M.Tech Aeronautical Engineering 2nd Semester Syllabus

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PERFORMANCE AND FLIGHT MECHANICS
Sub Code : 14 MAE21

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I
Aircraft Performance: Aviation history. Principles of Flight.Aircraft aerodynamics; Drag and Thrust.Steady and level Flight. Variation of Thrust, Drag, Power available, and Power required with speed and altitude. Minimum drag, minimum power, Maximum and minimum level flight speeds. simples problems
10 Hours

UNIT II
Steady Performance: Airplane Steady Performance: General equation of motion, Steady level flight performance, Steady Climbing, Gliding Flights ; Minimum rate of sink and range in a glide. Range and Endurance of jet and piston prop airplanes.
Accelerated Performance: Estimation of take-off and landing distances. Ground effect, Balanced Field Length. Turn performance; Bank angle, load factor, pull-up & pull-down maneuver; accelerated climbing, V-n diagram.
10 Hours

UNIT III
Static Longitudinal Stability and Control :Equilibrium conditions, Definition of static stability, Definition of longitudinal static stability, stability criteria, Contribution of airframe components: Wing contribution, Tail contribution, Fuselage contribution, Power effects- Propeller airplane and Jet airplane. Trim condition. Static margin.stick fixed neutral points. Longitudinal control, Elevator power, Elevator angle versus equilibrium lift coefficient, Elevator required for landing, Restriction on forward C.G. range, Hinge moment parameters, Stick-free Neutral point, Stick force gradient in unaccelerated flight, Restriction on aft C.G
10 Hours

UNIT IV
Static Directional Stability and Control: Introduction, Definition of directional stability, Static directional stability rudder fixed, Contribution of airframe components, Directional control. Rudder power, Stick-free directional stability, Requirements for directional control, Rudder lock, Dorsal fin. One engine inoperative condition, Weather cocking effect. Static Lateral Stability And Control: Introduction, definition of Roll stability. Estimation of dihedral effect., Effect of wing sweep, flaps, and power, Lateral control, Estimation of lateral control power, Aileron control forces, Balancing the aileron.


10 Hours

UNIT V
Dynamic Longitudinal Stability: Definition of Dynamic longitudinal stability: types of modes of motion: long or phugoid motion, short period motion. Airplane Equations of longitudinal motion, Derivation of rigid body equations of motion, Orientation and position of the airplane, gravitational and thrust forces, Small disturbance theory.
Dynamic Lateral and Directional Stability: Routh’s criteria. Factors affecting period and damping of oscillations.Effect of wind shear.
10 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Anderson J.D.: Introduction to Flight, McGraw Hill, 1987
2. Perkins, C.D., and Hage, R.E.: Airplane Performance, stability and Control, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, 1988

References:
1. McCormick B.W., Aerodynamics, Aeronautics and Flight Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons New York, 1979.
2. Anderson J.D., Foundation of Aerodynamics, McGraw Hill Book Co, New York,1985
3. Ojha S.K., Flight Performance of Aircraft, AIAA Education Series. Editor in Chief, J.S. Przemieniecki 1995.
4. Bandu N. Pamadi, ` Performance, Stability, Dynamics and Control of Airplanes`, AIAA 2nd Edition Series, 2004.
5. John D. Anderson, Jr.: Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, Third edition, McGraw-Hill publications, 2001
6. Bernard Etkin, “ Dynamics of Flight Stability and Control”, John Wiley & Sons, Second Edition, 1982.

FLIGHT TESTING
Sub Code : 14MAE254

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I
Introduction: Sequence, Planning and governing regulations of flight testing. Aircraft weight and center of gravity, flight testing tolerances. Method of reducing data uncertainty in flight test data -sources and magnitudes of error, avoiding and minimizing errors.Flight test instrumentation: Planning flight test instrumentation, Measurement of flight parameters. Onboard and ground based data acquisition system. Radio telemetry.
10 Hours

UNIT II
Performance flight testing – range, endurance and climb: Airspeed – in flight calibration. Level flight performance for propeller driven aircraft and for Jet aircraft – Techniques and data reduction.Estimation of range, endurance and climb performance.Performance flight testing -take-off, landing, turning flight: Maneuvering performance estimation. Take-off and landing -methods, procedures and data reduction.
10 Hours

UNIT III
Stability and control – longitudinal and maneuvering: Static & dynamic longitudinal stability: – methods of flight testing and data reduction techniques. Maneuvering stability methods & data reduction. Stability and control – lateral & directional: Lateral and directional static & dynamic stability:-Coupling between rolling and yawing moments.definition of Roll stability. Adverse yaw effects.Aileron reversal. Regulations, test techniques and method of data reduction.
10 Hours

UNIT IV
Flying qualities: MIL and FAR regulations.Cooper-Harper scale.Pilot Rating.Flight test procedures.Hazardous flight testing: Stall and spin- regulations, test and recovery techniques. Test techniques for flutter, vibration and buffeting.
10 Hours

UNIT V
Static Directional Stability and Control: Introduction, Definition of directional stability, Static directional stability rudder fixed, Contribution of airframe components, Directional control. Rudder power, Stick-free directional stability, Requirements for directional control, Rudder lock, Dorsal fin. One engine inoperative condition..Weather cocking effect.
10 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Ralph D Kimberlin, Flight Testing of Fixed Wing Aircraft, AIAA educational Series,2003.
2. Perkins, C.D., Hege R.E, Airplane performance , stability and control, John wiley&sons inc, Newyork, 1988.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. AGARD, Flight Test Manual Vol. I to IV

AEROSPACE PROPULSION
Subject Code :14MAE23

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I
Introduction to propulsive devices: Air breathing and non-air breathing systems. Atmospheric Properties. Reciprocating Engine Construction & Nomenclature;Engine Performance theory &Performance. Propeller theory. Aircraft engine health monitoring techniques.
10 Hours

UNIT II
Gas turbine engines: turbojet, Turbofan, Turboprop, Turbo-shaft engine Construction and Nomenclature, theory and performance, dump diffusers for modern aircraft engines. Gas turbine engine fuel and fuel systems :Nomenclature, Operation and Control system. Description &Analysis of rotating components, Compressors, Turbines & matching.
10 Hours

UNIT III
Elements of Chemical Rocket Propulsion : Classification & fundamentals. Fuels and propellants. Fuel cells for space mission. Rocket combustion processes.
10 Hours

UNIT IV
Solid propellant rocket description: performance & estimation, Flame spread and Ignition transient. Mechanical characterization of propellants. Grain design. Burn rate estimation.
10 Hours

UNIT V
Liquid propellant rocket description: performance & estimation. Injectors.Cooling.Systems.Combustion instabilities.Hybrid propellant rocket description: performance & estimation, Mission requirements & Power plant selection. Ramjet and Scramjet engines.Introduction to Space mission. 10 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Aircraft power plants – Michael J Kroes and Thomas W Wild, Macmillan/McGraw Hill NY.
2. Rocket Propulsion Elements – George P Sutton and Donald M Ross, John Wiley & Sons NY.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Aerospace Propulsion – Dennis G Shepherd, American Elsovier Publishing Co Inc NY.
2. Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Technology, 3rd Edition – E. Irwin Treager, 1995 ‘ISBN- 02018281.
3. Mechanics & Thermodynamics of Propulsion – Hill, P.G. & Peterson, C.R. Addison – Wesley Longman INC, 1999.
4. Design of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines – Huzel and Houng, NASA SP 125, 1971.
5. Rocket Propulsion – Barrere et al., Elsevier Co., 1960

AIRFRAME STRUCTURES AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Subject Code :14MAE24

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I
Fundamentals of structural analysis and structural components of aircraft: Basic elasticity, Two dimensional problems in elasticity, Loads on structural components, function of structural components, fabrication of structural components, connections, numerical Statically determinate and indeterminate structures as applied to aircraft structures: Statically determinate: Equilibrium of force systems, truss structures, externally braced wings, landing gear, beams – shear and moments, torsion-stresses and deflection. Statically indeterminate structures: Bending moment in frames and rings by elastic centre method, Continuous structure – moment distribution method. Numerical problems
10 Hours

UNIT II
Introduction to practical aircraft stress analysis: Introduction to wing stress analysis by modifies beam theory, Introduction to fuselage stress analysis by modified beam theory, Loads and stresses on ribs and frames. numerical problems
10 Hours

UNIT III
Buckling and stability as applied to aircraft structures: Introduction, columns and beam columns, crippling stress, buckling of this sheets, Thin skin-stringer panels, skin-stringer panels, Integrally stiffened panels. numerical problems, Overview of structural design process: Structural integrity, Material and mechanical properties, failure theories, Design criteria- safe life and fail safe, Designing against fatigue, prediction of aircraft fatigue life.
10 Hours

UNIT IV
Wing box structure and Fuselage: Introduction, wing box design, wing covers, spars, Ribs and bulkheads, wing root joints, variable swept wings, wing fuel tank design. Fuselage: Introduction, fuselage configuration, fuselage detail design, forward fuselage, wing and fuselage intersection, stabilizer and aft fuselage intersection, fuselage opening.
10 Hours

UNIT V
Empennage structure, Landing gear and engine mounts: Landing gear: Empennage structure: introduction, Horizontal stabilizer, vertical stabilizer, elevator and rudder. Introduction, developments and arrangements, stowage and retraction, detail design. Engine mounts: Introduction, propeller driven engine mounts, inlet of jet engines, wing-pod (pylon) mounts, rear fuselage mounts and tail mounts, fuselage mounts (fighters)
10 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
1. T.H.G.Megson, ‘Aircraft structures for engineering students’, fourth edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, USA, 2007.
2. E.F.Bruhn, ‘Analysis and design of flight vehicle structures’, Jacobs Publishing, Inc, USA, 1973.
3. Michael Chun-Yung Niu, ‘Airframe structural design’, Lockheed Aeronautical systems company, Burbank, California, Hong Kong Conmilt Press Ltd, USA, February 2002,

AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
Sub Code : 14MAE251

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I
Introduction: Guidance versus Navigation, categories of navigation, the vehicle, phases of flight, design trade-offs; Evolution of Air navigation, integrated avionics. The Navigation equations:Geometry of earth, coordinate frames, dead-reckoning computations, positioning, positioning, terrain-matching, course computation, errors, digital charts, software aspects and future trends.
10 Hours

UNIT II
Terrestrial Radio-Navigation Systems: General principles, system design considerations, point source systems, hyperbolic systems, future trends. Terrestrial Integrated Radiocommunication – Navigation Systems: Inertial navigation: Introduction, JTIDS relative navigation, position location reporting system, future trends.
10 Hours

UNIT III
Inertial Navigation: The system, Instruments, Platforms, Mechanization equations, error analysis, alignment. Satellite Radio Navigation: Basics, orbital mechanics and clock characteristics, atmospheric effects on satellite signals, NAVSTAR GPS, GLONASS, GNSS, future trends.
10 Hours

UNIT IV
Air data Systems: Air-data measurements, equations, systems, specialty designs, calibration and system test, future trends. Attitude and Heading References: basic instruments, vertical references, heading references, initial alignment of heading references, future trends. Doppler and Altimeter Radars: Doppler radars, radar altimeters, future trends. Mapping and Multimode Radars: radar pilot age, semiautomatic position fixing, semiautomatic position fixing with synthetic, precision velocity update, terrain following and avoidance, multimode radars, signal processing, airborne weather radar, future trends.
10 Hours

UNIT V
Celestial Navigation: star observation geometry, theory of stellar-inertial navigation, stellar sensor design characteristics, Celestial Navigation system design, star catalog characteristics, system calibration and alignment, future trends. Landing Systems: the mechanics of landing; low-visibility operations, automatic landing systems: ILS, microwave-landing system, satellite landing system, carrier- landing system, future trends Air Traffic Management: flight rules and procedures, phases of flight, subsystems, facilities and operations, system capacity, airborne collision avoidance systems
10 Hours

Text Books:
1. Myron Kayton and Walter R. Fried: Avionics Navigation Systems, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2nd Edition, 1996
2. Collinson RPG, Introduction to Avionics, Second Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Chapman & Hall, 2003.

Reference:
1. Siouris G M: Aerospace avionic systems – A Modern Synthesis, Academic Press 1993

THEORY OF AEROELASTICITY
Sub Code : 14MAE252

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I
INTRODUCTION
Aeroelasticity – Aeroelastic phenomenon: flutter, buffeting, dynamic loads problems, load distribution, divergence, control effectiveness & reversal. Deformation of airplane structures under static loads: Forces acting on aeroplane, Influence coefficients. Properties of influence coefficients. Deformation under distributed forces. Simplified elastic airplane. Bending, torsional and shear stiffness curves.
10 Hours

UNIT II
Static aeroelastic phenomena :Load distribution and divergence-wing torsional divergence (two-dimensional case, & finite wing case). Prevention of aeroelastic instabilities. Control effectiveness and reversal :Aileron effectiveness and reversal -2 dimensional case, and finite wing case. Strip theory. Aileron effectiveness in terms of wing -tip helix angle.Critical aileron reversal speed.Rate of change of local pitching moment coefficient with aileron angle.
10 Hours

UNIT III
Deformation of airplane structures under dynamic loads: Differential and Integral forms of equations of motions of vibrations. Natural modes and frequencies of complex airplane structures – introduction. Dynamic response phenomenon. Dynamic problems of Aeroelasticity: Determination of critical flutter speed. Aeroelastic modes. Wing bending and torsion flutter. Coupling of bending and torsion oscillations and destabilizing effects of geometric incidences. Flutter prevention and control.
10 Hours

UNIT IV
Test model similarities: Dimensional concepts. Vibration model similarity laws.Dimensionless form of equation of motion. Mode shapes and natural frequencies in dimensionless forms. Model scale factors. Flutter model similarity law. Scale factors. Structural simulation:-shape, mass and stiffness.
10 Hours

UNIT V
Testing techniques: Measurement of structural flexibility, natural frequencies and mode shapes. Polar plot of the damped response. Identification and measurement of normal modes. Steady state and dynamic Aeroelastic model testing.
10 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Dowell, E. H., Crawley, E. F., Curtiss Jr., H. C., Peters, D. A., Scanlan, R. H., and Sisto, F., A Modern Course in Aeroelasticity, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 3rd Edition, 1995. (TL574.A37.M62)
2. Bisplinghoff, R., Ashley, H., and Halfman, R. L., Aeroelasticity, Dover, 1955. (TL570.B622)

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Fung, Y. C., An Introduction to the Theory of Aeroelasticity, 1955 (Dover, 1969).
2. Megson THG,` Aircraft structures for Engineering students`, Edward Arnold.
3. Bisplinghoff, R. and Ashley, H., Principles of Aeroelasticity, Dover, 1962. (TL570.B623)

HELICOPTER DYNAMICS
Subject Code : 14MAE253

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT I
Introduction: A history of helicopter flight; Fundamentals of Rotor Aerodynamics; Momentum theory analysis in hovering flight. Disk loading, power loading, thrust & power coefficients. Figure of merit, rotor solidity and blade loading coefficient. Power required in flight. Axial climb, descent, and autorotation. Blade Element Analysis: Blade element analysis in hovering and forward flight. Rotating blade motion.Types of rotors.Concept of blade flapping, lagging and coning angle.Equilibrium about the flapping hinge, and
lead/lag hinge.
10 Hours

UNIT II
Basic Helicopter Performance: Hovering and axial climb performance. Forward flight performance; Induced power, blade profile power, parasite power, tail rotor power, climb power total power. Effects of gross weight, density and altitude. Speed for minimum power, maximum range. Factors affecting forward speed, and ground effect.
10 Hours

UNIT III
Rotor Airfoil Aerodynamics: Rotor airfoil requirements, effects of Reynolds number and Mach number. Airfoil shape definition, Airfoil pressure distribution. Pitching moment. Maximum lift and stall characteristics, high angle of attack range. Rotor Wakes and Blade Tip Vortices: Flow visualization techniques, Characteristics of rotor wake in hover, and forward flight. Other characteristics of rotor wake. Structure of the tip vortices. Flow topology of dynamic stall.
10 Hours

UNIT IV
Helicopter Flight Dynamics: Forward speed disturbance, vertical speed disturbance, pitching angular velocity disturbance, side-slip disturbance, yawing disturbance. Static stability of helicopters: longitudinal, lateral-directional. Dynamic stability aspects. Main rotor and tail rotor control.
10 Hours

UNIT V
Standards, Specifications and Testing Aspects: Scope of requirements. General and operational requirements.Military derivatives of civil rotorcraft. Structural strength and design for operation on specified surfaces. Rotorcraft vibration classification.Flight and Ground Handling Qualities-General requirements and definitions. Control characteristics, beak forces. Levels of handling qualities.Flight Testing- General handing flight test requirements and, basis of limitations.Conceptual Design of Helicopters: Overall design requirements .Design of main rotors, Fuselage design, Empennage design, Design of tail rotors, High speed rotorcraft
10 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics – J. Gordon Leishman, Cambridge University Press, 2000.
2. Dynamics of Helicopter Flight- George H. Saunders, John Wiley & Sons, Inc,NY,1975.

REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Rotary Wing Aerodynamics- W Z Stepniewski and C N Keys, Dover Publications, Inc, New York, 1984.
2.Helicopter Dynamics- ARS Bramwell, George Done, and David Balmford, 2nd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann Publication, 2001.
3. Def Stan 00970,Vol.2.Rotocraft

FLIGHT VEHICLE DESIGN
Subject Code : 14 MAE22

IA Marks : 50
No of Lectures Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks :100

UNIT I
Overview of Design Process: Introduction, Requirements, Phases of design, Conceptual Design Process, Initial Sizing, Take-off weight build up, Empty weight estimation, Fuel fraction estimation, Take- off weight calculation, Thrust to Weight Ratio & Wing Loading: Thrust to Weight Definitions, Statistical Estimate of T/W. Thrust matching, Spread sheet in design, Wing Loading and its effect on Stall speed, Take-off Distance, Catapult take-off, and Landing Distance. Wing Loading for Cruise, Loiter, Endurance, Instantaneous Turn rate, Sustained Turn rate, Climb, & Glide, Maximum ceiling.
10 Hours

UNIT II
Configuration Layout & loft: Conic Lofting, Conic Fuselage Development, Conic Shape Parameter, Wing-Tail Layout & Loft. Aerofoil Linear Interpolation.Aerofoil Flat-wrap Interpolation. Wing aerofoil layout-flap wrap. Wetted area determination. Special considerations in Configuration Layout: Aerodynamic, Structural, Detectability. Crew station, Passenger, and Payload arrangements.
Design of Structural Components: Fuselage, Wing, Horizontal & Vertical Tail. Spreadsheet for fuselage design.Tail arrangements, Horizontal & Vertical Tail Sizing.TailPlacement.Loads on Structure.V-n Diagram, Gust Envelope.Loads distribution, Shear and Bending Moment analysis.
10 Hours

UNIT III
Engine Selection & Flight Vehicle Performance: Turbojet Engine Sizing, Installed Thrust Correction, Spread Sheet for Turbojet Engine
Sizing. Propeller Propulsive System.Propeller design for cruise. Take-off, Landing & Enhanced Lift Devices :- Ground Roll, Rotation,
Transition, Climb, Balanced Field Length, Landing Approach, Braking. Enhanced lift design -Passive & Active.
10 Hours

UNIT IV
Static Stability & Control: Longitudinal Static Stability, Pitch Trim Equation. Effect of Airframe components on Static Stability. Lateral stability. Contribution of Airframe components.Directional Static stability.Contribution of Airframe components. Aileron Sizing, Rudder Sizing.Flying qualities. Cooper Harper Scale. Environmental constraints, Aerodynamic requirements.
10 Hours

UNIT V
Design Aspects of Subsystems: Flight Control system, Landing Gear and subsystem, Propulsion and Fuel System Integration, Air Pressurisation and Air Conditioning System, Electrical & Avionic Systems,Structural loads, Safety constraints, Material selection criteria .
10 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Aircraft Design – A Conceptual Approach- Daniel P. Raymer, AIAA Education Series, IVth Edition © 2006
2. Design of Aircraft-Thomas C Corke, Pearson Edition. Inc. © 2003.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Aeroplane Design -VOL 1 to 9 – J Roskam
2. Introduction to Aircraft Design – John Fielding, Cambridge University Press, 2009
3. Standard Handbook for Aeronautical &Astronautical Engineers, Editor Mark Davies , Tata McGraw Hill, 2010.

PROPULSION LAB
Sub Code: 14MAEL26

IA Marks:25
Lab Hrs/ Week: 03 Exam Hrs: 03
Total Lab Hrs: 50 Exam Marks: 50

List of Experiments

1. Cascade testing of a model of turbine blade row and study of wake survey.
2. Estimation of propeller performance
3. Forced Convective heat transfer on a flat surface
4. Measurement of Burning Velocity of a Premixed Flame
5. Determination of heat of combustion of aviation fuels
6. Fuel – injection characteristics (spray cone geometry; spray speed etc. for various typer of injectors)
7. Measurement of an static overall pressure rise & rotor static pressure rise & fan overall efficiency through axial flow fan unit
8. Investigation of relationship between flame speed and air-fuel ratio for a slow burning gaseous fuel.
9. Construction of flame stability diagram through flame propagation & stability unit
10. Measurement of Ram Jet Engine characteristics (thrust, static and total pressures, temperatures, exhaust velocity & fuel consumption)
11. Measurement of PulseJet Engine characteristics (thrust, static and total pressures, temperatures, exhaust velocity & fuel consumption)
12. Study of Jet Engine characteristics (thrust, static and total pressures, temperatures, exhaust velocity & fuel consumption)

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