M.Tech Aerospace Propulsion Technology 4th Semester Syllabus

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ENGINE PERFORMANCE, CONTROL AND SIMULATION
Sub Code : 14 MAP41

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT-I: Gas turbine engine, Turbojet, turbofan, turboprop schematic, identification of components flow properties along gas path, Definition of Engine Performance parameters specific thrust and specific fuel consumption, installed and uninstalled performance, Importance of by-pass ratio and afterburning, concept of multi spooling, importance of bleed and power off-take, engine systems and accessories. Component performance, atmospheric model, correlations for variation of gas properties, inlet and diffuser pressure recovery, compressor and turbine isentropic and polytrophic efficiencies, Burner efficiency, pressure loss and pattern factor. Exit nozzle loss, propeller performance parameters, variable and constant pitch propellers, component performance with variable gas properties.
10 Hours

UNIT-II: Parametric cycle analysis of real engine, turbojet, turbo jet with after burner, turbofan with separate exhaust streams, turbofan with after burning separate exhaust streams, turbofan with after burning mixed exhaust streams, turbo prop engine. Engine operating line on compressor characteristics, Equilibrium running of gas generator, matching procedure for twin spool engines, behaviour of twin spool engines, Method of displacing equilibrium running line, matching procedure for turbofan engine, performance deterioration.
10 Hours

UNIT-III: Aero engine evaluation, engine test bed types, schematic layout of test beds, instrumentation on test beds, engine and component performance from gas path data, engine health monitoring parameters, sensors, analysis of vibration and blade tip gap signals, high temperature sensors, oil debris monitoring, engine trend analysis for engine diagnostics and prognostics.
Noise characterization, Measurement of noise, sources of noise generation in aero engine components, noise propagation due to propellers, comparative noise characteristics for turbojet, turbofan, turbo shaft and turbo prop, active and passive methods for noise reduction, International standards for aero engine noise.
10 Hours

UNIT-IV: Aircraft engine integration, configuration of engine locations in aircrafts, types of nacelles and pylon. Engine mounts, basic loads on engine mounts. Nacelle-pylon-wing integration, Types of thrust reverser and its mechanism. Drag due to nacelle, engine installed performance.
8 Hours

UNIT-V: Aero engine control, FADEC architecture, Digital electronic control unit for aero engine, Gas generator control, engine limit protection, engine automatic and manual starting, power management, engine data for cockpit indication, engine condition parameters display in the cockpit, thrust reverser control and feedback, fuel control and computation, fuel recirculation control, cooling of FADEC, management of engine subsystems like lubrication, on board power, fuel scavenge, starting system, Engine gas path data in FADEC, Engine health management from flight data recorder.
10 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Jack D. Mattingly ,” Elements of Gas Turbine Propulsion” Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 1996
2. Gordon C. Oates “Aerothermodynamics of Gas Turbine and Rocket Propulsion”, AIAA Education Series

REFERENCES:
1. Jack. D. Mattingly, William H. Heiser, David.T.Pratt ,”Aircraft Engine Design”, AIAA Education Series
2. Nicholas Cumpsty,” Jet Propulsion”, Cambridge University Press, 1997
3. Saeed Farokhi, “ Aircraft Propulsion”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc
4. Ahmed F. E1-Sayed, “ Aircraft Propulsion and Gas Turbine Engines”, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group
5. Philip P. Walsh and Paul Fletcher, ”Gas Turbine Performance”, 1998, Blackwell Science Ltd, Blackwell Publishing company
6. Andreas Linke-Diesinger, Systems of Commercial Turbo Fan Engines-An Introduction to System Functions, Springer Publications

IV SEMESTER ELECTIVES
FATIGUE AND FRACTURE
Sub Code : 14 MAP421

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT-I: Fracture Mechanics Principles: Introduction, Mechanisms of Fracture, a crack in a structure, the Graffiti’s criterion, modern design, – strength, stiffness and toughness. Stress intensity approach.
Stress Analysis for Members with Cracks: Linear elastic fracture mechanics, Crack tip stress and deformations; Relation between stress intensity factor and fracture toughness, Stress intensity based solutions. Crack tip elastic zone estimation, Plane stress and Plane strain concepts, the Dugdale approach and the thickness effect.
10 Hours

UNIT-II: Elastic – Plastic Fracture Mechanics: Introduction, Elasto-plastic factor criteria, crack resistance curve, I-integral, Crack opening displacement, crack tip opening displacement, Importance of R-curve in fracture mechanics, Experimental determination of I-integral, COD and CTOD.
Dynamic and Crack Arrest: Introduction, the dynamic stress intensity and elastic energy release rate, crack branching, the principles of crack arrest, and the dynamic fracture toughness.
12 Hours

UNIT-III: Fatigue and Fatigue Crack Growth Rate: Fatigue loading, various stages of crack propagation, the load spectrum, approximation of the stress spectrum, the crack growth integration, fatigue crack growth laws.
Fracture Resistance of Materials: Fracture criteria, fatigue cracking criteria, effect of alloying and second phase particles, effect of processing and anisotropy, effect of temperature, closure.
10 Hours

UNIT-IV: Computational Fracture Mechanics: Overview of numerical methods, traditional methods in computational fracture mechanics – stress and displacement marching, elemental crack advance, virtual crack extension, the energy domain integral, finite element implementation. Limitations of numerical fracture analysis.
10 Hours

UNIT-V: Fracture Toughness testing of metals: Specimen size requirements, various test procedures, effects of temperature, loading rate and plate thickness on fracture toughness. Fracture testing in shear modes, fatigue testing, NDT methods.
8 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Introduction to Fracture Mechanics – Karen Helen, McGraw Hill Pub 2000.
2. Fracture of Engineering Brittle Materials – Jayatilake, Applied Science, London. 2001.

REFERENCES:
1. Elementary Engineering Fracture of Mechanics – David Broek, Artinus Nijhoff, London 1999
2. Fracture Mechanics Application – T. L. Anderson, CRC press 1998

ADVANCED BEARINGS AND ROTOR DYNAMICS
Sub Code : 14 MAP422

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT-I: Introduction to Fluid Film Bearings, Anti friction bearings, Advanced Bearings and Rotor dynamics. Variable geometry tilted pad bearings, Fluid film bearing dynamic coefficients & load bearing capability and methods of obtaining them, Influence of preload on the dynamic coefficients of journal bearings.
10 Hours

UNIT-II: Objective of Rotor dynamic Analysis, Concept of rigid and flexural critical speeds and mode shapes, External Dampers, Single degree springmass- damper system analysis as applied to Jeffcott rotors.
Bending Critical Speeds of Simple Shafts, whirling of an unbalanced simple elastic rotor, Transfer Matrix Analysis for bending Critical Speeds, , Effect of axial stiffness.
10 Hours

UNIT-III: Torsional vibrations in rotating machinery, modeling of rotating machinery shafting, Transfer matrix analysis for free vibration, equivalent discrete system, transient response in torsional vibration. Hydrodynamic Bearings, Viscosity, mechanism of pressure development in the film, a simple rotor in fluid film bearing, optimum design of bearings, Shafts with dissimilar moment of inertia.
10 Hours

UNIT-IV: Introduction to Smart Materials, Structures and Products Technologies. Overview of application of smart materials to rotor dynamics. Shape Memory Materials, Fiber-Optic Sensors.
10 Hours

UNIT-V: Case study, Ball and Rolling element bearing, Bearing support design for a typical aero engine, FEM methods, Different Types of Models, Bearing and Seal Metrics, Torsional and Axial Models, Transient response using FEM software.
10 Hours

Text Books:
1. Rotor dynamics by JS Rao , New Age International Publishers
2. Machinery Vibration and rotor Dynamics by John Vance, Fouad Zeidan and Brian Murphy

References:
1. Rotor Dynamics by Agnieszka Muszyńska
2. Rotor Dynamics of Turbo machinery by John M. Vance

ADVANCED MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Sub Code : 14 MAP423

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total Lecture Hrs : 50 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT-I: Advanced machining theory & practices, mechanisms of chip formation, shear angle relations, and theoretical determination of cutting forces in orthogonal cutting; analysis of turning, drilling, and milling operations. Mechanics of grinding; dynamometry; thermal aspects of machining; tool wear; economics of machining; processing of polymers, ceramics, and composites;
10 Hours

UNIT-II: Advanced foundry processes – metal mould, continuous, squeeze, vacuum mould, evaporative pattern, and ceramic shell casting. Advanced Machining Processes: Introduction, Process principle, Material removal mechanism, Parametric analysis and applications of processes such as ultrasonic machining (USM),Abrasive jet machining (AJM),Water jet machining (WJM),Abrasive water jet machining (AWJM), Electrochemical machining (ECM),Electro discharge machining (EDM),Electron beam machining (EBM),Laser beam machining (LBM) processes.
12 Hours

UNIT-III: Advanced Casting Processes: Metal mould casting, Continuous casting, Squeeze casting, vacuum mould casting, Evaporative pattern casting, Ceramic shell casting.
Advanced Welding Processes: Details of electron beam welding (EBW), laser beam welding (LBW), ultrasonic welding (USW).
10 Hours

UNIT-IV: Advanced Metal Forming Processes: Principles, advantages and applications of high energy rate forming (HERF) process, Electromagnetic forming, explosive forming, Electro-hydraulic forming, Stretch forming, Contour roll forming.
8 Hours

UNIT-V: Powder metallurgy: Basic steps in Powder metallurgy brief description of methods of production of metal powders, conditioning and blending powders, compaction and sintering application of powder metallurgy components, advantages and limitations.
10 Hours

Text Books:
1. “Materials and Processes in Manufacturing” (8th Edition), E. P. DeGarmo,
J. T Black, R. A. Kohser, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi (ISBN 0-02- 978760).
2. “Manufacturing Science” A. Ghosh, and A. K. Mallik, Affiliated East-West Press Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

References:
1. “Nontraditional Manufacturing Processes”, G.F. Benedict, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York (ISBN 0-8247-7352-7).
2. Mechanical metallurgy (SI units), by G.E. Dieter, Mc Graw Hill pub.2001
3. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology by Serope Kalpakjian and Stevan R.

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