M.Tech Biotechnology and BioChemical Engineering 1st Semester Syllabus

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NUMERICAL METHODS & BIOSTATISTICS
Subject Code : 14BBC11

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objectives:
· Theoretical knowledge and applications of Numerical Methods and Statistical Procedures
· To develop skills towards the design & analysis of statistical experiments
· Use appropriate numerical and statistical methods to analyze and interpret data
· Demonstrate effective use of these tools in problem solving and analysis

Course Outcomes:
At the end of the course the graduates should be able to:
· Demonstrate strong basics in statistics and numerical analysis, which serve as a foundation to tackle live problems in various spheres of bioscience and bioengineering

MODULE I:
Introduction to statistics and study design: Introduction to statistics, data, variables, types of data, tabular, graphical and pictorial representation of data. Significance of statistics to biological problems, experimental studies; randomized controlled studies, historically controlled studies, cross over, factorial design, cluster design, randomized; complete, block, stratified design, biases, analysis and interpretation. 10 HOURS

MODULE II:
Descriptive statistics and Observational study design: Types of variables, measure of spread, logarithmic transformations, multivariate data. Basics of study design, cohort studies, casecontrol studies, outcomes, odd ratio and relative risks.
Principles of statistical inference: Parameter estimation, hypothesis testing. Statistical inference on categorical variables; categorical data, binomial distribution, normal distribution, sample size estimation. 10 HOURS

MODULE III:
Comparison of means: Test statistics; t-test, F distribution, independent and dependent sample comparison, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test, ANOVA.
Correlation and simple linear regression: Introduction, Karl Pearson correlation coefficient, Spearman Rank correlation coefficient, simple linear regression, regression model fit, inferences from the regression model, ANOVA tables for regression.
Multiple linear regression and linear models: Introduction, Multiple linear regression model, ANOVA table for multiple linear regression model, assessing model fit, polynomials and interactions. One-way and Two-way ANOVA tables, T-tests; F-tests. Algorithm and implementation using numerical methods with case studies. 10 HOURS

MODULE IV:
Design and analysis of experiments: Random block design, multiple sources of variation, correlated data and random effects regression, model fitting. Completely randomized design, stratified design. Biological study designs. Optimization strategies with case studies.
10 HOURS

MODULE V:
Statistics in microarray, genome mapping and bioinformatics: Types of microarray, objectives of the study, experimental designs for micro array studies, microarray analysis, interpretation, validation and microarray informatics. Genome mapping, discrete sequence matching, programs for mapping sequences with case studies. 10 HOURS

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Alvin E. Lewis, Biostatistics, McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing, 2013
2. J.D. Lee and T.D. Lee. Statistics and Numerical Methods in BASIC for Biologists, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1982.
3. T.P. Chapman, Statistical Analysis of Gene Expression Microarray Data, CRC, 2003.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Wolfgang Boehm and Hartmut Prautzsch, Numerical Methods, CRC Press, 1993.
2. John F. Monahan. Numerical Methods of Statistics (Cambridge Series in Statistical and Probabilistic Mathematics), Cambridge University Press, 2011.
3. Joe D. Hoffman. Numerical Methods for Engineers and Scientists, CRC Press, 2nd Edition, 2001.
4. Warren J. Ewens Gregory Grant, Statistical Methods in Bioinformatics: An Introduction (Statistics for Biology and Health), Springer, 2005.

BIOPROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
Subject Code : 14BBC153

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course objectives:
· To learn theoretical principles and applications of the bioprocess principles, control systems and instrumentation aspects involved in the equipments and processes at life
science industry and research labs.

Course Outcomes:
At the end of the course the graduates should be able to:
· Demonstrate strong basics in principles of process control, instrumentation and automation, which serves as a foundation to tackle live problems in various spheres of biochemical engineering

MODULE I:
Aims and objectives of control system, closed loop control and open loop control systems- Examples, Elements of control system, process variables, process parameters, Representation of control systems in terms of block diagrams and its explanation, Laplace transforms. Z transforms. 10 HOURS

MODULE II:
Fundamentals of Static and dynamic characteristics. Indicators and recorders. Pressure measurement- Bourdon, diaphragm and bellow type gages. Vacuum measurements. Temperature measurement- Bimetal and resistance thermometers, thermocouples and pyrometers, Flow measurement, Level measurement devices, pH and DO analyzers, on-line and off-line analysis of biomass estimation. 10 HOURS

MODULE III:
Introduction to controller, Mode of action of controllers and the Transfer function, Response of the controller to Step, Pulse, Linear changes to error signals, qualities of good controller, proportional Band. Transmitters, Measurements systems. Measurement of process variables, Actuators, Positioners, Control valves, Valve body, valve Plug, Variable Displacement pumps, and constant output pumps, PLC. Sequential control, Logic and security systems.
10 HOURS

MODULE IV:
Block diagram Deduction, Analysis of typical control system-Closed loop analysis -Servo and Regulatory problems for First and second order systems, Closed and loop transfer functions, Pcontroller for set point change, off-set,P-controller for load change, Pi controller with set point change. Stability. Process identification, Root locus, Routh Array, Bode and Nyquist diagrams. Stability margins. Robustness, Steady state errors. Frequency domain response.
10 HOURS

MODULE V:
Elements of tuning and closed loop dynamics Industrial controllers. Design methodology. Control specifications. PID tuning. Rule and model based tunning. Autotunners. Common control loops. Process design and operability. Control structures. Cascade. Feed forward. Ratio. Examples. Interactive systems. Multivariable processes. RGA. Decoupling control. Design, scale up and optimization of various equipment and biosystems used for biotechnological process industries (equipment used in upstream, downstream and fermentation processes). 10 HOURS

TEXT BOOKS
1. Smith & CorrIpio, Principles and practice of automatic process control. John Wiley, 1985.
2. LuybenW.L., Luyben M.L., Essentials of process control, Mc Graw-Hill, 1997
3. Ogunnake B.A., Ray W.H., Process dynamics, modeling and control, Oxford University Press, 1994

REFERENCE BOOKS
4. Luyben, Process modeling, simulation and control for chemical engineers. McGraw Hill, 1990.
5. McMillan, Tuning and Control loop performance. ISA 1990.
6. D E Seborg, T F Edger, Process dynamics and control, John Wiley, 1999

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING
Subject Code : 14BBC13

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course objectives:
· To impart theoretical knowledge of the Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering.
· To develop technical skills including the ability to design & conduct experiments
· To use appropriate analytical methods to critically review the experimental observations and results

Course Outcomes:
At the end of the course the graduates should be able to:
· Demonstrate strong basics in principles of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering which serve as a foundation to tackle live problems in various spheres of life science industry and research labs.

MODULE I:
DNA Replication: Comparative account on initiation, elongation and termination in prokaryotes and eukaryotes DNA Repair: Mismatch correction, Mechanisms in thymine-dimer repair: Photoreactivation, Nucleotide excision repair, SOS repair DNA Recombination: Homologous and non-homologous recombination; Holliday Model; Site specific recombination: General mechanism, Examples: SSR in Bacteria-bacteriophage, FLP/FRT and Cre/Lox recombination. Transcription: Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Mechanisms; Significance of Promoters, Enhancers, Silencers, Transcription factors, Activators and repressors; Post transcriptional modifications; Transcription inhibitors. 10 HOURS

MODULE II:
Genetic Code and its properties; Wobble hypothesis. Translation: Role of Ribosomes & tRNA; Mechanism of translation: Activation of amino acids, initiation complex formation, elongation of polypeptide, termination and release of polypepetide; Post-translational modifications; Transport of proteins and molecular chaperones. Transcriptional regulation in Prokaryotes: General mechanism of positive and negative control; Operon concept: lac, trp, and gal operons; Transcriptional control in Eukaryotes: Chromatin remodeling: Acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins; Regulatory proteins: DNA binding transactivators, coactivators; Homeotic gene and their role in gene regulation. 10 HOURS

MODULE III:
Vectors: Plasmids, Phage Vectors, Phagemids, Cosmids, YACs and BACs; Cloning & Expression vectors. Enzymes in genetic engineering: Restriction Enzymes, DNA ligase, Klenow enzyme, T4 DNA polymerase, Polynucleotide kinase, Alkaline phosphatase. Methods in construction of recombinant vectors: Linkers, Adaptors, Homopolymeric tailing. Techniques in Genetic Engineering: Construction of libraries: Genomic and cDNA libraries. Hybridization techniques: Northern and Southern hybridizations. Polymerase Chain Reaction: General mechanism and applications; Variants of PCR; In vitro mutagenesis. 10 HOURS

MODULE IV:
Gene transfer techniques into plants: Microprojectile bombardment; Agrobacterium transformation, Ti plasmid: structure and functions, Ti plasmid based vectors, mechanism of TDNA transfer; Chloroplast transformation; Transgenic science in plant improvement: resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, biopharming – plants as bioreactors. 10 HOURS

MODULE V:
Introduction of DNA into mammalian cells; Animal vectors and Transfection techniques; Transgenic science for improvement of animals and livestock, animal as bioreactors for recombinant proteins. Gene transfer techniques into microbial cells: transformation, electroporation, lipofection, calcium phosphate mediated; Genetic manipulation of microbes for the production of insulin, growth hormones. 10 HOURS

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and Peter Walter. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edition, New York: Garland Science; 2002.
2. Harvey Lodish, Arnold Berk, S Lawrence Zipursky, Paul Matsudaira, David Baltimore, and James Darnell. Molecular Cell Biology, 4th edition, New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Brown TA, Genomes, 3rd edition. Garland Science 2006.
2. S.B. Primrose, R.M. Twyman and R.W.Old; Principles of Gene Manipulation. 6th Edition, S.B.University Press, 2001.
3. T. A. Brown. Gene Cloning: An Introduction, Stanley Thornes Publishers Limited, 1995
4. J. Sambrook and D.W. Russel; Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Vols 1-3, CSHL, 2001.

PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Subject Code : 14BBC14

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course objectives:
· To, appreciate the concepts underlying in various Chemical engineering streams like Unit operations, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Heat transfer etc which are fundamental to Biochemical Processes
· To comprehend the essentials of design of Bioreactors / fermenters that would prepare them to leverage their knowledge of biological molecules / products, for scale up
operations and productions.

Course Outcomes:
At the end of the course the graduates should be able to:
· Demonstrate strong basics in principles of bioengineering which serve as a foundation to tackle live problems in various spheres of biochemical engineering
· Search for information from relevant data hand books, for the design and execution of experiments using bioreactors / fermenters.

MODULE I:
Historical development of bioprocess technology, an overview of traditional and modern applications of biotechnological processes, Roles and responsibilities of a Chemical engineer in bioprocess industry, Steps in bioprocess development. Biology of the cell, classification, construction and cell nutrients. Industrial enzymes -, Nomenclature and Classification of enzymes, structure and functions of enzymes with relevant case studies. 10 HOURS

MODULE II:
Mixing-Power requirement (Calculation of power no), Ungassed and gassed fluids, factors affecting the broth viscosity, Mixing equipments (Banbury mixers, Muller Mixers), Size Reduction (laws of size reduction, Mechanical efficiency and crushing efficiency Concept of Sphericity, Volume surface Mean Diameter, Arithmetic Mean Diameter, Mass mean diameter, Volume Mean Diameter and Proof for sphericity is unity for regular object) Crushing equipments (Jaw crusher, Garyatory crusher, Shredders, Ball mill) Filtration (constant pressure and constant rate filtration explanations with only the equations. 10 HOURS

MODULE III:
Industrially important filtration equipments (Rotary filters, Plate and frame filters and Leaf filters) Settling and its type (free and Hindred settling: equation for newtons, Intermediate Stokes regimes and Criteria for selection of the equation) Problems, Size Enlargement operations. Flow pattern in agitated vessel, Role of shear in fermentation broth, bubble shear, rheological behavior of fermentation broth, 3-D Continuity equation, Pressure drop in flow through packed bed and Fluidized bed (Kozeny,Carman, Blake Plummer Equations), Flow of compressible fluids, Time to empty the liquid from a tank (Rectangle Tank and Hemispherical Tank), problems, Problems on calculation of resultant velocity and resultant acceleration of fluid on space ordinates (x,y,z). Numerical Problems. 10 HOURS

MODULE IV:
Basics of Thermodynamics, Procedure for Energy balance and Energy balance for cell culture, Concept of Internal energy, Enthalpy-calculations procedure (Enthalpy and internal energy changes calculations using first law of Thermodynamics), calculations of Entropy changes (Entropy changes for constant Temperature, Constant volume, constant pressure and work lost due to entropy) Differential equations of Entropy, Problems on entropy and Its calculations, Gibbs Free energy and other free energies of systems, Effect of temperature and Pressure on the Gibbs free energy and Helmoltz free energy. Discussion of Case studies. 10 HOURS

MODULE V:
Introduction to Heat transfer over view of Industrial Heat Exchangers (Construction and working principle of DPHE, STHE, Helical coil heat exchangers along with the heat transfer equations) and Concept of LMTD, Boiling Condensation, Nucleate and film boiling (Regimes of pool boiling) Regenerators and Recupretors. Transient growth kinetics, measurement of microbial population by turbidometry and studying the effect of temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen Batch, fed batch and continuous cultures. Discussion of Case studies. 10 HOURS

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Paulin and M Doran Bioprocess engineering and principles 2nd Edition, Wiley, 2006
2. R.M. Felder and R.W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, 3rd Edition, J. Wiley, New York, 2000.
3. D.M.Himmelblau, Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering, 6th Edition, Prentice Hall of India. New Delhi, 1996.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. SC Arrora And Domkundar Process Heat Transfer 3rd edition, Wiley, 2006.
2. Engineering Thermodynamics by K.V. Narayan 3rd edition 2010
3. R.K. Bansal Fluid Mechanics 3rd edition 2010.
4. B. Bird et al., Transport Phenomena, 2nd Edition, Wiley, 2006.

ELECTIVES – I
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
Subject Code : 14BBC151

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course objectives:
· To learn theoretical principles and applications of the various analytical techniques used in life science industry and research labs.

Course Outcomes:
At the end of the course the graduates should be able to:
· Demonstrate strong basics in appreciating the principles and applications of various analytical techniques applied in the domain of life sciences and bioengineering

MODULE I:
Brief review of electromagnetic spectrum and absorption of radiations. Theory of spectroscopy, absorption by organic molecules, choice of solvent and solvent effects, modern instrumentation – design and working principle. Applications of UV-Visible spectroscopy (qualitative and quantitative analysis). Principles of vibrational spectroscopy, frequency and factors influencing vibrational frequency, instrumentation and sampling techniques, interpretation of spectra, applications in biology. FT-IR-theory and applications, Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR). Raman Spectroscopy, theory, instrumentation, and applications to biology. Discussions with Case studies. 10 HOURS

MODULE II:
Fundamental Principles of NMR, Instrumentation, solvents, chemical shift, and factors affecting chemical shift, spin-spin coupling, coupling constant, and factors influencing the value of coupling constant, spin-spin decoupling, proton exchange reactions, FT-NMR, 2D -NMR, NMDR, NOE, NOESY, COSY and applications in Pharmacy, interpretation of spectra, C13 NMR-Introduction, Natural abundance, C13 NMR Spectra and its structural applications. Discussions with Case studies. 10 HOURS

MODULE III:
Basic principles and instrumentation, ion formation and types, fragmentation processes and fragmentation pattern, Chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (CIMS), Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry (FIMS), Fast Atom Bombardment MS (FAB MS), Matrix Assisted laser desorption / ionization MS (MALDI-MS), GC-MS. LC-MS. MS-MS. Discussions with Case studies. 10 HOURS

MODULE IV:
Introduction, generation of X-rays, X-ray diffraction, Bragg’s law, X-ray powder diffraction, interpretation of diffraction patterns and applications. Single crystal diffractions of
biolomolecules. Fibre diffraction. Neutron diffraction. XAFS. ORD Principle, Plain curves, curves with cotton effect, octant rule and its applications with example, circular dichroism and its relation to ORD. Discussions with Case studies. 10 HOURS

MODULE V:
Classification of chromatographic methods based on mechanism of separation: paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, column chromatography and affinity chromatography – techniques and applications. Gas Chromatography : Theory and principle, column operation, instrumentation, derivatisation methods and applications. HPLC, LC-MS and applications in HPTLC. Discussions with Case studies. 10 HOURS

TEXT BOOKS
1. Fundamentals of Bioanalytical Techniques and Instrumentation, Sabari Goshal & A K Shrivastava, PHI, 2009
2. Donglas A. Skoog, James, J. Leary, Principles of Instrumental Analysis by, 4th Edition. 1992.
3. George T. Tsao, Philip M. Boyer Chromatography, Springer-Verlag, 1993
4. James W. Munson, Pharmaceutical Analysis – Modern Methods, Taylor & Francis, 2001.

REFERENCE BOOKS
1. A. H. Beckett & J. B. Stenlake, Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 4th Edition, 1988.
2. B. K. Sharma, Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis, Goel Publishing House Meeru 9th Edition, 2000.
3. Saroj Dua & Neera Garg, Biochemical Methods of Analysis, Alpha Science, 2010.
4. Robert. M. Silverstein, Spectrometric identification of Organic Compounds, 7th Edition, 1981.

COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY
Subject Code : 14BBC152

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course objectives:
· To learn theoretical principles and applications of the various aspects of computational biology.

Course Outcomes:
At the end of the course the graduates should be able to:
· Demonstrate good appreciation in applying the concepts of computational biology to tackle live problems in various spheres of life sciences research

MODULE I:
Sequence databases Formats, querying and retrieval, Nucleic acid & Protein sequence databases, Genome Databases, NCBI, EBI, TIGR, SANGER ; Various file formats for biomolecular sequences: Similarity matrices; Pair-wise alignment; BLAST; Statistical significance of alignment; Sequence assembly; multiple sequence alignment; Tools and techniques. Phylogenetics: distance based and character based approaches. Discussions with Case studies.
10 HOURS

MODULE II:
Sequence patterns and profiles: Basic concept and definition of sequence patterns, motifs and profiles, various types of pattern representations viz. consensus, regular expression (Prosite-type) and sequence profiles; trees Motif representation: consensus, regular expressions; PSSMs; Markov models; Regulatory sequence identification using Meme; Gene finding: composition based finding, sequence motif-based finding. Profile-based database searches using PSI-BLAST, analysis and interpretation of profile-based searches. Discussions with Case studies.
10 HOURS

MODULE III:
PDB, NDB, Chemical Structure database. Pubchem, Gene Expression database: GEO, SAGE, InterPro, Prosite, Pfam, ProDom, Gene Ontology Structure classification database: CATH, SCOP, FSSP, Protein-Protein interaction databases. Representation of molecular structures (DNA, mRNA, protein), secondary structures, domains and motifs; Protein structure classification, evolution; structural quality assessment; structure comparison and alignment; Visualization software (Pymol, Rasmol etc.); 3-D structure comparison and concepts, CE, VAST and DALI, concept of coordinate transformation, RMSD, Z-score for structural comparison. Discussions with Case studies. 10 HOURS

MODULE IV:
Structure prediction: Chou Fasman, GOR methods; analysis of results and measuring the accuracy of predictions. Prediction of membrane helices, solvent accessibility; RNA structure prediction; Mfold; Fundamentals of the methods for 3D structure prediction (sequence similarity/identity of target proteins of known structure, fundamental principles of protein folding etc.) Homology/comparative modelling, fold recognition, threading approaches, and ab initio structure prediction methods. Force fields, backbone conformer generation by Monte Carlo approaches, side-chain packing; Energy minimization; Structure analysis and validation: Pdbsum, Whatcheck, Procheck, Verify3D and ProsaII; Rosetta; Discussions with Case studies.
10 HOURS

MODULE V:
Computational biology in drug design: Target identification, validation and Identification and Analysis of Binding sites; virtual screening, lead optimization. Ligand based drug design: QSARs and QSPRs, In silico prediction ADMET properties for Drug Molecules. Pharmacophore identification. Protein-ligand docking; Rigid and Semi Flexible Molecular Docking. Studying Protein-Protein interactions via computational biology tools. Computational Biology applications for proteomics, Comparative genomics, Transcriptomics,
Microarray technology, expression profiles data analysis; SAGE; MS Data analysis, Probabilistic Models of Evolution, Protein arrays; Metabolomics, Gene Mapping, SNP analysis, Systems Biology. Discussions with case studies. 10 HOURS

TEXT BOOKS
1. David W. Mount. Sequence and Genome Analysis, CSHL Press, 2nd Edition, 2004.
2. Baxevanis and F. B. F. Ouellette, Bioinformatics: a practical, guide to the analysis of genes and proteins, 2nd Edition, JohnWiley, 2001.
3. Jonathan Pevsner, Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics, Wiley-Liss, 1st Edition, 2003.
4. Philip E. Bourne & Helge Weissig Tsai, Structural Bioinformatics, Wiley, 2003.

REFERENCE BOOKS
5. Biological Sequence Analysis: Probabilistic models of protein and Nucleic acids, Durbin et al Cambridge University Press. 2007.
6. Thomas E. Creighton Proteins: structures and molecular properties, New York Freeman, 1992
7. Johann Gasteiger and Thomas Engel Chemoinformatics Wiley, 2003
8. Tsai, C Stan, Biomacromolecules: Introduction to Structure, function and Informatics, Wiley & Sons, 2007

CONCEPTS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
Subject Code : 14BBC12

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course objectives:
· Appreciate the Basic concepts and apply the knowledge to Biotechnological problems
· Use these skills towards the design & analysis of life science experiments
· Demonstrate effective use of these tools and techniques in solving problems relevant for society

Course Outcomes:
At the end of the course the graduates should be able to:
· Demonstrate strong basics in principles of biotechnology which serve as a foundation to tackle live problems in various spheres of bioengineering

MODULE I:
Introduction to Biology; Macromolecules; Carbon chemistry; Proteins: Structure, folding, catalysis; Nucleic acids: DNA & RNA; storage and transfer of genetic information; Lipids: membranes, structure & function; Carbohydrate chemistry, energy storage, building blocks.
10 HOURS

MODULE II:
Cell Structure: Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells, plant and animal cells, structure of nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplast, vacuoles; Cell cycle and cell division: Different phases of cell cycle, cell division: Mitosis and meiosis.
Mendelian law of inheritance: Monohybrid and dihybrid inheritance, law of segregation and independent assortment; Gene Interaction; Multiple alleles, supplementary and complementary genes, epistasis. Identification of genetic material: classical experiments; chromosome structure and organization, chemical composition of chromatin, structural organization of nucleosomes, heterochromatin, polytene and lamp-brush chromosomes, human chromosomes, chromosomal disorders. 10 HOURS

MODULE III:
Scope and History of microbiology, Introduction to the structure and functions of microorganism: Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi and Protozoan’s. Microscopy and microbial techniques: Study of microscopes; sterilization techniques: Heat, steam, Radiation, Filtration and chemical methods; Pure culture techniques: Serial Dilution, Streak, Spread, Pour Plate. Immune System, Innate and adaptive immunity, antigens and antibodies; types of immune response, hypersensitivity. Humoral immunity: B-lymphocytes, Immunoglobulin classes, Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Cell mediated immunity. Thymus derived lymphocytes (T-cells), Antigen presenting cells (APC); Immunity to infection, Cytokines. 10 HOURS

MODULE IV:
Scope of agricultural biotechnology, Role of Microbes in agriculture, Biopesticides, Bio fertilizers (Nitrogen fixing microbes), GM crops. Plant metabolic engineering and industrial products: Molecular farming for the production of industrial enzymes, biodegradable plastics, antibodies, edible vaccines. Metabolic engineering of plants for the production of fatty acids, industrial oils, flavonoids etc. Basic aspects of Food & Nutrition. 10 HOURS

MODULE V:
Industrially important Microorganisms, Preservation techniques, Different media for fermentation, basic structure of fermenter and different types. Types of fermentation processes (surface, submerged, and solid state) and their products (ethanol, citric acid, lactic acid, enzymes, antibiotics)
Biological treatment of waste water, primary, secondary and tertiary treatments. Bio indicators, Bioremediation of xenobiotic compounds, Bioleaching of minerals from ores, Bio-sorption of toxic metals. Solid waste management. Biofuel production from agricultural wastes. 10 HOURS

TEXT BOOKS
1. De Robertis EDP and De Robertis Jr. EMF, Cell and Molecular Biology, Wippincott Williams and Wiilkins publisher, 2001.
2. Strickburger M W, Principles of Genetics, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall Publication, India, 2011.
3. Prescott and Dunn, Industrial Microbiology, Macmillian, 1982
4. Ashim K Chakravarthy, Immunology & Immunotechnology, Oxford University Press, 2006.

REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Gardner, Simmonns and Snustad, Principles of Genetics, 8th edition, 2005
2. P S Verma, V R Agarwal, Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution and Ecology, New Publisher Delhi, 2007.
3. K. Lindsey and M.G.K. Jones, Plant biotechnology in Agriculture, Prentice hall, New Jersey. 1989.
4. Munnecke DM, Johnson LM and others, Biodegradation and Detoxification of Environmental Pollutants CRC Press, 1982

GENETIC ENGINEERING & BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING LAB
Subject Code : 14BBC16

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lab Hrs./ Week : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 36
Exam Hrs : 03 Exam Marks : 50

COURSE OBJECTIVES
· To gain practical knowledge of the Genetic Engineering and Biochemical engineering
· Use appropriate analytical methods to critically review the experimental observations and results

Course Outcomes:
At the end of the course the graduates should be able to:
· Demonstrate strong basics in the lab skills of Molecular Biology and Genetic
Engineering which serve as a foundation to tackle live problems in various spheres of life science industry and research labs
· Demonstrate strong bench skills in basics of bioengineering which serve as a foundation to tackle live problems in various spheres of biochemical engineering
· Search for information from relevant data hand books, for the design and execution of experiments.

1. Preparation of buffers and molecular biology reagents.
2. Methods in genomic DNA/plasmid Isolation, Purification; Quantification of nucleic acids by agarose electrophoresis and spectrophotometric methods. Trouble shooting
3. Transformation of Bacterial Cells: Preparation of competent cells, transformation, screening of transformants.
4. PCR-Preparation of reagents, amplification and visualization.
5. Southern hybridization and Trouble shooting.
6. Isolation of Enzymes (from suitable sources)
7. Preparation of cell free lysate and filtration
8. Ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis
9. Ion exchange chromatography and generation of purification table
10. Enzyme Kinetic Parameters: Km, Vmax and Kcat
11. Assessing enzyme/protein purity
12. Isoelectric focusing of purified protein

TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Sandhya Mitra, Genetic Engineering : Principles and Practice, 2007
2. S.B. Primrose, R.M. Twyman and R.W.Old; Principles of Gene Manipulation. 6th Edition, S.B.University Press, 2001.
3. Hans Bisswanger Practical Enzymology, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013
4. T. A. Brown. Gene Cloning: An Introduction, Stanley Thornes Publishers Limited, 1995
5. J. Sambrook and D.W. Russel; Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Vols 1-3, CSHL, 2001.
6. Keith Wilson and John Walker, Pricniples and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2000.

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