M.Tech Computer Aided Engineering 2nd Semester Syllabus

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TRIBOLOGY AND BEARING DESIGN
(Common to MDE,MEA,MMD,CAE)
Sub Code : 14MDE41

IA Marks :50
Hrs/ Week : 04 E x a m H o u r s : 0 3
Total Hrs: 50 Exam Marks :100

Course Objective:
Gives in-depth knowledge regarding hydrodynamic, hydrostatic lubrication and various bearings, with their design and applications

Course Content:

1. Introduction to Tribology: Introduction, Friction, Wear, Wear Characterization, Regimes of lubrication, Classification of contacts, lubrication theories, Effect of pressure and temperature on viscosity. Newton’s Law of viscous forces, Flow through stationary parallel plates. Hagen’s poiseuille’s theory, viscometers.Numerical problems, Concept of lightly loaded bearings, Petroff’s equation, Numerical problems.7 Hours

2. Hydrodynamic Lubrications: Pressure development mechanism. Converging and diverging films and pressure induced flow. Reynolds’s 2D equation with assumptions. Introduction to idealized slide bearing with fixed shoe and Pivoted shoes. Expression for load carrying capacity. Location of center of pressure, effect of end leakage on performance, Numerical problems Journal Bearings: Introduction to idealized full journal bearings. Load carrying capacity of idealized full journal bearings, Sommer feld number and its significance, short and partial bearings, Comparison between lightly loaded and heavily loaded bearings, effects of end leakage on performance, Numerical problems. 12 Hours

3. Hydrostatic Bearings: Hydrostatic thrust bearings, hydrostatic circular pad, annular pad, rectangular pad bearings, types of flow restricters, expression for discharge, load carrying capacity and condition for minimum power loss, numerical problems, and hydrostatic journal bearings.
EHL Contacts: Introduction to Elasto – hydrodynamic lubricated bearings. Introduction to ‘EHL’ constant.Grubin type solution.13
Hours

4. Antifriction bearings: Advantages, selection, nominal life, static and dynamic load bearing capacity, probability of survival, equivalent load, cubic mean load, bearing mountings.
Porous Bearings: Introduction to porous and gas lubricated bearings. Governing differential equation for gas lubricated bearings, Equations for porous bearings and working principal, Fretting phenomenon and its stages.
12 Hours

5. Magnetic Bearings: Introduction to magnetic bearings, Active magnetic bearings. Different equations used in magnetic bearings and working principal. Advantages and disadvantages of magnetic bearings, Electrical analogy, Magneto-hydrodynamic bearings.
6 hours

Text Books
1. Mujamdar.B.C “Introduction to Tribology of Bearing”, Wheeler Publishing, New Delhi 2001
2. Radzimovsky, “Lubrication of Bearings – Theoretical principles and design” Oxford press Company, 2000

Reference Books
1. Dudley D.Fulier ” Theory and practice of Lubrication for Engineers”, New YorkCompany.1998
2. Moore “Principles and applications of Tribology” Pergamon press, 1975
3. Oscar Pinkus, Beno Sternlicht, “Theory of hydrodynamic lubrication”, McGraw-Hill, 1961
4. G W Stachowiak, A W Batchelor , “Engineering Tribology”, Elsevier publication 1993.
5. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearings, Butterworth 1983.
6. F. M. Stansfield, Hydrostatic bearings for machine tools and similar applications, Machinery Publishing, 1970

Course Outcome:
Students develop skills to design and selection of bearings on Various tribological factors to be considered in moving and rotating parts.

FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR HEAT TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS
(Common to MDE,MEA,MMD,CAE)
Sub Code : 14CAE424

IA Marks :50
Hrs/ Week : 04 E x a m H o u r s : 0 3
Total Hrs: 50 Exam Marks :100

Course Objective:
The student will learn finite element formulation of various modes of heat transfer and fluid flow and to solve numerical examples.

Course Content:

1. Introduction to Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics: Mathematical Preliminaries, Governing equations of a continuum, Governing equation in terms of primitive variables, porous equations, low speed compressible flow equations, auxiliary transport equations, chemically reacting systems, boundary conditions, change of phase, enclosure radiation.
Finite Element Methods: Introduction, model differential equation, finite element approximations, interpolation functions, library of finite elements, modeling considerations, assembly of elements, numerical integration, discussion of results with some practical examples, time dependent problems.
(10 Hours)

2. Steady State Conduction Heat Transfer: Introduction, one dimensional linear, quadratic element. Homogeneous, composite wall with uniform and varying cross sectional area. Radial heat flow in a cylinder. Conduction –convection systems. Numerical examples.
Conduction Heat Transfer: Interpolation functions for tetrahedral, hexahedral, pyramid and prism elements. Numerical integration, computation of surface flux, semi-discrete finite element model, solution of nonlinear equations for transient problems.Radiation solution algorithms.Variable properties.
(10 Hours)

3. Advanced topic in Conduction: specialty elements, computation of boundary conditions, bulk nodes, reactive materials, material motions. Example problems on conduction, radiation, temperature dependent conductivity, anisotropic conduction, brazing and welding, investment casting.
(10 Hours)
4. Flows of Viscous Incompressible Fluids: Governing equation, mixed finite element model, penalty finite element models. Finite element models of porous flow
Computational consideration: Interpolation functions for triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral and hexahedral elements. Evaluation of element matrices in penalty model, pressure calculation and traction boundary conditions.Numerical examples.
(10 Hours)

5. Coupled Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer: Introduction to non-isothermal incompressible flows, governing equations and boundary condition. Mixed, penalty finite element model. Finite element model for porous flow. Non-isothermal low speed compressible flows: governing equation, boundary conditions, mixed finite element model and solution methods. Convection with change of phase, convection with enclosure radiation, turbulent heat transfer, chemically reacting systems. Numerical examples.
(10 Hours)

Text Books:
1. JNReddy, David K. Gartling,“The finite element method in heat transfer and fluid dynamics” , CRC, 2004.
2. Roland Wynne Lewis, Perumal Nithiarasu, K. N. Seetharamu,” Fundamentals of the finite element method for heat and fluid flow” John Wiley, 2004

Reference Books:
1. Ching Jen Chen, R. A. Bernatz, “Finite analytic method in flows and heat transfer” ,Taylor & Francis.
2. Gianni Comini, Stefano Del Giudice, Carlo Nonino, “Finite Element Analysis in Heat Transfer: Basic Formulation and Linear problems” Taylorand Francis, 1994.

Course Outcome:
This course enables the student to use numerical methods for solving problems of fluid flow and heat transfer.

SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES
(Common to MDE,MEA,MMD,CAE)
Sub Code : 14MST422

IA Marks :50
Hrs/ Week : 04 E x a m H o u r s : 0 3
Total Hrs: 50 Exam Marks :100

Course Objective:
Knowledge of smart materials and structures is essential designing mechanical systems for advanced engineering applications ,the course aims at training students in smart materials and structures application and analysis

Course Content:
1. Smart Structures: Types of Smart Structures, Potential Feasibility of Smart Structures, Key Elements Of Smart Structures, Applications of Smart Structures. Piezoelectric materials, Properties, piezoelectric Constitutive Relations, Depoling and Coersive Field, field strain relation. Hysteresis, Creep and Strain Rate effects, Inchworm Linear Motor.
Beam Modeling: Beam Modeling with induced strain Rate effects, Inchworm Linear Motor Beam Modeling with induced strain Actuation-single Actuators, dual Actuators, Pure Extension, Pure Bending harmonic excitation, Bernoulli-Euler beam Model, problems, Piezoelectrical Applications. 12 Hours

2. Shape memory Alloy: Experimental Phenomenology, Shape Memory Effect, Phase Transformation, Tanaka’s Constitutive Model, testing of SMA Wires, Vibration Control through SMA, Multiplexing. Applications Of SMA and Problems.
ER and MR Fluids: Mechanisms and properties, Fluid Composition and behavior, The Bingham Plastic and Related Models, Pre-Yield Response.Post-Yield flow applications in Clatches, Dampers and Others.
13 Hours

3. Vibration Absorbers: series and Parallel Damped Vibrations (OverView), Active Vibration Absorbers, Fiber Optics, Physical Phenomena,Characteristics, Sensors, Fiber Optics in Crack Detection, applications.
Control of Structures: Modeling, Control Strategies and Limitations, Active Structures in Practice. 13 Hours

4. MEMS – Mechanical Properties of MEMS Materials, Scaling of Mechanical Systems, Fundamentals of Theory, The Intrinsic Characteristics of MEMS, Miniaturization, Microelectronics Integration. 6 Hours

5. Devices: Sensors and Actuators, Conductivity of Semiconductors, Crystal Planes and Orientation, (Stress and Strain Relations, Flexural Beam Bending Analysis Under Simple Loading Conditions), Polymers in MEMS, Optical MEMS Applications.
6 Hours

TEXT BOOKS :
1. Smart Materials and Structures – M. V. Gandhi and B. So Thompson, Chapman and Hall, London; New York, 1992 (ISBN: 0412370107).
2. Smart Structures and Materials – B. Culshaw, Artech House, Boston, 1996 (ISBN :0890066817).
3. Smart Structures: Analysis and Design – A. V. Srinivasan, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York, 2001 (ISBN: 0521650267).

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Electroceramics: Materials, Properties and Applications – A. J. Moulson and J. M. Herbert. John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 0471497429
2. Piezoelectric Sensories: Force, Strain, Pressure, Acceleration and Acoustic Emission Sensors. Materials and Amplifiers, Springer, Berlin; New York, 2002 (ISBN: 3540422595).
3. Piezoelectric Actuators and Wtrasonic Motors – K. Uchino, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1997 (ISBN: 0792398114).
4. Handbook of Giant Magnetostrictive Materials – G. Engdahl, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif.; London, 2000 (ISBN: 012238640X).
5. Shape Memory Materials – K. Otsuka and C. M. Wayman, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York, 199~ (ISBN: 052144487X).

Course Outcome:
At the completion of this course, students will be able to:
1. Understand the behavior and applicability of various smart materials
2. Design simple models for smart structures & materials
3. Perform simulations of smart structures & materials application
4. Conduct experiments to verify the predictions

ROBUST DESIGN
(Common to MDE,MEA,MMD,CAE)
Sub Code : 14MDE423

IA Marks :50
Hrs/ Week : 04 E x a m H o u r s : 0 3
Total Hrs: 50 Exam Marks :100

Course Objective:
Course aims at giving orientation to design of experiments and taguchi’s orthogonal array techniques which are predominantly used in
optimization of parameters.

Course Content:
1. Quality by Experimental Design : Quality, western and Taguchi quality philosophy, Elements of cost, Noise factors causes of variation, Quadratic loss function and variation of quadratic loss functions.
Robust Design : Steps in robust design : parameter design and tolerance design, reliability improvement through experiments, illustration through numerical examples.
Experimental Design: Classical experiments: factorial experiments, terminology, factors. Levels, Interactions, Treatment combination, randomization, 2-levelexperimental design for two factors and three factors. 3-level experiment deigns for two factors and three factors, factor effects, factor interactions, Fractional factorial design, Saturated design, Central composite designs, Illustration through numerical examples.12 Hours

2. Measures of Variability : Measures of variability, Concept of confidence level, Statistical distributions : normal, log normal and Weibull distributions. Hipothesis testing, Probability plots, choice of sample size illustration through numerical examples. Analysis and interpretation of experimental data: Measures of variability, Ranking method, column effect method and ploting method, Analysis of variance (ANOVA), in factorial experiments: YATE’s algorithm for ANOVA, Regression analysis, Mathematical models from experimental data, illustration through numerical examples.14 Hours

3. Taguchi’s Orthogonal Arrays : Types orthogonal arrays, Selection of standard orthogonal arrays, Linear graphs and interaction assignment, dummy level technique, Compound factor method, modification of linear graphs, Column merging method, Branching design, Strategies for constructing orthogonal arrays.
Signal to Noise ratio (S-N Ratios) : Evaluation of sensitivity to noise, Signal to noise ratios for static problems, Smaller – the – better types, Nominal – the –better – type, larger – the- better – type. Signal to noise ratios for dynamic problems, Illustrations through numerical examples.14 Hours

4. Parameter Design and Tolerance Design : Parameter and tolerance design concepts, Taguchi’s inner and outer arrays, Parameter design strategy, Tolerance deign strategy, Illustrations through numerical examples.6 Hours

5. Reliability Improvement Through Robust Design : Role of S-N ratios inreliability improvement ; Case study; Illustrating the reliability improvement ofrouting process of a printed wiring boards using robust design concepts.4 Hours

Text Books:
1. Madhav S. Phadake , “Quality Engineering using Robust Design”, Prentice Hall,1989.
2. Douglas Montgomery, “Design and analysis of experiments”, Willey India Pvt.Ltd., 2007.
3. Phillip J. Ross, Taguchi , “Techniques for Quality Engineering”,McGraw Hill Int. Ed., 1996.

Reference Books:
1. Thomas B. Barker , “Quality by Experimental Design”, Marcel Dekker IncASQC Quality Press, 1985
2. C.F. Jeff Wu, Michael Hamada , “Experiments planning, analysis and parameter design optimization”, John Willey Ed., 2002
3. W.L. Condra, Marcel Dekker , “Reliability improvement by Experiments”, MarcelDekker Inc ASQC Quality Press, 1985

Course Outcome:
After taking this course, a student will:
1. Have knowledge, understanding and the ability to apply methods to analyze and identify opportunities to improve design processes for robustness
2. Be able to lead product development activities that include robust design techniques.

Elective-III
FRACTURE MECHANICS
(Common to MDE,MEA,MMD,CAE)
Sub Code : 14CAE421

IA Marks :50
Hrs/ Week : 04 E x a m H o u r s : 0 3
Total Hrs: 50 Exam Marks :100

Course Objective:
Fracture mechanics provides a methodology for prediction, prevention and control of fracture in materials, components and structures. It provides a background for damage tolerant design. It quantifies toughness as materials resistance to crack propagation.

Course Content:
1. Fracture mechanics principles: Introduction and historical review, Sources of micro and macro cracks. Stress concentration due to elliptical hole, Strength ideal materials, Griffith’s energy balance approach. Fracture mechanics approach to design. NDT and Various NDT methods used in fracture mechanics, Numerical problems. The Airy stress function. Complex stress function. Solution to crack problems. Effect of finite size. Special cases, Elliptical cracks, Numerical problems.
12 Hours

2. Plasicity effects, Irwin plastic zone correction. Dugdale approach. The shape of the plastic zone for plane stress and plane strain cases, Plastic constraint factor. The Thickness effect, numerical problems.
Determination of Stress intensity factors and plane strain fracture toughness: Introduction, analysis and numerical methods, experimental methods, estimation of stress intensity factors. Plane strain fracture toughness test, The Standard test.Size requirements.Non-linearity.Applicability.12 Hours

3. The energy release rate, Criteria for crack growth. The crack resistance(R curve). Compliance, J integral. Tearing modulus. Stability. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics : Fracture beyond general yield. The Crack-tip opening displacement. The Use of CTOD criteria. Experimental determination of CTOD. Parameters affecting the critical CTOD. Use of J integral. Limitation of J integral. 12 Hours

4. Dynamics and crack arrest: Crack speed and kinetic energy. Dynamic stress intensity and elastic energy release rate. Crack branching. Principles of crack arrest. Crack arrest in practice. Dynamic fracture toughness. 6 Hours

5. Fatigue crack propagation and applications of fracture mechanics: Crack growth and the stress intensity factor. Factors affecting crack propagation. variable amplitude service loading, Means to provide fail-safety, Required information for fracture mechanics approach, Mixed mode (combined) loading and design criteria. 8 Hours

Text Books:
1. David Broek, “Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics”, Springer Netherlands,2011
2. Anderson , “Fracture Mechanics-Fundamental and Application”, T.L CRC press1998.

Reference Books:
1. Karen Hellan , “Introduction to fracture mechanics”, McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition
2. S.A. Meguid , “Engineering fracture mechanics” Elsevier Applied Science, 1989
3. Jayatilaka, “Fracture of Engineering Brittle Materials”, Applied Science Publishers, 1979
4. Rolfe and Barsom , “Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures” , Prentice Hall, 1977
5. Knott , “Fundamentals of fracture mechanisms”, Butterworths, 1973

Course Outcome:
At the end of the course students will:
1. Develop basic fundamental understanding of the effects of cracklike defects on the performance of aerospace, civil, and mechanical engineering structures.
2. Learn to select appropriate materials for engineering structures to insure damage tolerance.
3. Learn to employ modern numerical methods to determine critical crack sizes and fatigue crack propagation rates in engineering structures.
4. Gain an appreciation of the status of academic research in field of fracture mechanics.

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
(Common to MDE,MEA,MMD,CAE)
Sub Code : 14MEA425

IA Marks : 50
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objective:
This course would create awareness about the theory behind fluid dynamics computations as applied in analysis tools.
1. Basic Concepts – Dimensionless form of equations; Simplified mathematical models; Hyperbolic, Parabolic & Elliptic systems; Properties of numerical solutions (Consistency, Stability, Conservation, Convergence and Accuracy).
8 Hours

2. Finite Difference Methods – Discretisation; Boundary conditions; error propagation; Introduction to spectral methods; examples.
10 Hours

3. Finite volume method – Surface & volume integrals; Interpolation & differentiation; Boundary conditions; Examples.
10 Hours

4. Gausian Elimination; LU decomposition; Tridiagonal Systems; Iterative methods; convergence; ADI & other splitting methods. Multi-grid method – Coupled equations; Simultaneous solutions, sequential solutions & under relaxation. Non linear systems
10 Hours

5. Initial value problem & Boundary value problems; Implicit & Explicit Schemes; 2D and 3D examples. Heat and Mass transfer Problems; Multi Phase Flows.
12 Hours

Text Books:
1. Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics, 3rd edition – J.H. Ferziger & M. Peric, Springer, 2002.
2. Numerical Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Finite Difference methods, 3rd ed., – G.D. Smith, Oxford University Press. 1986.

Reference Books:
1. Computational Fluid Dynamics – T. J. Chung, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002.
2. Partial Differential Equations for Scientists and Engineers – Farlow, John Wiley, 1982.

Course Outcome:
The student will be able to analyse and obtain numerical solutions to fluid dynamics problems

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