M.Tech. Digital Communication Engineering 1st Sem Syllabus

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ADVANCED MATHEMATICS
Subject Code : 14ELD11

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam. Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam. Marks : 100

Matrix Theory
QR EL Decomposition – Eigen values using shifted QR algorithm- Singular Value EL Decomposition – Pseudo inverse- Least square approximations
Calculus of Variations
Concept of Functionals- Euler’s equation – functional dependent on first and higher order derivatives – Functionals on several dependent variables – Iso perimetric problems- Variational problems with moving boundaries
Transform Methods
Laplace transform methods for one dimensional wave equation – Displacements in a string – Longitudinal vibration of a elastic bar – Fourier transform methods for one dimensional heat conduction problems in infinite and semi infinite rod.
Elliptic Equation
Laplace equation – Properties of harmonic functions – Fourier transform methods for laplace equations. Solution for Poisson equation by Fourier transforms method
Linear and Non Linear Programming
Simplex Algorithm- Two Phase and Big M techniques – Duality theory- Dual Simplex method. Non Linear Programming –Constrained extremal problems- Lagranges multiplier method- Kuhn- Tucker conditions and solutions

Reference Books:
1. Richard Bronson, “Schaum’s Outlines of Theory and Problems of Matrix Operations”, McGraw-Hill, 1988.
2. Venkataraman M K, “Higher Engineering Mathematics”, National Pub. Co, 1992.
3. Elsgolts, L., “Differential Equations and Calculus of Variations”, Mir, 1977.
4. Sneddon,I.N., “Elements of Partial differential equations”, Dover Publications, 2006.
5. Sankara Rao, K., “Introduction to partial differential equations”, Prentice – Hall of India, 1995
6. Taha H A, “Operations research – An introduction”, McMilan Publishing co, 1982.

Simulation, Modelling, and Analysis
Subject Code : 14ELD155

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam. Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam. Marks : 100

Basic simulation modeling: Nature of simulation, System models, discrete event simulation, Single server simulation, Alternative approaches, Other types of simulation.
Building valid, credible and detailed simulation models: techniques for increasing model validity and credibility, comparing real world observations.
Selecting input probability distributions: Useful probability distributions, Assessing sample independence, Activity-I, II and III, Model of arrival process.
Random number generators: Linear congruential, Other kinds, Testing number generators, Random variate generation: Approaches, Continuous random variates, Discrete random variates, Correlated random variates.
Output data analysis: Statistical analysis for terminating simulation, Analysis for steady state parameters, Comparing alternative system
configuration, Confidence interval, Variance reduction techniques, Arithmetic and control variates.

Reference books:
1. Averill Law, “Simulation modeling and analysis”, McGraw Hill 4th edition, 2007.
2. Jerry Banks, “Discrete event system Simulation”, Pearson, 2009.
3. Seila Ceric and Tadikamalla, “Applied simulation modeling”, Cengage, 2009.
4. George. S. Fishman, “Discrete event simulation”, Springer, 2001.
5. Frank L. Severance, “System modeling and simulation”, Wiley, 2009.

Probability and random Process
Subject Code : 14ECS13

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam. Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam. Marks : 100

Introduction to probability theory: Experiments, Sample space, Events, Axioms, Assigning probabilities, Joint and conditional, Baye’s theorem, Independence, Discrete random variables, Engineering example
Random variables, Distributions, Density functions: CDF, PDF, Gaussian random variable, Uniform, Exponential, Laplace, Gamma, Erlang,
Chi-square, Rayleigh, Rician and Cauchy types of random variables.
Operation on a single random variable: Expected value, EV of random variables, EV of functions of random variables, Central moments,
Conditional expected values.
Characteristics functions: Probability generating functions, Moment generating function, Engineering applications, Scalar quantization, Entropy and source coding.
Pairs of random variables: Joint PDF, Joint probability mass functions, Conditional distribution, Density and mass functions, EV involving pairs of random variables, Independent random variables, Complex random variables, Engineering application.
Multiple random variables: Joint and conditional PMF, CDF, PDF, EV involving multiple random variables, Gaussian random variable in
multiple dimension, Engineering application, Linear prediction.
Random process: Definition and characterisation, Mathematical tools for studying random processes, Stationery and Ergodic random processes,
Properties of ACF.
Example Processes: Markov processes, Gaussian processes, Poisson processes, Engineering application, Computer networks, Telephone networks.

Reference books:
1. S.L.Miller and D.C.Childers, “Probability and random processes: application to signal processing and communication”, Academic press/Elsevier 2004.
2. A.Papoullis and S.U.Pillai, “Probability, random variables and stochastic processes”, McGraw Hill 2002
3. Peyton Z. Peebles, “Probability, Random variables and random signal principles”, TMH, 4th edition, 2007.
4. H Stark and Woods, “Probability, random processes and application”, PHI, 2001.

Advanced Digital Communication
Subject Code : 14ECS14

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam. Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam. Marks : 100

Digital modulation techniques: Digital modulation formats, Coherent binary modulation techniques, Coherent quadrature – modulation
techniques, No-coherent binary modulation techniques, Comparison of binary and quaternary modulation techniques, M-ray modulation
techniques, Power spectra, Bandwidth efficiency, M-array modulation formats viewed in the light of the channel capacity theorem, Effect of
inter symbol interference, Bit verses symbol error probabilities, Synchronization, Applications.
Coding techniques: Convolutional encoding, Convolutional encoder representation, Formulation of the convolutional decoding problem,
Properties of convolutional codes: Distance property of convolutional codes, Systematic and nonsystematic convolutional codes, Performance
Bounds for Convolutional codes, Coding gain, Other convolutional decoding algorithms, Sequential decoding, Feedback decoding, Turbo codes.
Communication through band limited linear filter channels: Optimum receiver for channel with ISI and AWGN, Linear equalization, Decision –
feedback equalization, Reduced complexity ML detectors, Iterative equalization and decoding – Turbo equalization.
Adaptive equalization: Adaptive linear equalizer, adaptive decision feedback equalizer, Adaptive equalization of Trellis – coded signals,
Recursive least square algorithms for adaptive equalization, Self recovering (blind) equalization.
Spread spectrum signals for digital communication: Model of spread spectrum digital communication system, Direct sequence spread spectrum
signals, Frequency hopped spread spectrum signals, CDMA, Time hopping SS, Synchronization of SS systems.
Digital communication through fading multipath channels: Characterization of fading multipath channels, The effect of signal characteristics on
the choice of a channel model, Frequency nonselective, Slowly fading channel, Diversity techniques for fading multipath channels, Digital
signals over a frequency selective, Slowly fading channel, Coded wave forms for fading channels, Multiple antenna systems.

Reference books:
1. John G. Proakis, “Digital Communication”, McGraw Hill, 4th edition, 2001.
2. Bernard Sklar, “Digital Communication – Fundamental and applications”, Pearson education (Asia), Pvt. Ltd., 2nd edition, 2001.
3. Simon Haykin, “Digital communications”, John Wiley and Sons.
4. Andrew J. Viterbi, “CDMA: Principles of spread spectrum communications”, Prentice Hall, USA, 1995.

Wireless and Mobile Networks
Subject Code : 14ECS151

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam. Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam. Marks : 100

Review of fundamentals of wireless communication and Networks: Wireless communication channel specifications, Wireless communication
systems, Wireless networks, Switching technology, Communication problems, Wireless network issues and standards.
Wireless body area networks: Properties, Network architectures, Components, Technologies, Design issues, Protocols and applications.
Wireless personal area networks: Architectures, Components, Requirements, Technologies and protocols, Bluetooth and Zigbee.
Wireless LANs: Network components, design requirements, Architectures, IEEE-802.11x, WLAN protocols, 802.11p and applications.
WMANs, IEEE-802.16: Architectures, Components, WiMax mobility support, Protocols, Broadband networks and applications, WWANs,
cellular networks, Satellite Network, Applications.
Wireless ad-hoc networks: Mobile ad-hoc networks, Sensor network, Mesh networks, VANETs, Research issues in Wireless networks.

Reference books
1. S. S. Manvi, and M. S. Kakkasageri, “Wireless and Mobile network concepts and Protocols”, Wiley, 1st edition, 2010.
2. P. Kaveh, Krishnamurthy, “Principles of Wireless network: A unified approach”, PHI, 2006.
3. Iti Saha Mitra, “Wireless communication and network: 3G and Beyond”, McGraw Hill, 2009.
4. Ivan Stojmenovic, “Handbook of Wireless networks and Mobile Computing”, Wiley, 2009.
5. P. Nicopolitidis, M. S. Obaidat, et al, “Wireless Networks”, Wiley, 2009.
6. Yi-Bing Lin, Imrich Chlamtac, “Wireless and Mobile Network Architectures”, Wiley, 2009.
7. Mullet, “Introduction to Wireless Telecommunication Systems and Networks”, Cengage, 2009.

Automotive Electronics
Subject Code : 14ELD152

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam. Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam. Marks : 100

Automotive fundamentals overview – Four stroke cycle, Engine control, Ignition system, Spark plug, Spark pulse generation, Ignition timing,
Drive train, Transmission, Brakes steering system, Battery, Starting system.
Air/Fuel system – Fuel handling, Air intake system, Air/Fuel management.
Sensors: Oxygen (O2/EGO) sensors, Throttle position sensor (TPS), Engine crankshaft angular position (CKP) sensor, Magnetic reluctance
position sensor, Engine speed sensor, Ignition timing sensor, Hall effect position sensor, ShiECSed fiECS sensor, Optical crankshaft position
sensor, Manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor – Strain gauge and capacitor capsule, Engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor, Intake air
temperature (IAT) sensor, Knock sensor, Airflow rate sensor, Throttle angle sensor.
Actuators: Fuel meeting actuator, Fuel injector, Ignition actuator.
Exhaust after treatment systems: Air, Catalytic converter, Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), Evaporative emission systems.
Electronic engine control: Engine parameters, Variables, Engine performance terms, Electronic fuel control systems, Electronic ignition controls, Idle speed control, EGR control.
Communication: Serial data, Communication systems, Protection, Body and chassis electrical systems, Remote keyless entry, GPS.
Vehicle motion control: Cruise control, Chassis, Power brakes, Antilock brake systems, (ABS), Electronic steering control, Power steering,
Traction control, Electronically controlled suspension.
Automotive instrumentation: sampling, Measurement and signal conversion of various parameters.
Integrated body: Climate control systems, Electronic HVAC systems, Safety systems – SIR, Interior safety, lighting, Entertainment systems.
Automotive diagnostics: Timing light, Engine analyser, On-board diagnostics, off-board diagnostics, Expert systems.
Future automotive electronic systems: Alternative fuel engines, Collision avoidance radar warning systems, Low tire pressure warning system,
Radio navigation, Advance driver information system.

Reference books
1. William B. Ribbens, “Understanding Automotive Electronics”, SAMS/Elsevier publishing, 6th edition.
2. Robert Bosch Gmbh, “Automotive Electrics, Automotive Electronics Systems And Components”, John Wiley and sons Ltd., 5th edition, 2007.

Nanoelectronics
Subject Code : 14ELD153

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam. Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam. Marks : 100

Introduction: Overview of nanoscience and engineering, Development milestones in microfabrications and electronic industry, Moore’s Law and continued miniaturization, Classification of nanostructures, Electronics properties of atoms and solids: Isolated atom, bonding between atoms, Giant molecular solids, Free electron models, Energy bands, Crystalline solids, Periodicity of crystal lattices, Electronic conduction, Effects of nanometer length scale, Fabrication methods: Top-down processes, Bottom-up processes methods for templating the growth of the
nanomaterials, Ordering nanosystem.
Characterization: Classification, Microscopic techniques, FiECS ion microscopy, Scanning probe techniques, Diffraction techniques: Bulk,
Surface spectroscopy techniques: Photon, radio frequency, electron, surface analysis and depth profiling; Electron mass ion beam reflectometry,
Techniques for property measurements: Mechanical , Electron, Magnetic, Thermal properties.
Inorganic Semiconductor nanostructures: Overview of semiconductor physics, quantum confinement in semiconductor, nanostructures:
Quantum wells, Quantum wires, Quantum dots, Superlattices, Band offsets, Electronic density of states.
Fabrication techniques: Requirement of ideal semiconductors, Epitaxial growth of quantum wells, Lithography and etching, Cleaved edge
overgrowth of vicinal substrates, strain induced dots and wires, Electrostatically induced dots and wires, quantum well width fluctuations,
Thermally annealed quantum wells, Semiconductor nanocrystals, Colloidal quantum dots, Self assembly techniques.
Physical processes: Modulation doping, Quantum hall effect, Resonant tunnelling, Charging effects, Ballistic carrier transport, Interband
absorption, Intraband absorption, Light emission processes, Phonon bottleneck, Quantum confined stark effect, Nonlinear effects, Coherence and
dephasing, characterization of semiconductor nanostructures: Optical, Electrical and structural.
Methods of measuring properties – Structure: Atomic, Crystallography, Microscopy, Spectroscopy. Properties of nanoparticles: Metal
nanoclusters, Semiconducting nanoparticles, Rare gas and molecular clusters, Methods of synthesis (RF, Chemical, Thermolysis, Pulse laser
methods). Carbon nano structures and its applications (FiECS emission and shiECSing, Computers, Fuel cells, Sensors, Catalysis). Self
assembling nanostructure molecular materials and devices: Building block, Principles of self assembly, Methods to prepare and pattern
nanoparticles, Templated nanostructures, Liquid crystal mesophases. Nanomagnetic materials and devices: Magnetism, materials, Magneto
resistance, Nanomagnetism in technology, Challenges facing into nanomagnetism.
Applications: Injection Lasers: Quantum cascade lasers, Single photon sources. Biological tagging, Optical memories, Coulomb blockade
devices, Photonic structures, QWIP’s, NEMS, and MEMS.

Reference books:
1. Ed Robrt Kelsall, Ian Hamley, and Mark Geoghegan, “Nanoscale Science and Technology”, John Wiley and Sons, 2007.
2. Charles P. Poole, Jr. Frank J. Owens, “Introduction to Nanotechnology” John Wiley, 2006, reprint-2011.
3. Ed William, A. Goddard III, Donald W. Brenner, Sergey Edward, Lyshevski, and Gerald J. Lafrate, “Handbook of Nanoscience Engineering and Technology”, CRC press, 2003.

CMOS VLSI Design
Subject Code : 14ECS154

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam. Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam. Marks : 100

MOS transistor theory: NMOS/PMOS transistor, Threshold voltage equation, Body effect, MOS device design equation, Sub threshold region,
Chanel length modulation, Mobility variations, tunnelling, Punch through, Hot electron effect MOS models, Small signal AC characteristic,
CMOS inverters, An/Ap ratio, noise margin, Static load MOS inverters, Differential inverter, Transmission gate, Tristate inverter, BiCMOS inverter.
CMOS process Technology: Lambda based design rules, Scaling factor, Semiconductor technology overview, Basic CMOS technology, p-well/
n-well/ twin-well process. Current CMOS enhancement (oxide isolation, LDD, refractory gate, Multilayer interconnect), Circuit element,
resistor, Capacitor, Interconnects, Sheet resistance and standard unit capacitance concept delay unit time, Inverter delays driving capacitive
loads, Propagate delays, MOS mask layer, Stick diagram, design rules and layout, Symbolic diagrams, MOS feints, Scaling of MOS circuits..
Basic of Digital CMOS design: Combinational MOS logic circuits -Introduction, CMOS logic circuits with the a MOS load, CMOS logic
circuits, Complex logic circuits, transmission gate, Sequential MOS logic circuits – Introduction, Behaviour of high stable elements, SR latch
circuits, Clocked latch and flip-flop circuits, CMOS D-latch and triggered flip-flop, Dynamic logic circuits – Introduction, principles of pass
transistor circuits, Voltage bootstrapping synchronous dynamic circuit techniques, Dynamic CMOS circuit techniques.
CMOS analog design: Introduction, Single amplifier, Differential amplifier, Current mirrors, Bandgap references, Basis of cross operational amplifier.
Dynamic CMOS and clocking: Introduction, Advantages of CMOS over NMOS, CMOS/SOS technology, CMOS/bulk technology, Latchup in bulk CMOS, Static CMOS design, Domino CMOS structure and design, Charge sharing, Clocking – Clock generation, Clock distribution, Clocked storage elements.

Reference books:
1. Neil Weste and K. Eshraghian, “Principles of CMOS VLSI design: A system perspective”, Pearson education (Asia) Pvt. Ltd. 2nd edition, 2000.
2. Wayne Wolf, “Modern VLSI design: System on Silicon”, Pearson education, 2nd edition.
3. Douglas A. Pucknell and Kamram Eshraghian, “Basic VLSI design”, PHI, 3rd edition, (original edition – 1994).
4. Sung Mo Kang and Yosuf Lederabic Law, “CMOS digital integrated circuits: Analysis and design”, McGraw Hill, 3rd edition.

Antenna Theory and Design
Subject Code : 14ECS12

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam. Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam. Marks : 100

Antenna fundamental and definitions: Radiation mechanism – overview, EM fundamentals, Solution of Maxwell’s equations for radiation problems, Ideal dipole, Radiation patterns, Directivity and gain, Antenna impedance, Radiation efficiency, Antenna polarization.
Resonant Antennas: Wires and patches, Dipole antenna, Yagi-Uda antennas, Microstrip antenna.
Arrays: Array factor for linear arrays, Uniformly excited equally spaced linear arrays, Pattern multiplication, Directivity of linear arrays, Nonuniformly
excited equally spaced linear arrays, Mutual coupling, Multidimensional arrays, Phased arrays, Feeding techniques, Perspectives on Arrays.
Broadband antennas: Travelling wave antennas Helical antennas, Biconical antennas Sleeve antennas, and Principles of frequency independent antennas, Spiral antennas, and Log – periodic antennas.
Aperture antennas: Techniques for evaluating gain, Reflector antennas – Parabolic reflector antenna principles, Axi-symmetric parabolic reflector antenna, Offset parabolic reflectors, Dual reflector antennas, Gain calculations for reflector antennas, Feed antennas for reflectors, FiECS representations, Matching the feed to the reflector, General feed model, Feed antennas used in practice.
Antenna Synthesis: Formulation of the synthesis problem, Synthesis principles, Line sources shaped beam synthesis, Linear array shaped beam synthesis, Fourier series, Woodward – Lawson sampling method, Comparison of shaped beam synthesis methods, low sidelobe narrow main beam synthesis methods, Dolph Chebyshev linear array, Taylor line source method.
Method of moments: Introduction of the methods moments, Pocklington’s integral equation, Integral equation and Kirchhoff’s networking
equations, Source modeling weighted residual formulations and computational consideration, Calculation of antenna and scatter characteristics.
Computational EM: FTTD methods, Geometrical optics, Wedge diffraction theory, Ray fixed coordinate system, Uniform theory of wedge
diffraction, E–plane analysis of horn antennas. Cylindrical parabolic antennas, Radiation by a slot on a finite ground plane, Radiation by a
monopole on a finite ground plane, Equivalent current concepts, Multiple diffraction formulation by a curved surfaces, Physical optics, Methods
of stationary phase, physical theory of diffraction, Cylindrical parabolic reflector antennas.

Reference books:
1. C. A. Balanis, “Antenna Theory Analysis and Design”, John Wiley, 2nd edition, 1997.
2. J. D. Kraus, “Antennas”, McGraw Hill TMH, 3rd/4th edition.
3. Stutman and Thiele, “Antenna theory and design”, 2nd edition John Wiley and sons Inc.
4. Sachidnanda et al, “Antennas and propagation”, Pearson Education.

DEC Lab – 1
Subject Code : 14ECS16

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam. Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam. Marks : 100

Experiments can be done using Hardware tools such as Spectrum analyzers, Signal sources, Power Supplies, Oscilloscopes, High frequency signal sources, fiber kits, Measurement benches, DSP processor kit, FPGA kit, Logic analyzers, PC setups, etc. Software tools based experiments can be done using, FEKO simulator, NS2 simulator, MATLAB, etc.

1. Matlab/C implementation of to obtain the radiation pattern of an antenna.
2. Experimental study of radiation pattern of different antennas.
3. Significance of pocklington’s integral equation.
4. Measurement techniques of radiation characteristics of an antenna.
5. Impedance measurements of Horn/Yagi/dipole/Parabolic antennas.
6. Analysis of E & H plane horns.
7. Determine the directivity and gains of Horn/ Yagi/ dipole/ Parabolic antennas.
8. Determination of the modes transit time, electronic timing range and sensitivity of klystron source.
9. Antenna resonance and gain bandwidth measurements.
10. Study of digital modulation techniques using CD4051 IC
11. Build a hardware pseudo-random signal source and determine statistics of the generated signal source..
12. Conduct an experiment for Voice and data multiplexing using optical fiber.
13. Determination of VI characteristics of GUNN diode, and measurement of guide wave length, frequency, and VSWR.
14. Determination of coupling coefficient and insertion loss of directional couplers and Magic tree.
15. Determine the frequency response of BPSK, BFSK, and Binary ASK modulators using Spectrum analyzers.

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