M.Tech Geo Informatics 2nd Semester Syllabus

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FUNDAMENTALS OF CARTOGRAPHY, GEODESY AND GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS
Subject Code: 14 CGI -21

IA Marks: 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week: 04 Exams Hrs: 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs: 52 Exam Marks: 100

Objective
Upon completion of this subject students should have gained the knowledge of Cartography, Geodesy, and Global Positioning System and also they become familiar with the basic principles and their applications in Geoinformatics Projects.
Cartography
Introduction to Cartography: Definitions, terms, concepts, types, history, applications, conventional cartography v/s digital cartography, cartographic process, cartographic products, cartographic materials, overview of cartography.
Introduction to Map: Types of map, map scale, classes of maps, map composition, the mapping process, map projection, Map Numbering Systems; Base Maps & Thematic Maps; Map Legend, Symbols & Border
Information; Design & Layout of Maps, geographic content of the map, label placement.
Digital Cartography:Cartography in context of GIS, Principles of cartographic design in GIS, cartographic
generalization, atlases and electronic atlases, hypermaps and digital spatial libraries.
Geodesy
Introduction to Geodesy: Definitions, terms, types, history, fundamental goals of geodesy; shape and size
of the earth, applications, overview.
Projections and Co-ordinate Systems: Classification of map projections, Datum surfaces and Coordinate
system, Transformations, Introduction to Azimuthal, Conical and Cylindrical projections with emphasis on LCC, Polyconic and UTM.
Geometric Geodesy: Earth, geoid and reference Ellipsoid, Everest Spheroid, WGS 84, Vertical datum, Mean
Sea Level, geometry of ellipsoid, level surfaces, plumb line and deflection of the vertical, coordinate system in geodesy.
Satellite Geodesy: Introduction – Normal orbits, Equation of motion and laws of Kepler, geometry of elliptic
orbit, line orbit in space, perturbed orbit, Lagrange and Gaussian Planetary equations, Gravitational
perturbation, Doppler surveying GPS
Introduction to GPS: Definition, concept, GPS working principle, history and timeline, overview.
Technical Description and GPS Observables: System Segmentation – Space segment; control segment,
user segment- types of receivers ; GPS satellite signals, GPS data, position and time from GPS, code phase
tracking, pseudorange navigation, receiver position, time and velocity, carrier phase tracking, GPS
positioning types –absolute positioning, differential positioning; Navigation signals -GPS frequencies;
Calculating positions using C/A code using P(Y) code, code phase v/s carrier phase, augmented GPS, local
augmentation; Accuracy and error sources – atmospheric effects, multipath effects, ephemeris and clock
errors; selective availability, relativity, sagnac distortion. Factors that affect GPS – number of satellites,
multipath, ionosphere, troposphere, satellite geometry, satellite health, signal strength, distance from the
reference receiver, RF interference, loss of radio transmission; GPS interference and jamming – natural
sources, artificial sources; Techniques to improve accuracy- augmentation, precise monitoring, GPS time and data, GPS modernization.
DGPS – History, need for DGPS, concepts and principles, differential corrections, accuracy in DGPS, local
area DGPS, wide area DGPS, carrier phase DGPS, pseudolites, LAAS, WAAS; rapid methods with GPS –
rapid static method, semikinematic method, kinematic method. Real time DGPS.
Planning and Realization of GPS Observations: Setting up an observation plan; practical aspects in field
Observations; observation strategies & network design; Ground control for geometric correction of satellite
imagery using DGPS. Ground control points, types, density, planning, reconnaissance survey, field
observations, Criteria for Selecting reference station, reference station equipments, operational procedures, post processing, Georeferencing.
Applications: military – airborne, marine and land based navigation, and civilian –surveying and mapping,
control surveys, cadastral surveying, navigation, RS, GIS and photogrammetry, geodesy, location,
navigation, tracking, mapping and timing, Engineering and Monitoring; Special applications of GPS, etc.,
GPS Technique and project cost.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Satellite Geodesy: Gunter Seebar,
2. GPS satellite surveying: Alfred leick
3. Essentials of GPS, N K Agrawal

APPLICATION OF GEOINFORMATICS IN OCEAN, MARINE AND COASTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Subject Code: 14 CGI -252

IA Marks: 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week: 04 Exams Hrs: 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs: 52 Exam Marks: 100

Objective:
Upon completing the study of this subject the student would be able to use RS/GIS software and various
modeling tools in integrated water resources management. They will have been exposed to geo-informatics
applications to oceanography, glaciology, hydrometeorology, irrigation, watershed development, water
pollution studies, sustainable use of water resources.
Hydrological cycle : Hydrology, processing and parameterisation in hydrology; water budgeting, water
demand estimation, surface water bodies, water content in oceans, seas, ice, lakes, dams, tanks, rivers and
ground. Water resource scenario in India and Karnataka, Hydrological modeling. RS and GIS applications in
water resources development and management.
Oceanographic Studies: Remote sensing of oceans, ocean processes, ocean resources, satellites and sensors
for ocean studies, spectral bands for study of ocean parameters, sea ice monitoring, Physical applications –
Estimation of wind velocity & direction, sea surface temperature, upwelling, sea surface velocities, mixed
layer depth, salinity, ocean colour, etc; Biological applications – Phytoplankton mapping, Ocean primary
production, potential fishing zones, Suspended Sediment concentration mapping; monitoring seafloor
morphological changes, Coastal Bathymetry; Coastal Geomorphology, identification & monitoring of
Coastal habitat (Mangrove, Coral reefs, wet lands etc); Integrated Coastal Zone Management, addressing
coastal environmental issues. Marine Atlas Project;
Coastal Engineering Applications: Coastal Hydrodynamic – coastal erosion and protection – different
Coastal protection works – design of Breakwaters – Hydrodynamics of pollution dispersion – Estuaries and
their impact on coastal process – Modelling of suspend sediment.
Coastal Zone Applications : Introduction – Major issues/problem – wetland classification – thematic maps
on coastal resources- site suitability analysis for aquaculture – Coastal Regulation zone – Coastal aquifer
modeling using GIS- Integrated coastal Zone Management – conflict analysis – Resources association.
Meteorology Applications: Estimation of weather and climate parameters, and modeling aspects, global
climatology. Rainfall mapping, hydrometrics and field measurement of water flows and water quality
parameters, potential and actual Evapo-transpiration, Hydrometeorology: atmospheric watercontent, cloud
mapping, rain forecasting, artificial rain, cyclone forecasting

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Introduction to Environmental Remote Sensing Barrett E.C., Curtis, I.F., Chapman and Hall, New York, 1982
2. Remote Sensing principles and Interpretations Sabins, F.F., (Ed) W.H. Freemanand Co., New York, 1986
3. Remote sensing and Image interpretation Thomas M. Lillesand and Ralph W. Kiefer, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 1994.
4. Coastal and Marine Geo-Information Systems: Applying the Technology to the Environment. David R. Green, Stephen D. King, 2003.

SATELLITE DATA IMAGE PROCESSING
Subject Code: 14 CGI -23

IA Marks: 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week: 04 Exams Hrs: 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs: 52 Exam Marks: 100

Objective:
The course aims at introducing the various processing techniques used to enhance, interpret images and extract information from images.
Digital Data: Introduction- Satellite data acquisition –Storage and retrieval – Data Formats – Compression – Satellite System – Data products – Image display system – Current Remote Sensing Systems.
Sensor and Data Models: Introduction- Sensor model –Resolution, spectral and spatial response.
Image Rectification and Restoration: Geometric correction- Radiometric correction – Noise removal
Image Enhancement: Contrast Manipulation –Gray-Level Threshholding- Level Slicing Contrast Stretching
– Convolution – Edge Enhancement – Spatial feature manipulation –Fourier Analysis.
Multi Image Manipulation: Spectral Ratioing –Principal and Canonical Components– Vegetative
Components – Intensity – Hue – Saturation – Colour Space Transformation.
Rectifying a Camera Image: Perform Image to Image Rectification – Check Map Models –
Orthorectification- Area correlation –Resampling- Multiimage fusion- Spatial and spectral domain fusion.
Computational Intelligence: An overview of computational intelligence: various paradigms – Expert
Systems, Artificial Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic, enetic Algorithms/Programming, History and development.
Expert Systems: An Overview of expert systems, Knowledge Representation, Symbolic Representation,
Rule-Based Systems, Logic Programming, Knowledge Acquisition, Heuristic Classification, Tools for
Building Expert Systems, Machine Learning, Hybrid Systems
Genetic Algorithm and Programming: Introduction and background to genetic algorithm, Darwinian
principle, Genetic operators, Schema theorem, Fitness and scaling problems, Introduction to Genetic
programming, Introduction to Automatically Defined Functions — Regression example. Application of GP to pattern recognition problems.
Information Extraction: Principal -Component Analysis- Ratio Images- Multispectral Classification –
Supervised Classification Stage- Minimum distance to means classifier, parallelepiped classifier, Gaussian
maximum likelihood classifier – Training Stage: Graphical representation of the spectral response patterns,
Quantitative expression of category separation, Self-classification of training set data, interactive preliminary
classification, representative and subsene classification – unsupervised classification-
Hybrid –Classification – Classification of Mixed Pixels.
Output Stage: Graphic Products – tabular data, Digital Information files – Post Classification Smoothing –
Classification Accuracy Assessment. Classification error matrix, sampling consideration, evaluating classification error matrix.
Data Merging and GIS Integration: Multitemporal Data merging – Change detection procedures-
Multisensor image merging – Merging of image data with Ancillary data- Incorporating GIS Data in automated land cover classification.
Hyper-spectral Image Analysis and Radar image analysis: Atmospheric correction – Hyper-spectral image analysis techniques.
Image Analysis and Understanding: Pattern recognition – Shape analysis- Textural and contextual analysis
– Decision concepts – Fuzzy sets and evidential reasoning.
Advanced Concepts: Digital Terrain Modeling (DTM) – Stereo images – Artificial intelligence and expert
systems – Artificial Neural Network concepts.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. John R Jenson ‘Introducing Digital Image Processing” Prantice Hall. New Jersy 1986.
2. R. A. Schowengergt, ‘Techniques for Image Processing and Classification in Remote Sensing’; 1983
3. Robert A Schowengergt, ‘Remote Sensing – Models and Methods for Image Processing’ Academic Press 1997 Hord R M, Academic Press, 1982.

APPLICATIONS OF GEOINFORMATICS IN
NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Subject Code: 14 CGI -24

IA Marks: 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week: 04 Exams Hrs: 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs: 52 Exam Marks: 100

Objective
On completion of study of this subject the students would have a sound knowledge of application of remote
sensing, GIS, GPS and other tools for understanding the concepts of natural resources management, changes
in environment, monitoring the pollution affected areas and would be able to prepare suitable action plans for its sustainable development.
Land and Soil Applications:
Geomorphological Mapping: Mapping geological structures-folds, faults, joints and lineaments, Lithological mapping,
Geological Resources Exploration: Mineral resources exploration, Mineral mapping and Mineral Resources
Information System; encroachment mapping, GIS in mine remediation and mine reclamation.
Geo-Technical Studies: Site suitability for dams, atomic power plants, solid waste disposal, roads, bridges, canals, river diversions.
Geo-environmental Studies : Earthquake prone area zonation, landslide prone area zonation Soil survey,
soil classification, soil series establishment, profile studies, Land Use Land Cover Mapping, Natural
Resources Census, Natural Resources Information System, National Natural Resources Management
Systems, Wetland Mapping, Wasteland Mapping, Land Degradation Mapping, Desertification Mapping, Soil
Conservation Measures, Soil Erosion Modeling, Land capability Maps, land/ soil irrigability Maps.
Agro-ecosystem management: Agro-climatic zonation, crop acreage estimation, crop inventory, crop
production forecasting, CAPE and FASAL. Crop norm violation, RS basis for crop insurance claim. Satellite
agro-meteorology; Thermal RS application for crop stress detection, & Microwave application in agriculture,
Space inputs for precision agriculture, Precision farming in Indian scenario, Agro-climatic planning and
information Bank (APIB), Site suitability studies for agricultural crops, horticultural crops. Horticulture,
Sericulture- Inputs management- Cropping systems analysis.
Sustainable Development: Concept of sustainability, Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development,
Watershed characterization, Acton Plans for Sustainable development, watershed prioritization,
developmental impact assessment. Land Resources Information System, Action plans for Sustainable
Agriculture.
Forest and Ecology Applications: Mapping and inventorying of forest resources, Forest biomass estimation,
carbon sequestration, mapping and monitoring of afforestation, deforestation, encroachment, forest depletion
and degradation, forest fire mapping and monitoring, forest fire risk zonation, habitat studies, Biodiversity
conservation planning, ecorestoration and ecodevelopment; deforestation / afforestation / encroachment
mapping and monitoring, Forest Information System, Forest Management Plans, and Working Plans and
conservation plans. Environmental Impact assessment of mining and Industrial activities., Microwave
application in Forestry, Wildlife ecology applications- Habitat management- wildlife habitat selection,
habitat fragmentation, protected areas, inputs for preparation of working plan/management plan. Forest land
management- catchments area treatment plans, waste land development, forest plantations and its monitoring,
joint forest management, forest resource information system.
Surface Fresh Water Resources: Surface water resources mapping and management; Integrated river basin
management, Inter river basin connectivity mapping, river diversion studies, Site suitability for surface
storages and hydro-electric power plants, Digital elevation models and their applications, storage yield
analysis and reservoir sizing, Floodplain mapping and flood plain zoning, flood mitigation measures, flood
water diversion for irrigation.
Water Pollution Applications: Mapping and inventorying of surface water bodies, siltation estimation and
storage loss estimation, water quality index mapping, point source pollution mapping, non-point source
pollution modeling, eutrophication and water vegetation mapping, methane production area mapping and
modeling, Modeling of dams and reservoirs for estimation of damage to natural resources, oil slicks tracing
and monitoring, sea turbidity and sedimentation mapping, coastal erosion mapping, coastal habitat
degradation mapping, ground water contamination studies, Groundwater-pollution hazard assessment and
protection planning, evaluation of groundwater vulnerability using GIS techniques; groundwater quality
index mapping. RS and GIS technologies for sustainable groundwater management.
Air and Atmospheric Pollution Applications: Aerosol remote sensing, air quality indexing and mapping,
dynamic air pollution modeling, mapping and measuring troposphere pollutants, environmental sensitivity
index mapping; spread and dispersion of smoke plumes from industries and power plants, forest fires, oil wells, etc.
Miscellaneous Applications: RS and GIS Applications in noise pollution and light pollution monitoring.
GIS modeling for bioterrorism, ecology of vectors of epidemics, mapping epidemic vulnerable zones.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Introduction to Environmental Remote Sensing by Barrett E.C., Curtis, I.F., Chapman and Hall, New York, 1982
2. Remote Sensing principles and Interpretations- Sabins, F.F., (Ed) W.H. Freeman and Co., New York, 1986
3. Remote sensing and Image interpretation – Thomas M. Lillesand and Ralph W. Kiefer, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 1994.

APPLICATIONS OF GEOINFORMATICS IN URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
Subject Code: 14 CGI -251

IA Marks: 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week: 04 Exams Hrs: 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs: 52 Exam Marks: 100

Objective:
Upon completion of this subject the student would be able to understand the concepts and principles and use
the tools and techniques of geo-informatics for efficient planning and management of Urban area.
Large Scale Mapping and Cadastral Information System: Technologies for Large Scale Mapping (LSM)
of urban areas – Aerial Photography – High- Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing – Electronic Distance
Measurement (EDM) -Total Station – Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) – Issues in Large Scale
Mapping – Selecting appropriate technologies and methodologies. Concept of Cadastre, History of cadastral
survey, Cadastral survey methods and survey maintenance, cadastral map reproduction, development of
cadastral information system.
Urban Mapping and Spatial Analysis: Urban process, the physical structure and composition of urban
areas, Urbanisation process, growth trend, problems of urbanisation, information requirements for
perspective planning, Scale and resolution concepts and interpretation techniques for urban and regional
analysis, urban GIS, spatial analytical techniques, statistics and visualization, conceptual modelling of urban
processes; Urban Sprawl: Change detection in Land Use Land Cover monitoring physical growth of urban
area, trends in urban sprawl and associated problems.
Urban Planning: Plans – planning needs, types of plans, urban and regional planning; LU/LC mapping
Urban Planning: Zoning of Land Use, Zonal Land Use Plan, Object oriented GIS data modeling for urban
design, landscape architecture, urban infrastructure, Site selection for urban development, site suitability
analysis for utilities and civic amenities, interim master plan, Master Plan.
AM/FM Applications: GIS/GPS applications in Automated mapping (AM) and Facility management (FM) –
Water and sewage related- GIS based urban water demand analysis, pipeline planning and alignment, Electric
and power supply related, fuel and food supply related, Telecom applications, Radio coverage Prediction,
Signal Strength Mapping
Demographic and Business Applications: Geo-demographics-Population distribution maps by age,
gender, education, occupation, socioeconomic grouping, health criteria index, crime rates and types.
Business GIS- Market analysis, retail site selection, retail planning, health care planning, financial services
planning, educational institutions planning, water demand modeling and planning distribution network,
household analysis, real estate inventory, mapping and GIS. Crime Analysis, Electoral Redistricting.
Network Applications: Transportation demand modeling and analysis, transportation planning, Vehicle
Routing and Scheduling, Vehicle Tracking and Navigation: Integration of GPS and GIS data, intelligent
transportation systems, streets network analysis; pavement management system (PMS) Water and sewage
related- GIS based urban water demand analysis, pipeline planning and alignment
Urban Ecology Applications: Air quality indexing and mapping, monitoring atmospheric haze, smoke,
toxic gas movement and prediction of vulnerable zones. Noise pollution zonation, Natural resources
inventory and management- conservation of water bodies, vegetation, storm water system GIS; soil and
groundwater conservation, site suitability for ground water recharging and rain water harvesting, urban area
heat budgeting, Logistic management and spatial planning for solid waste management.
Urban Disaster and Emergencies Management: Mapping vulnerable zones with respect to earth quake,
flood, fire, terrorist attacks, and finding optimum routes for ambulances, and emergency services, GIS
modeling for Hazard risk and emergencies management
Cultural GIS: Mapping heritage buildings, monuments, places of worship, tourism spots, recreation
facilities, sports facilities and serving on web GIS.
Urban Governance: Governance of urban regions: mapping administrative boundaries, city base map
generation, property enumeration and property GIS, tax revenue rationalisation, e-governance, Metropolitan
Spatial Data Infrastructure, metropolitan information management system, Urban GIS.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Remote Sensing and Urban Analysis Jean-Paul Donnay et al, GISDATA Series, 2001, Taylor and Francis Inc.
2. GIS and GPS based asset management for Road and Railway Transportation Systems – GPS based vehicle tracking system. www.gisdevelopment.net www.esri.com www.aboutgis.com

WEB APPLICATIONS IN GEOINFORMATICS
Subject Code: 14 CGI -22

IA Marks: 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week: 04 Exams Hrs: 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs: 52 Exam Marks: 100

Objectives:
On completion of study of this subject, students would have a sound knowledge about the Web GIS and its Applications for serving the geospatial data to the clients. One would be able to web design utilizing web GIS softwares.
Introduction to Web GIS: Definition, concept of Web GIS, History of web GIS, components of web GIS,
internet, web GIS v/s Internet GIS, Fundamentals of computer networking – network environment – network
communication models –protocols – TCP/IP. Applications of web GIS, users and stake holders of web GIS, advantages and limitations of web GIS,
overview of Web GIS.
Client/server Computing: Client – server – glue – client/server system partition– layered architecture –
advantages and disadvantages of client server architecture. Distributed component framework – web
mapping – static and interactive web mapping – open GIS web map server.
Distributed geographic information services: Principle – components – logic and data components.
Geographic Markup Language: Principles – characteristics – commercial web mapping programs – mobile
GIS. Distributed GIS in data warehousing and data sharing.
Functions of Web GIS: Display of general information for the public, display of planning information,
interactive display of spatial information sharing and distribution of spatial data as well as management of spatial data.
Design of User Graphic Interface User friendly interface, characteristics, menus and icons, common terms.
Graphic Appearance – colours, sizes, fonts, scales and arrangement.
Web GIS Software. Brands of software used to develop web GIS at the server and client sides. Evaluation of
different brands, ArcIMS, Map Objects, Mapguide, Map Server, Geomedia web map, Fulcrum, Vectoreyes.
Web GIS Data. Classification of WEB GIS data, Geospatial data, type, characteristics, distribution, GIS
interactive maps, – general maps at regional level, very detailed maps down to lot level. Level of Service
(LOS) Level of Contents (LOC) Level of GIS Functions or Level of Functions (LOF). A Cross Tabular
Matrix (CTM) approach.
Stake–holders, users, owners and organizations of web GIS, policies and laws pertaining to web GIS,
Watermarking Geo-Spatial Data.
Applications of WEB GIS: Participatory GIS -Web-based GIS For Collaborative Planning And Public
Participation, Digital Democracy for planning, web GIS An Aid To Local Environmental Decision-making,
web GIS for regional and local level planning. Community GIS, Internet GIS Applications in intelligent
transportation systems, planning and resource management. E-Governance, Bhoomi project, Bangalore-1,
Electronic Government Proposals.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1 Zhong- Ren Peng, Ming-Hsiang Tsou, (2003) Internet GIS: Distributed Geographic Information Services for the Internet and Wireless Networks, Wiley.
2. Korte, G. B., (2001})”The GIS book”: 5th Edition, Onward press, Australia.
3. Cartwright, W., M.P. Peterson, G. Gartner (Eds) “Multimedia Cartography’, Berlm: Springer.
5. Kraak, M., and A. Brown (2001)” Web Cartography: Development and Prospects, London”: Taylor and Francies.
6. Kraak, M. and F. Ormeling (2003) “Cartography: Visualization of Geospatial Data”, Delhi: Pearson Education.

GEOINFORMATICS LABORATORY-II
Subject Code: 14 CGI -26

IA Marks: 25
No. of Lab Hrs/ Week: 03 Exams Hrs: 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. 39 Exam Marks: 50

Digital Image Processing
1. Atmospheric & Radiometric Correction of Satellite Images
2. Image Enhancement Techniques(Spatial, Spectral and Radiometric)
3. Classification Techniques – Unsupervised and Supervised Classification and Change Detection
4. Calculation of area and Accuracy Assessment Geographic Information System
5. Editing Vector Layers
6. Spatial and Non spatial querying using open source and proprietary GIS packages
7. Spatial data quality evaluation
8. Overlay Analysis
9. Buffer Creation and Analysis
10. Network Analysis
11. DEM and TIN Creation Global Positioning System
12. Familiarization with GPS Instrument and Software
13. GPS Survey of Natural and Man-made features
14. GPS & GIS data integration and output preparation Environmental Management Applications:
15. Delineation of Ltithological/geomorphic units
16. Identification of forest types and area estimation
17. Use of spectroradiometer and crop signature generation
18. NDVI and biomass relationship
19. Field visit and soil profile study
20. LU/LC Map Preparation
21. Delineation of Watershed
22. Familiarization with Bhutan and other Geoinformatics Portals

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. ERDAS Field Guide, 4th Edition, 1997, ERDAS Inc, Georgia
2. Using ArcCatalog, Aleta Vienneau, 2001, ESRI
3. ArcGIS 9 – Using ArcGIS Desktop, 2006, ESRI
4. ArcGIS 9- Getting Started with ArcGIS, 2004, ESRI
5. Building a Geodatabase, Andrew McDonald, 2001, ESRI
6. ArcGIS 9 – Geodatabase Workbook, 2004, ESRI
7. Introducing Geographic Information Systems with ArcGIS, Michael Kennedy, 2006, John Wiley &Sons Inc, New Jersey
8. Using ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst, Kevin Johnnston, Jay M. Ver Hoef, Konstantin Krivoruchko and Neil Lucas, 2001, ESRI
9. Using ArcGIS Spatial Analyst, Jill Mc Coy and Kevin Johnson, 2001, ESRI
10. ArcGIS 9 – Geoprocessing in ArcGIS, 2004, ESRI

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