluid flow, General properties of Harmonic functions, Complex Integration, Cauchy’s Theorem, Cauchy’s Integral Formula, Cauchy’s Integral Formula for Derivatives, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series. Applications. Singular point, Residue, Method of finding Resides, Residue Theorem, Contour Integration, Integration round the unit circle, Rectangular contour. Applications.

10 Hrs

UNIT IV

Numerical Solutions algebraic and transcendental equations: False position method, Newton –Raphson method, Iteration method, Aitken’s method, Solution of linear simultaneous equations. Gauss elimination method, Inverse of a matrix , Gauss-Seidal method, Crout’s method. Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations: Taylor’s Series method, Picard’s method, Euler’s method, Euler’s Modified method, Runge-Kutta 4thorder method. Predictor and corrector method (Milen’s and Adams Bashfourth) Applications.

10 Hrs

UNIT V

Finite differences, Interpolation, Newton’s Forward & Backward Interpolation formulae, Lagrange’s formula, Newton’s Divided difference, Central difference formulae (all formulae with proof). Numerical Differentiation, Numerical Integration (all rules with proof).Applications. 10 Hrs

**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. Erwin Kreyszing: “Advanced Engineering Mathematics”- John Wiley &Sons(Asia) Pvt. Ltd. 8th edition

2. H K Dass:“Advanced Engineering Mathematics”- S Chand and Company Ltd. 12thedition.

**REFERENCE BOOKS:**

1. Bali and Iyengar: “Engineering Mathematics”- Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd. 6thedition.

2. C. Ray Wylie and Louis C Barret: “Advanced Engineering”. Mathematics Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. 6th edition.

3. Michael D Greenberg: “Advanced Engineering Mathematics”- Pearsons India Ltd. 2nd edition.

4. B S Grewal: “Higher Engineering Mathematics”- 12th edition.

### AEROSPCE MATERIALS & MANUFACTURING

Subject Code : 14MAE156

IA Marks : 50

No of Lecture Hrs/Week :04 Exam hrs : 03

Total No. of Lecture Hrs :50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I

Introduction:

Over view on the growth of aviation: Aviation industry, aircraft design & development over the years. Aircraft Materials: Desirable properties, Metallic, nonmetallic materials and alloys, Composites and Introduction to smart materials, comparison of material properties and applications in aircraft components.

10 Hours

UNIT II

Tooling

Aircraft Tooling Concepts: Introduction, classification of tools, design and proving tools including financial aspects Machining Processes: Theory of metal cutting, tool materials for different machining processes, tool geometry and associated economics for each, different types of mould tools.

10 Hours

UNIT III

Fabrication

CNC Machining: Principle of numerical control, CNC-programming based CAD. Sheet Metal and welding: Sheet metal operations, shearing, punching, routing and forming, diffusion bonding. Welding Technology: Types of welding processes, resistance welding, submerged arc welding, atomic hydrogen welding, electron beam welding and special purpose welding processes. weld jigs

10 Hours

UNIT IV

Fabrication of Pipe Lines and Tubular Conduits: Types of pipelines and tubular conduits, routing of pipelines, fabrication processes including forming, cleaning and inspection. Plastic Technology: Thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, cast acrylic sheets forming processes, Composite Materials and Honeycomb Structures: Fiber reinforced plastics, Composite Manufacturing processes, NDT methods and quality control, sandwich structures and adhesive bonding.

10 Hours

UNIT V

Heat Treatment Processes: Purpose of heat treatment and theory of heat treatment processes, heat treatment of alloys of aluminum, magnesium, titanium, steel and case hardening, stress relieving techniques

Surface Treatment & Finishing Processes: Purpose of surface treatment, typical surface finish / treatment cycle for commonly used aircraft materials, protective treatment for aluminum alloys, steel, titanium.

10 Hours

**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. Handbook of Aircraft Materials – CGK Nair, Interline Publishing, Bangalore, 1993.

2. Aircraft Production Technology and Management – ChennaKeshu S and Ganapathy K K, Interline Publishing, Bangalore, 1993.

**REFERENCE MATERIALS:**

1. Aircraft Production Technology – Horne, DF., Cambridge university press, Cambridge, London, 1986.

2. Aircraft Materials and Manufacturing Process – George F.Titterton, published by Himalayan books, New Delhi, 1968.

### INTRODUCTION TO AEROSPACE VEHICLES AND SYSTEMS

Sub Code : 14MAE13

IA Marks : 50

No. of Lecture Hrs/week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03

Total Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I

General introduction to aeronautics: Fixed wing & Rotary wing aircraft: Light aircraft, Fighter aircraft,Passenger aircraft, and Cargo aircraft; Light helicopter, Large passenger and cargohelicopters Exploded views of various types of aircraft, identification of various structuralparts and their functions and materials used.

Aircraft Systems: System design and development processes; Mechanical systems: Components and functions of Hydraulics & Landing Gear systems.

10 Hours

UNIT II

Aircraft Electrical Systems: Generation, distribution and typical aircraft electrical systems and recent trends; Avionic systems: Flight control systems; Navigation system, Communication and radar systems their components and functions; Emergency systems and advanced systems.

Satellites & orbital dynamics: Satellite missions, Different types of satellites and their applications, Spacecraft configurations.

10 Hours

UNIT III

Spacecraft Launch Vehicles: Rocket propulsion principles and types and propellants; Sounding Rockets, Staging of rockets; major subsystems of launch vehicles and their functions; Different types of satellite launch vehicles, General description about Launch Vehicles of Indian origin.

10 Hours

UNIT IV

Standards & Specifications and Testing & Certification Aspects: Introduction to aircraftinternational and standards specifications for Military and Civil aircraft, Company standards;Airworthiness certification aspects aircraft; Ground testing and qualification testing.

Flight testing: Purpose and scope, Test plans and procedures; flight test instrumentation;to general flying and handling characteristics of aircraft; Preparation, andconduct of tests, fault reporting.

10 Hours

UNIT V

Introduction to aerospace industries and institutions and their roles: Aircraft design and production industries; Components and systems manufactures, Service industries, Research and Development organizations and Academic institutions.

Introduction to Airport Engineering: Development of air transportation, ICAO, IAAI,AAI, Aircraft characteristics which affect airport planning; Airport planning: Airport MasterPlan, Regional Plan, Site selection; Terminal area and airport layout, Visual aids and ATC.

10 Hours

**Text Books:**

1. ChennaKeshu S and Ganapathy K K: Aircraft Production Technology and Management, Interline Publishing, Bangalore 1993

2. Ian Moir and Allan Seabridge: Aircraft Systems, mechanical, electrical and avionics subsystems integration, Professional Engineering Publishing Limited, UK, 2001

**Reference:**

1. Ralph D Kimberlin: Flight Testing of Fixed wing Aircraft, AIAA Education Series, 2003

2. J. Gordon Leishman: Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics, Cambridge Aerospace series, 2000

3. Jane’s All The World Aircraft

4. Current literature of relevance from website

5. ISRO Course Material on Satellite Architecture

6. S K Khanna, M G Arora and S S Jain, Airport Planning and Design NEM Chand and Brothers, Roorki, 6th Edition, 2001

### AERODYNAMICS

Subject Code: 14MAE14

IA MARKS: 50

No of Lectures Hrs/Week: 04 Exam Hrs: 03

Total No. of Lecture Hrs: 50 Exam Marks: 100

UNIT I

Basics of Aerodynamics: Properties of fluids, Characteristics of Atmosphere, Type of fluid flows, Generation of Lift, Drag and Moment, Incompressible flows over airfoils, calculation of lift and drag from measured pressure distribution, Streamlined and bluff-body, Reynolds number and Mach number, Conservation law of mass and momentum, Euler and Bernoulli’s equations, pitot-tube measurement of airspeed .Pressure coefficient. Streamlines, path lines and streak lines. Angular velocity, vorticity, circulation Stream function, velocity potential and their relationship. Governing equation for irrotational and incompressible fluid flow.

10 Hours

UNIT II

Aerodynamics of airfoils and wings: Airfoil nomenclature and classification, Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of symmetric and cambered airfoils, Centre of pressure, aerodynamic centre and aerodynamic moment, Concept of point vortex, line vortex and vortex sheet, Kutta condition, Kelvins circulation theorem and starting vortex, Classical thin airfoil theory and symmetric airfoil. Finite wing nomenclature. Incompressible flow over wing, vortex filament, bound vortex, horse shoe vortex, downwash, induce angle of attack and drag. Type of drag.Biot-Savart law and Helmholtzs vortex theorem. Prandtls lifting line theory and limitations. Elliptic lift distributions, expression for induced angle of attack and induce drag. Two dimensional and three dimensional wings lift curve slope and effect of aspect ratio. High lift devices.

10 Hours

UNIT III

High speed Aerodynamics: Fundamentals of thermodynamic concepts, conservation of energy. Speed of sound, Mach wave and Mach angle. Normal shock wave, Oblique shock wave, Expansion fan, Prandtl-Meyer expansion. Family of shocks. Flow through convergent divergent nozzle. Hodograph and pressure turning angle. Rankine- Hugoniot relation.

10 Hours

UNIT IV

Compressible flow over airfoil: Full velocity potential equation. Small perturbation theory.Linearized velocity potential equation and boundary conditions.Pressure coefficient for small perturbation.Prandtl- Glauret compressibility correction.Critical Mach number, Drag Divergence Mach Number, Sound barrier. Transonic area rule, supercritical airfoil, swept wing and delta wing.

10 Hours

UNITE V

One dimensional isentropic flow through constant area duct: Fanno flow and fanno line, Rayleigh flow and releigh line. Method of characteristics and its application. Flow past Wedge and cone.

10 Hours

**Text Books:**

1. Fundamentals of Aerodynamics: John D. Anderson, McGraw-Hill publication.

2. Modern compressible flow: John D. Anderson, McGraw-Hill publication.

**References:**

1. Aerodynamics for Engineering students: E L Houghton and P W Carpenter, Edward Arnold publication, 1993

2. Fundamentals of compressible flow: Yahya, S M. Wiley Eastern. 1991

3. Introduction to flight: John D. Anderson, McGraw-Hill publication.6th Edition.

### COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

Subject Code : 14 MAE151

IA Marks : 50

No of Lectures Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total No. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam Marks :100

UNIT I

Introduction: CFD ideas to understand, CFD Application, Governing Equations (no derivation) of flow; continuity, momentum, energy. Conservative & Non-conservative forms of equations, Integral vrs Differential Forms of Equations. Form of Equations particularly suitable for CFD work. Shock capturing, Shock fitting, Physical Boundary conditions. Mathematical Behavior of Partial Differential Equations and Discretization: Classification of partial differential equations and its Impact on computational fluid dynamics; case studies. Essence of discritization, order of accuracy and consistency of numerical schemes, Lax’s Theorem, convergence, Reflection Boundary condition. 10 Hours

UNIT II

Mathematical Behavior of Partial Differential Equations and Discretization:Higher order Difference quotients. Explicit & Implicit Schemes. Error and analysis of stability, Error Propagation. Stability properties of Explicit & Implicit schemes.Solution Methods of Finite Difference Equations: Time & Space Marching. Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) Schemes. Relaxation scheme, Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel techniques, SLOR technique. Lax-Wendroff first order scheme, Lax-Wendroff with artificial viscosity, upwind scheme, midpoint leap frog method. 10 Hours

UNIT III

Grid Generation: Structured Grid Generation: Algebraic Methods, PDE mapping methods, use of grid control functions, Surface grid generation, Multi Block Structured grid generation, overlapping and Chimera grids. Unstructured Grid Generation: Delaunay-Vuronoi Method, advancing front methods (AFM Modified for Quadrilaterals, iterative paving method, Quadtree &Octree method).

10 Hours

UNIT IV

Adaptive Grid Methods: Multi Block Adaptive Structured Grid Generation, Unstructured adaptive Methods. Mesh refinement methods, and Mesh enrichment method. Unstructured Finite Difference mesh refinement. Approximate Transformation & Computing Techniques: Matrices & Jacobian. Generic form of governing Flow Equations with strong conservative form in transformed space.Transformation of Equation from physical plane into computational Plane -examples. Control function methods. Variation Methods.Domain decomposition.Parallel Processing.

10 Hours

UNIT V

Finite Volume Techniques: Finite volume Discritisation-Cell Centered Formulation. High resolution finite volume upwind scheme Runge-Kutta stepping, Multi-Step Integration scheme. Cell vertex Formulation. Numerical Dispersion.CFD Application to Some Problems: Aspects of numerical dissipation & dispersion. Approximate factorization, Flux Vector splitting.Application to Turbulence- Models.Large eddy simulation, Direct Numerical Solution. Post-processing and visualization, contour plots, vector plots etc.

10 Hours

**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. John D Anderson Jr. – Computational Fluid Dynamics, The Basics with Applications, McGraw Hill International Edn;1995.

2. T J Chung – Computational Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, 2008.

**REFERENCE BOOKS:**

1. F. Wendt (Editor), Computational Fluid Dynamics – An Introduction, Springer – Verlag, Berlin; 1992.

2 Charles Hirsch, Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows, Vols. I and II. John Wiley & Sons, New York; 1988.

3. JiyuanTu, Guan HengYeoh, and Chaoqun Liu, Computational Fluid Dynamics- A Practical Approach, Elsevier Inc; 2008

### INTRODUCTION TO AVIONICS

Sub Code : 14MAE152

IA Marks : 50

No. of Lecture Hrs/week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03

Total Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I

Introduction: Importance and role of avionics, avionic environment, Regulatory and advisory agencies. Displays and man-machine interaction: Head up displays, helmet mount displays, discussion of HUDs vs. HMDs, Head down displays, data fusion, intelligent displays management, Displays technology, control and data entry, instrument placement. 10 Hours

UNIT II

Aircraft sensor systems and indicators: Aircraft state sensors, Air data information and its use, Air data sensors and air data systems, air stream direction detection; Inertial reference systems: Gyros and accelerometers, attitude derivation. RMI, HIS, ADI; Outside world sensor systems: Radar systems, Infrared systems. Navigation systems: Principles of navigation, terrestrial en route navigation and lading aids, Inertial Navigation, Aided Inertial Navigation systems and Kalman filters, GPS global positioning system, terrain reference navigation. 10 Hours

UNIT III

Surveillance systems: Air traffic control, Primary radar, Secondary radar, Replies, Various system modes, error checking, Transponders of ATCCRB & Mode S, Collision avoidance, Lightning detection, Weather radar. Airborne communications systems: VHF AM Communications, VHF Communications hardware, High frequency communications, ACARS, SELCAL, Digital Communications and Networking, VHF Digital communications, Data link Modes

10 Hours

UNIT IV

Onboard communications: Microphones, Digital communications, Transmission lines, Digital data bus systems ARINC 426, MIL STD 1553, ARINC 629, Commercial standard digital bus, Fiber optic communication.

10 Hours

UNIT V

Avionic systems integration: Data bus systems, integrated modular avionics, commercial off-the shelf (COTS). Unmanned air vehicles: Importance of Unmanned air vehicles, UAV avionics . 10 Hours

**Text Books:**

1. Collinson RPG, Introduction to Avionics, Second Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Chapman & Hall, 2003.

2. Albert Helfrick, Principals of Avionics 2nd Edition, Avionics Communication Inc.

**Reference:**

1. Middleton, D.H., Ed., “Avionics Systems, Longman Scientific and Technical”, Longman Group UK Ltd., England, 1989.

2. 2Brain Kendal, “Manual of Avionics”, The English Book House, 3rd Edition, New Delhi, 1993.

### ADVANCED GAS TURBINES

Subject Code : 14MAE153

IA Marks : 50

No of Lecture Hrs/Week :04 Exam hrs : 03

Total No. of Lecture Hrs :50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I

JET PROPULSION CYCLES AND ANALYSIS: Introduction, Prime movers, simple gas turbine, energy equation, Dimensional analysis of rotating machine, Ram jet engine, pulse jet engine, turboprop engine, turbojet engine, thrust and thrust equation, specific thrust of turbojet engine, efficiencies, parameters affecting performance, thrust augmentation, problems.

10 Hours

UNIT II

Ideal cycles and their analysis: Introduction, assumptions, Brayton Cycle, reheat cycle, reheat and regenerator, inter cooled cycle with heat exchanger, inter cooled and reheat cycle, comparison of varies cycles, ericsson cycle, compressor and turbine efficiency, performance of actual cycle.

10 Hours

UNIT III

Centrifugal and axial flow compressors: essential parts of centrifugal and axial flow compressors, principles of operation, blade shape and velocity triangles, performance characteristics, surging and chocking, degree of reaction, compressor stage efficiency, mechanical loses, problems.

10 Hours

UNIT IV

Impulse and reaction turbine: single impulse stage and reaction stage, velocity triangles of a single stage machines, expression for work output, blade and stage efficiencies, velocity and pressure compounding, multi stage reaction turbines, performance graphs, losses and efficiencies.

10 Hours

UNIT V

Blade materials, cooling and environmental consideration: Blade materials, manufacturing techniques, blade fixing, blade cooling, liquid cooling, air cooling, practical air cooled blades, NOX formation, noise standards, noise reduction, aircraft emission standards.

10 Hours

**Text books:**

1. Gas turbines – V Ganesan Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing company limited.

2. Gas turbine theory – H.I.H Saravanamuttoo, G.F.C. Rogers and H. Cohen PV Straznicky, Publisher: Pearson Education Canada.

**REFERENCE BOOKS:**

1. Mechanics & Thermodynamics of Propulsion – Hill, P.G. & Peterson, C.R. Addison – Wesley Longman INC, 1999.

2. Aerospace Propulsion – Dennis G Shepherd, American Elsevier Publishing Co Inc NY.

3. Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Technology, 3rd Edition – E. Irwin Treager, 1995 ISBN-002018281.

### INTRODUCTION TO ADVANCED COMPOSITES

Sub Code: 14MAE154

IA Marks: 50

Hrs/ Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03

Total Hours: 50 Exam Marks: 100

UNIT I

Science of composite materials : Polymer-matrix composites, Carbon-matrix, Metal-matrix, Ceramic-matrix. Advance processing techniques: Filament winding, pultrusion, pulforming, thermoforming, injection, injection molding, liquid molding, blow molding. Application to aircraft, missiles & spacecraft. 10 Hours

UNIT II

Macro& microbehavior of a lamina: Stress strain relationship for an orthotropic Lamina- Restriction on elastic constants-Strengths of an orthotropic lamina and failure theories for an orthotropic lamina. Determination of elastic constants-Rule of mixtures, Macromechanical behavior of a laminate: Classical plate theory-stress and strain variation in laminate. Strength analysis of a laminate

10 Hours

UNIT III

Composite materials for thermal application, electrical/electro- magnetic application: Materials for high thermal conductivity, thermal interface materials, materials for thermal insulation, materials for heat retention Application to micro-electronics, resistance heating Mechanism behind electromagnetic application, materials for electromagnetic application.

10 Hours

UNIT IV

Materials for thermoelectric, dielectric application, optical & magnetic application:

Non-structural & Structural composites, dielectric behavior, piezoelectric behavior, Piezoelectric/ferroelectric composite principles.Pyroelectric behavior. Materials for optical wave guide, materials for lasers. Metal-matrix composites for magnetic application.

10 Hours

UNIT V

Smart structure application: Polymer matrix composites for damage sensing, temperatures sensing& vibration reduction. Introduction to testing: Environmental effects testing, Design allowable & Damage tolerance Testing. Test Techniques.

10 Hours

**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. Composite Materials-Functional Material for modern Technologies-Deborah D. L. Chung, Springer-Verlag London Ltd., 2004.

2. Mechanics of Composite Materials-R M Chawla, Springer Verlag,1998.

**REFERENCE BOOKS:**

1. Composite materials-Testing & Design-Ravi B Deo& Charles R, Editor, ASTM STP Publication , 1996.

2. Composite materials-Properties as Influenced by Phase geometry- Nielson, Springer- Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

### AERO-ENGINE TESTING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

Subject Code :14 MAE 155

IA Marks : 50

No of Lectures Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03

Total No. of Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks :100

UNIT I

Introduction: Need For Gas Turbine Engine Testing And Evaluation, Philosophy Of Testing, Rationale Of Testing. Types of tests: Proof of Concepts, Design Verification, Design Validation, and Formal Tests. Aero Thermodynamic Tests: Compressor: Compressor scaling parameter Groups, Compressor MAP. Inlet distortions. Surge margin stack up.Testing and Performance Evaluation, Test rig.

10 Hours

UNIT II

Combustor: Combustor MAP, Pressure loss, combustion light up test. Testing and Performance Evaluation. Aero Thermodynamic Tests: Turbines: Turbine MAP. Turbine Testing And Performance Evaluation. Component model scaling.Inlet duct & nozzles: Ram pressure recovery of inlet duct. Propelling nozzles, after burner, maximum mass flow conditions.Testing and Performance Evaluation. 10 Hours

UNIT III

Engine performance: Design & off-design Performance. Transient performance.Qualitative characteristics quantities. Transient working lines .Starring process & Wind milling of Engines. Thrust engine start envelope. Calculations for design and off-design performance from given test data – (case study for a Jet Engine). 10 Hours

UNIT IV

Qualification Tests: Tests used to evaluate a design. Environment ingestion capability. Preliminary flight rating tests, Qualification testing, acceptance tests, Reliability figure of merit. Structural integrity tests: Design Verification Tests, Durability and Life Assessment Tests, Reliability Tests, Failure Simulation Tests, Functional And Operability Tests. Types of engine tests: Normally Aspirated Testing, Ram Air Testing, Altitude Testing, Flying Test Bed, Mission Oriented Tests, Open Air Test Bed, Ground Testing of Engine Installed in Aircraft, Flight testing. 10 Hours

UNIT V

Test cell: Air breathing engine test facility. Direct connect altitude cell, propulsion wind tunnels. Types of engine test beds. Factors for design of engine test beds. Altitude test facility. Steps in test bed cross calibration. Engine testing with simulated inlet distortions. Surge test. Cell Calibration and Correction. Performance Reduction Methodology. Instrumentation: Data Acquisition, Measurement of Thrust, Pressure, Temperature, Vibration, etc. Accuracy and Uncertainty in Measurements. Experimental Stress Analysis.

10 Hours

**Text Books:**

1. P.P Walsh and P. Peletcher, Gas Turbine Performance, Blackwell Science, 1998, ISBN 0632047843.

2. J P Holman, Experimental methods for Engineers, Tata McGraw –Hill Publishing Co. Ltd .,2007

**Reference:**

1. Advance Aero-Engine Testing, AGARD-59 Publication

2. NASA CR-1875,`An inventory of Aeronautical Ground Research Facilities.

3. MIL –5007 E , `Military Specifications: Engine , Aircraft, Turbo Jet & Turbofan General Specification for Advance Aero Engine testing`, 15th Oct 1973.

### FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

Sub Code : 14MAE12

IA Marks : 50

No of Lecture Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

Total Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I

Introduction to Finite Element Method, One-Dimensional Elements-Analysis of Bars : Engineering Analysis, History, Advantages, Classification, Basic steps, Convergence criteria, Role of finite element analysis in computer-aided design., Mathematical Preliminaries, Differential equations formulations, Variational formulations, weighted residual methods. Basic Equations and Potential Energy Functional, 1-0 Bar Element, Strain matrix, Element equations, Stiffness matrix, Consistent nodal force vector: Body force, Initial strain, Assembly Procedure, Boundary and Constraint Conditions, Single point constraint, Multi-point constraint, 2-D Bar Element.

10 Hours

UNIT II

Two-Dimensional Elements-Analysis, Three-Dimensional Elements-Applications and Problems: Three-Noded Triangular Element (TRIA 3), Four-Noded Quadrilateral Element (QUAD 4), Shape functions for Higher Order Elements (TRIA 6, QUAD 8) . Basic Equations and Potential Energy Functional, Four-Noded Tetrahedral Element (TET 4), Eight-Noded Hexahedral Element (HEXA 8), Tetrahedral elements, Hexahedral elements: Serendipity family, Hexahedral elements: Lagrange family. Shape functions for Higher Order Elements.

10 Hours

UNIT III

Aero Structural analysis through FEM for Beams and Trusses: 1–D Beam Element, 2–D Beam Element, shape functions and stiffness matrixes, Problems, trusses with one, two, three and four bar elements.

10 Hours

UNIT IV

FEM analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow: Steady state heat transfer, 1 D heat conduction governing equation, boundary conditions, One dimensional element, Functional approach for heat conduction, Galerkin approach for heat conduction, heat flux boundary condition, 1 D heat transfer in thin fins. Basic differential equation for fluid flow in pipes, around solid bodies, porous media.

10 Hours

UNIT V

FEM for Dynamic : Formulation for point mass and distributed masses, Consistent element mass matrix of one dimensional bar element, truss element, axisymmetric triangular element, quadrilatateral element, beam element. Lumped mass matrix, Evaluation of eigen values and eigen vectors, Applications to bars, stepped bars, and beams.

10 Hours

**Text Books:**

1. Chandrupatla T. R.,“Finite Elements in engineering”- 2nd Edition, PHI, 2007.

2. Lakshminarayana H. V.,“Finite Elements Analysis”– Procedures in Engineering, Universities Press, 2004

**Reference Books:**

1. Rao S. S. “Finite Elements Method in Engineering”- 4th Edition, Elsevier, 2006.

2. P.Seshu, “Textbook of Finite Element Analysis” -PHI, 2004.

3. J.N.Reddy, “Finite Element Method”- McGraw -Hill International Edition.

4. Bathe K. J. “Finite Elements Procedures”- PHI.

5. Cook R. D., et al., “Concepts and Application

### AERODYNAMIC LAB

Subject Code: 14 MAEL16

IA Marks : 25

No. of Lab Hrs/ Week : 03 Exam Hrs : 03

Total no. of Lab Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 50

**List of Experiments**

1. Calibration of test section of a subsonic wind tunnel.

2. Smoke flow visualization on a wing model at different angles of incidence at low speeds.

3. Tuft flow visualisation on a wing model at different angles of incidences at low speeds: Identify zones of attached and separated flows

4. Surface pressure distribution around building models in multiple model arrangement

5. Surface pressure distribution on a cambered wing at different angles of incidence and calculation of lift and pressure drag.

6. Calculation of total drag of a cambered airfoil at a low incidence using pitot-static probe wake survey

7. Measurement of typical boundary layer velocity profile on the wind tunnel wall (at low speeds) using a pitot probe and calculation of boundary layer displacement and momentum thickness in the presence of a circular cylinder model.

8. Study the effect of Blockage ratio on drag & pressure distribution of a circular cylinder

9. Measurement of turbulence level in a low speed wind tunnel

10. Measurement of loads and pitching moments using wind tunnel balance.

11. Study of pressure distribution on hemispherical objects.

12. Study on internal/external flow distribution of hollow tube structure.

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