M.Tech Highway Syllabus 2nd Semester Syllabus

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PAVEMENT DETERIORATION AND EVALUATION
Subject Code : 14CHT21

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Structural and functional requirements of flexible and rigid pavements. Distress and different types of failures in pavements. Functional and structural deterioration of flexible and rigid pavements, Deterioration models.
Structural deterioration of pavements, causes, effects, methods of treatment. Structural evaluation of flexible pavements by Rebound deflection method, Analysis of data, interpretation and applications, design of overlay. “Use of FWD and other
methods for evaluation of flexible and rigid pavements and their application. Problems
Functional deterioration of pavements, causes, effects, methods of treatment. Pavement surface condition – Causes, effects,
methods of measurement . Functional evaluation and treatment of: a) Pavement slipperiness b) Riding quality and unevenness
c) Rutting d) Cracking e) Potholes f) Edge breaking etc. Rating methods. Use of modern equipment for pavement surface
condition measurements. Analysis of data, interpretation and application.
Discussion on choice of overlay type and pavement materials over existing flexible and rigid pavements, with different degrees of distress.
Evaluation of new pavement materials, model studies, pavement testing Under controlled conditions, accelerated testing and evaluation methods.
Test track studies. Instrumentation for pavement testing.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. E.J.Yoder & Witczak M.W. “Principles of Pavement Design”- 2nd Edition – John Willey and Sons Inc., New York, 1975.
2. Hass R., Hudson. W. R., Zaniewisti .J. “Modern Pavement Management” – Krieger Publishing Company, Florida, 1994.
3. Per Ulitz “Pavement Analysis” – Elsevier Amsterdam.
4. David and Paul Croney, “Design and performance of road pavements”- third edition, Mc Graw hill, 1998.
5. HRB/TRB/IRC/ “International Conference on structural design of Asphalt pavements”.
6. Freddy L Roberts, Prithvi S Kandhal et al, “Hot Mix Asphalt Materials, mixture design and construction”- (2nd Edition), National Asphalt Pavement Association Research and Education Foundation, Maryland, USA.

Standard Data Book on Highway Technology issued by the University may be referred in the P.G Examination of VTU.

AIRPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN
Subject Code : 14CHT254

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Introduction: Growth of air transport, airport organization and associations, Classifications of airports airfield components,
airport traffic zones and approach areas.
Aircraft Characteristics Related to Airport Design: Components, size turning radius, speed, airport characteristics
Capacity and Delay: Factors affecting capacity, Determination of runway capacity related to delay, gate capacity, taxiway
capacity
Airport planning, surveys and Design : Airport Site Selection, Runway length and width, sight distances, longitudinal and transverse grades, runway intersections, taxiways, clearances, aprons, numbering, holding apron, noise control , Problems.
Planning and Design of the Terminal area: Operational concepts, space relationships and area requirements, vehicular
traffic and parking at airports.
Airport Grading and Drainage: Grading of airport area, hydrology, design of drainage systems, construction methods, layout
of surface drainage and subsurface drainage system, Problems.
Air Traffic Control and Aids: Runways and taxiways markings, day and night landing aids, airport lighting , ILS and other
associated aids.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. “Planning and Design of Airports” – Robert Horenjeff, 2nd edition, McGraw Hill Book Co.
2. “Airport Engineering”- G. Glushkov, V.Babkov, Mir Publuishers, Moscow.
3. “Airport Planning and Design”- Khanna, Arora and Jain, Nem Chand and Bros., Roorkee
4. Harry.R.Cedergern. “Drainage of Airfield pavements”- John Wiley and Sons.
5. Virender Kumar and Satish Chandra, “Airport Planning and Design”- Galotia Publication press.

Standard Data Book on Highway Technology issued by the University may be referred in the P.G Examination of VTU.

ROAD CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
Subject Code : 14CHT23

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Various types of highway development projects in progress in India and their scope. Factors to be considered in planning of
new highway /expressway / bypass and up-gradation of existing roads.
Planning of Road Projects –project management framework, scope, project objectives, project environment, causes of project failure, project development process
Resource planning – human resources, project man power grouping, structuring site organisation, construction materialsclassification
of construction materials, materials usage, materials inventory, cost and budget
Construction equipment and choice-type, capacity and number, task considerations, cost considerations, engineering
considerations, equipment acquisition options, optimum location of crushing and mixing plants, problems.
Time planning – project work breakdown, determining activities involved, assessment of duration, CPM / PERT network
analysis, work scheduling, methods of work scheduling, factors affecting work scheduling, Problems.
Planning Control System – resource production, project cost, project time, codification and project management, information
system, use of software

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. K.K. Chitkara. “Construction Project Management Planning, Scheduling and Controlling”- Tata McGraw Hill publications
2. S.C. Sharma “Construction Equipment and its Management”- Khanna Publishers
3. Peurifoy / Schexnayder “Construction Planning, Equipment and Methods”-Tata Mc Graw Hill Publications
4. IRC “A Manual for the Application of Critical Path Method to Highway Projects in India”
5. Nhai.org, pmgsy.nic.in websites

Standard Data Book on Highway Technology issued by the University may be referred in the P.G Examination of VTU.

PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Subject Code : 14CHT24

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Introduction: components & principals of pavement management systems, pavement maintenance measures, planning
investment, research management.
Pavement Performance Evaluation: general concepts, serviceability, pavement distress survey systems, performance evaluation
Pavement Performance Prediction: concepts, modeling techniques, structural condition deterioration models, mechanistic
and empirical models, HDM and other models, comparison of different deterioration models. Functional condition
deterioration models, unevenness prediction models and other models, comparison. Modeling in rehabilitation budget
planning, case studies, Problems.
Ranking and Optimization Methodologies: Recent developments, sample size selection, economic optimization of pavement
maintenance and rehabilitation.
Design alternatives and Selection: Design objectives and constraints, basic structural response models, physical design
inputs, alternate pavement design strategies and economic evaluation, reliability concepts in pavement engineering, life cycles
costing, analysis of alternate pavement strategies based on distress and performance, case studies and Problems.
Expert systems and Pavement Management: role of computers in pavement management, applications of expert systems for
managing pavements, expert system for pavement evaluation and rehabilitation, knowledge – based expert systems, case studies.
Implementation of Pavement Management Systems.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Ralph Hass, Ronald Hudson and Zanieswki, “Modern Pavement management”- Krieger Publications.
2. W. Ronald Hudson, Ralph Haas and Waheed Uddin, ‘Infrastructure Management’- Mc Graw Hill
3. Proceedings of North American Conference on Managing Pavement.
4. Proceedings of International Conference on Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements.
5. NCHRP, TRR and TRB Special Reports.
6. Freddy L Roberts, Prithvi S Kandhal et al, “Hot Mix Asphalt Materials, mixture design and construction”- (2nd Edition), National Asphalt Pavement Association Research and Education Foundation, Maryland, USA.

Standard Data Book on Highway Technology issued by the University may be referred in the P.G Examination of VTU.

ELECTIVE – II
APPLIED STATISTICS
Subject Code : 14CHT251

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Introduction to statistical methods, scope aim and limitations, sample, attribute and types of data, sources and collection of data. Accuracy of data.
Representation and summarizing data. Frequency distribution, histogram and frequency curves. Ogive curve, Measure of central tendency – arithmetic mean, median and mode dispersion- range, standard deviation, variance and co-efficient of variation, skewness and kurtosis.
Introduction to probability & statistics for Traffic Engineering Design – Introduction, Random variables and statistical
measures: arithmetic mean, measures of dispersion, basic laws of probability, probability laws for discrete random variables:
binomial and Poisson distribution, probability laws for continuous random variables: normal distribution, Poisson distribution.
Sampling Techniques – objective, basics of sampling, advantages of sampling, sampling techniques, sampling distributions
– sampling distribution of the sample mean, central limit theorem, chi square, t and F – distributions. Sampling error, sample
size and design.
Statistical decisions – point estimation, properties of parameters, Testing of Hypothesis – Type II errors and I.
Tests of significance – tests for mean and variance. Tests for proportions.
Chi-square test of goodness of fit, student’s t test, Confidence interval.
Curve fitting by the method of least squares, Linear correlation & regression, multiple linear regression. Analysis of variance
Use of soft wares in statistical analysis – MATLAB, MINITAB

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Martin Wohl, Brian V Martin, “Traffic System Analysis”- Mc Graw Hill Series
2. Johnson R and G Bhattacharya,“Statistics – Principles and methods”- John Wiley & sons, New york, 1985
3. Medhi, “Introduction to statistics”- New Age Pub, New Delhi
4. Benjamin Jack R and Cornell C Allin, “Probability Statistics & Decisions for Civil Engineers”- McGraw Hill Co.
5. Agarwal, B.L, “Basic Statistics”- 3rd edition, New Age Pub. New Delhi.
6. L.R Kadiyali, “Traffic Engineering”- Khanna Publishers New Delhi

Standard Data Book on Highway Technology issued by the University may be referred in the P.G Examination of VTU.

GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES
Subject Code : 14CHT252

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Introduction – Need and objectives of ground improvement, classification of ground modification techniques , trends in
ground improvement. Engineering properties of soft, weak and compressible deposits; Principles of treatment;
Methods of compaction, blasting, dynamic consolidation, pre-compression and compaction piles.
Methods of dewatering – open sumps and ditches, well point system, electro-osmosis, Vacuum dewatering wells; pre-loading
without and with sand drains, strip drains and rope drains.
Stabilisation with admixtures like cement, lime, calcium chloride, fly ash and bitumen.and non traditional stabilizers. Methods
of soil improvement-lime stabilisation and injection; thermal, electrical and chemical methods;
Grouting- materials of grouting, grouting techniques and control.
Soil reinforcement – Reinforcing materials, concept of confinement, gabbion walls,
Dynamic consolidation; Vibroflotation; Pre-consolidation with vertical drains; Granular piles; Soil nailing; Anchors; Grouting;
Electro-osmosis; Soil freezing; Vacuum consolidation; Case histories
Improvement of Foundation Soils
(a) Improvement of granular soils : term used to describe degree of compactness –
relative density, density ratio and degree of compaction;
Methods – Vibration at ground surface, factors influencing roller compaction;
deep dynamic compaction, vibro-compaction impact at depth.
(b) Improvement of cohesive soils : preloading, or dewatering, methods of installing
sand drains ,drain wicks, electrical and thermal methods.
(c) Grouting : purpose, functions, types of grouts ; soil bentonite – cement mix,
cement mix, emulsions, solutions: grout injection methods.
(d) Geo-synthetics : types, functions, manufacturing of geo-textiles , Classification of
geo-textiles.
Specific Applications : Bearing capacity improvement, reinforcement, retaining
walls, embankment etc. testing of geo-synthetics, usage in India and case study.

References
1. Manfred R. Hansmann – Engineering principles of ground modification – Me. Graw-Hill pub. Co., NewYork.
2. Robert M. Koerner – Construction and Geotechnical methods in Foundation Engineering -MC.Graw-Hill Pub. Co., New’York. .
3. Winterkorn and Fang – Foundation Engineering Hand Book – Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.,New York.
4. Aris C. Stamatopoulos & Panaghiotis C. Kotzios – Soil Improvement by Preloading – John Wiley & Sons Inc. Canada.
5. P. Purushothama Rao – Ground Improvement Techniques – Laxmi Publications

ADVANCED TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
Subject Code : 14CHT253

IA Marks : 50

No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Traffic flow theory – scope, relationship between flow variables, bottle necks, Problems.
Queuing theory and applications; vehicle arrivals, delays at intersections, Elements of simulation technique in traffic
Engineering, Problems.
Traffic Forecast – objects, factors governing traffic growth, estimation of traffic growth from past trends, econometric models. Common methods of traffic forecast , Problems.
Road accidents, causes, scientific investigations and data collection. Analysis of individual accidents to arrive at causes;
statistical methods of analysis of accident data, computer analysis. Road safety issues, various measures for road safety –
engineering, educational and enforcement measures, Short term and long term measures. Road safety education and training.
Economic evaluation of improvement measures by “before and after studies”. Problems.
Traffic management techniques – Local area management. Transportation system management. Low cost measures. Various
types of medium and long term traffic management measures and their uses. Evaluation of the effectiveness and benefits of different traffic management measures, Elements of area traffic control and Intelligent transportation systems.
Environmental issues – air and noise pollution due to road traffic, measurement, control of environmental deterioration.
Management of environmental pollution due to road traffic.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. L.R Kadiyali, “Traffic Engineering & Transport Planning”- reprint 2004, khanna publishers
2. Babkov V.F. “Road conditions and Traffic Safety” – MIR publications, – 1975.
3. K.W. Ogden, “Safer Roads – A Guide to Road Safety Engg”-Aver bury Technical, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Alder shot, England, 1996.
4. Kadiyali, L.R., “Traffic Engineering and Transport Planning”-Khanna Publications.
5. Pignataro, Louis, “Traffic Engineering”- Theory and Practice’, John Wiley.
6. RRL, DSIR, “Research on Road Safety”- HMSO, London.
7. “IRC Third Highway Safety Workshop”- Lecture Notes 1978 and other IRC publications.
8. IRC: 67, IRC: 35, IRC: 110, Indian Roads Congress.
9. Drew D R ,” Traffic Flow Theory and Control”, McGraw Hill Book Co, NY, USA.

Standard Data Book on Highway Technology issued by the University may be referred in the P.G Examination of VTU.

HIGHWAY PLANNING AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Subject Code : 14CHT22

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Highway Planning – Objects, need for highway planning, types of planning, planning surveys, Interpretation, Preparation of
Master plans, NTP and NTPC in India. Traffic studies – Volume study, types of volume counts viz, key count, control counts,
coverage counts etc. Estimation of future traffic by different approaches, speed studies, load meter study, 20 year road
development plan including 1st and 2nd 20 year plan in brief and 3rd and 4th 20 year plan in detail, Land use planning, Land use
development – models, problems on the above topics, Highway Planning in India
Highway Engineering Economics, principle, supply and demand models, equilibrium, sensitivity of travel demand,
Elasticities – types, models (Kraft demand model) consumer surplus cost – cost elasticity pricing and subsidy policies, rates of
interest, Vehicle operation cost, direct and indirect benefits due to road improvement, Total transportation cost, fixed and
variable costs. Road user cost studies in India
Economic analysis, different methods, determination of annual cost, benefit cost ratio, IRR, FIRR, NPV. Sensitivity of
economic analysis, Examples of economic analysis for different types of road improvement measures, pavement options,
construction of bypasses and upgrading of intersections. Project priorities, methods of dealing with uncertainties.
Highway financing, various options for road and bridge projects, special cess, tolling, BOT, BOOT and other options.
Economic and financial analysis of highway projects and use of computer software packages. Road investment decision packages.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Kadiyali L.R. “Traffic Engineering and Transport Planning”-Khanna Publishers, New Delhi.
2. Jotin Chisty.C and Kent Lall B “Transportation Engineering An Introduction”- PHI, New Delhi.
3. Prasanna Chandra “Financial Management”-Tata McGraw, New Delhi.
4. Woods K.B, Berry, D.S. and Goetz W.H, “Highway Engineering”-McGraw Hill Book Co.
5. Hewes C.I. and Oglesby, C.H., “Highway Engineering”-Asia Publishing House.
6. Ian G. Heggie, “Transportation Engineering Economics”-McGraw Hill Book Co.
7. “Road User Cost Study in India”- Final Report, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, 1982.
8. Kadiyali, L.R., et al, “Value of Travel Time Savings” – Traffic Engineering, HRB
9. No.20, Indian Roads Congress, 1983.
10. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, “Road Development Plan for India”- 2001-2021, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi, 2002.
11. Khanna and Justo, “Highway Engineering”- NemChand Publication, Roorkee

Standard Data Book on Highway Technology issued by the University may be referred in the P.G Examination of VTU.

Highway Materials Lab – 2

Tests on bitumen / polymer modified binders
1. Penetration test
2. Viscosity test
3. Specific gravity test
4. Flash and fire point test
5. Ductility and elastic recovery test
6. Softening point test and separation test
7. Tests on bitumen Emulsion & Cutback bitumen

Tests on bituminous mixes
1. Proportioning of materials by Rothfutch’s method and Mix design by Marshall Method.

Field Tests
Field density by sand replacement & Core cutter method
Bitumen Extraction, bitumen content and aggregate gradation
Pavement evaluation tests such as:
· Benkelman Beam deflection studies & analysis
· Measurement of Unevenness by Merlin & Bump integrator
· Calibration of Bump Integrator

REFERENCES
1. Relevant IS and IRC codes
2. Khanna, S.K., Justo, C.E.G., and Veeraragavan, A., `Highway Materials and Pavement Testing’, Nem ChandandBros,Roorkee
3. Gambhir, M. L., ‘Concrete Manual’, Dhanpat Rai and sons New Delhi

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