M.Tech. Industrial BioTechnology 2nd Sem Syllabus

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INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT
Subject Code : 14IBT254

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objectives: To learn about water quality, types of waste water and their characterization, sampling methods for analysis of parameters. To describe water quality standards and their impact and to explain primary and secondary treatment methods of waste water. To apply membrane filtration techniques and disinfection methods to purify waste water, and to understand importance of reclamation and reuse of waste water. Describe the methods of water reusage. To know various issues related to the performance of treatment plant and identify the problems associated with them and to combat them.

Course Outcomes:
At the end of this course, student will be able to:
· Define water quality and explain methods to characterize water quality.
· Describe water quality standards and their impact.
· Explain primary and secondary treatment methods of waste water.
· Apply membrane filtration techniques, and disinfection methods to purify waste water.
· Analyze the importance of reclamation and reuse of waste water.
· Describe methods of water reusage.
· Identify various issues related to the performance of treatment plants and problems associated with them to combat them.

MODULE 1 WATER AND WASTE WATER ENGINEERING AN OVERVIEW 10 Hours
Water quality, Physical chemical and biological parameters of water, water quality standards, water quality indices. Waste water: Terminology, impact of regulation on waste water engineering, health and environmental concern in waste water management, waste water characteristics and treatment methods, current status and future trends, waste water reclamation and reuse, biosolids and residual management.
Constituents of waste water, physical chemical and biological parameters of waste water, sampling methods, waste water effluent standards, sewage disposal methods.

MODULE 2 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER 10 Hours
Screens, oil traps, grit chambers, coagulation, clariflocculation, oxidation ponds and lagoons, Attached growth biological treatment : Activated sludge process and its modifications, trickling filter, biological nitrification and denitrification, anaerobic process, sludge disposal.

MODULE 3 ADVANCED WASTE WATER TREATMENT 10 Hours
Removal of dissolved organic, inorganic constituents and biological constituents, Filtration: modeling and backwashing for slow sand and rapid sand filters, adsorption principle and isotherms, gas stripping, ion exchange, advanced oxidation process. Membrane filtration: RO, UF, MF, NF, electrodialysis. Disinfection: chlorine dioxide, chloramines, ozonation, UV radiation.

MODULE 4 WASTE WATER RECLAMATION AND REUSE 10 Hours
Waste water reuse application, need for water reuse, public health and environmental issues in water reuse, introduction to risk assessment for water reuse, different reuse options: Agriculture and landscape irrigation, industrial reuse, ground water recharge, non-potable uses with case studies.

MODULE 5 ISSUES RELATED TO TREATMENT PLANT PERFORMANCE 10 Hours
Need for upgrading treatment plant performance, treatment process reliability and selection of design values, odour management, introduction to automatic process control, energy efficiency, upgrading waste water treatment plant performance by process optimization, important design consideration for new waste water treatment plants: Liquid stream, solid processing, odour control .

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Weber, W.J., “Physicochemical process for water quality control”, John Wiley and sons, New York, 1983.
2. Metcalf and Eddy, “Waste Water Engineering: Treatment and reuse”, Tata McGraw. Hill Publication, New Delhi, 4th Ed., 2003.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Fair and Gayer. “Water and waste water Engineering” John Wiley & Sons, 3rd Ed., 2010.
2. C.A. Shastry, “Water treatment plants”, Narosa Publishing House, Bombay, 1996.
3. Peavy, H.S., Rowe, D.R. and Tchobanoglous, G. “Environmental Engineering”, MGH, NY, 1985.
4. Arundel, “Sewage and Industrial Effluent Treatment”, Wiley India, 2012.

FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY II
Subject Code : 14IBT22

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objectives: To understand the importance of downstream operations in a fermentation industry and to obtain a purified marketable product. To apply the knowledge of purification techniques for removal of insoluble materials and for mass transfer operations in product isolation. To describe the method of chromatography in product purification and to apply the concept of crystallization to product enrichment. To apply the knowledge of downstream processing techniques to fermentation process and evaluate fermentation products by conducting experiments.

Course Outcomes:
At the end of this course, student will be able to:
· Demonstrate the importance of downstream operations in a fermentation industry.
· Apply the knowledge of purification techniques for removal of insoluble materials.
· Describe and apply the knowledge of mass transfer operations in fermentation product isolation.
· Describe the method of chromatography in product purification.
· Demonstrate and apply concept of crystallization to product enrichment.
· Apply and aesign experimental procedures to process fermentation products.

MODULE 1 OVERVIEW OF DOWNSTREAM OPERATIONS 10 Hours
Role and importance of downstream processing in biotechnological processes. Problems and requirements of bioproduct purification. Process economy: Economics & Cost cutting strategies, process design criteria for various classes of bioproducts (high volume, low value products and low volume, high value products), Process overview: General account of downstream processing steps: removal of insoluble’s, cell disruption, isolation, product purification and product formulation, Quality analysis: Analysis of product purity: Chromatography, electrophoresis and spectroscopy.

MODULE 2 REMOVAL OF INSOLUBLES 10 Hours
Filtration: Bead or depth filters, plate and frame filter, pressure leaf filter, continuous rotary drum filters, filter media and filter aids. Microfiltration. Centrifugation: Flocculation and sedimentation, simple and ultra centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation, Cell types: Bacteria, fungal mycelia, plant cell and animal cell, cell disruption: Mechanical and nonmechanical disruption

MODULE 3 ISOLATION 10 Hours
Extraction: Liquid-liquid extraction, aqueous two-phase extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction, Adsorption: The chemistry of adsorption, batch adsorption, adsorption in
continuous stirred tank, fixed bed, distillation, evaporation.

MODULE 4 PRODUCT PURIFICATION 10 Hours
Chromatography: Adsorbent, yield and purity, discrete stage analysis, kinetics analysis. Precipitation: With non solvent, with salt, with temperature, large scale precipitations. Ultra filtration: Basic ideas, equipment. Electrophoresis.

MODULE 5 POLISHING 10 Hours
Crystallization: Theory – nucleation, crystal growth; mixed product removal crystallizer with mixed suspension. Crystallization processes, Drying: drying curve, tray dryer, flash dryer, freeze drying – principle and process, freezing, primary and secondary drying, application. Downstream processing for the following products: Antibiotics, organic acids, vitamins, insulin. ancillary operations: Water quality, solvent recovery, waste disposal. Case studies: Ethanol, Vinegar, Beer, Wine, Antibiotics.

TEXT / REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Paul A. Belter, “Bioseparations: Downstream processing for Biotechnology”. Wiley Interscience, 1st Ed., 1988.
2. Roger Harrison et al., “Bioseparation Science and Engineering”, Oxford Uni. Press, 2002.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Jenkins R.O. (Ed.). “Product Recovery in Bioprocess Technology” – BIOTOL Series, Butterworth Heinemann, 1992.
2. Ghasem D. Nazafpour, “Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology”, Elsevier, 1st Ed., 2007.
3. N. Krishna Prasad, “Downstream Process Technology – A New Horizon in Biotechnology”, 1st Ed., PHI, 2010.

QUALITY, SAFETY & PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Subject Code : 14IBT23

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objectives: To understand the importance and principles of quality control in process industry. To describe good manufacturing practices and to apply GMP procedures for QC in pharmaceutical and process industries. To know the treatment and disposal methods in process industry. To apply GLP to laboratories, field studies, in-vitro studies and to apply safety measures and regulatory affairs in implementing GLP and GMP. To learn concepts of project management and apply them to process industry.

Course Outcomes:
At the end of this course, student will be able to:
· Demonstrate importance of GMP and GLP in process industry.
· Demonstrate safety measures and guidelines to implement GMP and GLP in industry.
· Demonstrate fundamental concepts of project management.
· Apply GMP and GLP protocols to process industry.
· Design and apply GMP and GLP protocols to laboratories, field studies, in-vitro studies.
· Apply principles of project management to pharmaceutical industry.

MODULE 1 PRINCIPLES OF QUALITY CONTROL 10 Hours
Regulation, standards and guidelines of GMP & GLP, basic terminology and validation overview, validation master plan, scope, documentation format, elements of qualification,
numbering system, risk- based assessment, revalidation and its applications. Quality benchmarking, details of international standards (ISO, GMP, GLP, TGM, VAN and ISI), its need and fact sheet evaluation. Role of quality audit and quality circle in quality assurance; measurement of quality, information and decision ma king or utilization of data. Quality operations, its inspection and test used for it. Human resource and training for quality.

MODULE 2 GMP (Good manufacture practice) 10 Hours
Basic components of GMP Facilities, design, materials, flow, environment control, prevention of cross contamination. Quality, concept of GMP, quality assurance & quality control. Legal requirements pertaining to GMP. Regulatory considerations in application of encapsulated cell therapies: GMP on cell-based therapies, FDA regulations of human tissues and products. Treatment of diabetes with encapsulated islets: Concepts of encapsulation, intravascular designs, biocompatibility and microcapsule composition.

MODULE 3 GLP (Good Laboratory Practices) 10 Hours
Good Laboratory Practices: principles; commodities; apparatus; reagents and materials; pest control; cryogenic safety – general precautions; storage; test systems; standard protocols; quality assurance; Laboratory signage – biosafety level; treatment and disposal –sharps, cultures, stock & lab ware; Biotoxin and pathological waste – fixed tissues & bedding; storage and retention of records.
Implementation of GLP: Implementation as a Project, stepwise implementation of GLP requirements. Quality assurance and GLP compliance of laboratory suppliers with GLP
Principles, The application of the GLP Principles to field studies, The role and responsibilities of the study director in GLP Studies, The application of the principles of GLP to in-vitro studies, Establishment and control of archives that operate in compliance with the principles of GLP.

MODULE 4 SAFETY AND REGULATIONS 10 Hours
The GM-food debate and biosafety assessment procedures for biotech foods & related products, including transgenic food crops, case studies of relevance. Environmental aspects of biotech applications. Use of genetically modified organisms and their release in environment. Biosafety assessment procedures in India and abroad. International dimensions in biosafety: bioterrorism and convention on biological weapons. Biosafety regulations and national and international guidelines with regard to rDNA technology, transgenic science. Experimental protocol approvals, levels of containment.

MODULE 5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT 10 Hours
Project management – definitions – overview – project plan – management principles applied to project management – project management life cycles and uncertainty
Project planning – scope – problem statement – project goals – objectives – success criteria – assumptions – risks – obstacles – approval process – projects and strategic planning Project implementation – project resource requirements – types of resources – men –materials – finance. Project monitoring – evaluation – control – project network technique –planning for monitoring and evaluation – project audits – project management information system – project scheduling – PERT & CPM –project communication – post project reviews – Closing the project – types of project termination – strategic implications –project in trouble – termination strategies – evaluation of termination possibilities – termination procedures.

TEXT / REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Mindy J. Allport-Settle. “Current Good Manufacturing Practices: Pharmaceutical, Biologics, and Medical Device Regulations and Guidance Documents Concise Reference”, CreateSpace, 2009.
2. Erik Kopp. “Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices / DRUG GMPs plus Electronic Records; Electronic Signatures Regulations”, EK Publications, 1st Ed., 2010.
3. Carol DeSain. “Documentation Basics That Support Good Manufacturing Practices and Quality System Regulations” Tamarack Associates, LLC, 2004.
4. Graham Bunn, Joseph D. Nally. “Good Manufacturing Practices for Pharmaceuticals”, Informa Healthcare, 6th Ed., 2006.

BIOREACTOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
Subject Code : 14IBT24

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objectives: To understand and describe operation of different types of bioreactors used in fermentation and bioprocess industry. To learn the concepts of reaction engineering principles and apply them to bioreactors. To study and evaluate non-ideal behavior of bioreactors. To design bioreactor based on thumb rules. To apply the computational analysis methods for evaluating dynamics of bioreactor.

Course Outcomes:
At the end of this course, student will be able to:
· Describe different types of bioreactors and their operation.
· Apply reaction engineering principles to bioreactors and evaluate their performance.
· Describe non-ideality in bioreactors and evaluate non-ideal parameters.
· Design bioreactor based on thumb rules for fermentation operation.
· Apply computational techniques for dynamic analysis of bioreactors.

MODULE 1 BIOREACTOR AND ITS OPERATION 10 Hours
Purpose and importance, basic requirements for operation; classification – SLF, SSF, animal, plant, sterilization, immobilized, seed reactor. Operational modes of bioreactor: batch, semibatch/ fed-batch, continuous. Bioreactors: Fermenter, packed bed reactor, airlift reactor, hollow fibre reactor, reactor for plant cells and mammalian cell culture, SSF reactor.

MODULE 2 BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BIOREACTOR DESIGN 10 Hours
Performance of batch reactor – with cell growth and product formation. Performance of continuous reactors – Chemostat, turbidostat, dilution rate and washout. Performance of PFR, and recycle bioreactor. Combination of bioreactor – multistage chemostat, multistage combinations. Performance of semi-batch or fed batch reactors. Performance of immobilized enzyme reactors.

MODULE 3 NONIDEALITY IN BIOREACTOR 10 Hours
Nonideal models of bioreactor: Zero, I and II order models. Prediction of conversion in nonideal chemostat. Transient behavior in bioreactors. Stability analysis of bioreactors: Phase – plane analysis, bifurcation analysis.

MODULE 4 DESIGN ASPECTS OF A BIOREACTOR 10 Hours
Mechanical design aspects of a fermenter (Tower, Packed bed, Air lift only): L/D ratio, Effect of rheology on fermenter operation, agitation requirement (shaft/other means,
calculations), aeration requirement (nozzle design). Mixing pattern in fermenter, back mixing in tower fermenter, heat requirements in fermenter. Aseptic measures and sterilization requirements.

MODULE 5 COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF BIOREACTOR DYNAMICS AND SCALE UP 10 Hours
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of bioreactor – basic concepts, meshing methods, application to bioreactor dynamics analysis (mixing pattern, aeration pattern). Use of supervisory control and data Acquisition (SCADA) for fermenter control. Neural networks and stability analysis of bioreactor.
Bioreactor Scale up: Strategies and methods – Similarity criteria, Hubbard method, method of Wang et al., Ettler’s method. Dimensionless numbers and scale up. Scale up based on aeration and power requirement (Aeration and power number).

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Tapobrata Panda, “Bioreactors – Analysis and Design”, TMH, 2011.
2. Vogel and Todaro, “Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Hand Book”, 2nd Ed., Standard Publishers and Distributors, 2005.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Mukhopadhyay, “Process Biotechnology Fundamentals”, Viva Books Pvt. Ltd., 2nd Ed., 2004.
2. Dunn et al., “Biological Reaction Engineering”, Wiley-VCH, 2nd Ed., 2000.
3. Mukesh Doble et al., “Biotransformations and Bioprocesses”, Marcel Decker Inc.2004.
4. Peppler and Periman, “Microbial Technology: Fermentation Technology” Vol 2, Academic Press/Elsevier, 2nd Ed., 2004.

NANOMATERIALS AND NANOTOOLS
Subject Code : 14IBT251

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objectives: To learn fundamental concepts of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in various dimensions and characterize them. Apply the concepts of nanotechnology for drug discovery and drug delivery applications. To describe use of nanomaterials in microfluidics and develop microfluidic cell culture devices. To design BioMeMs for use in medical and analytical field. To understand the risks, safety factors associated with nanomaterials.

Course Outcomes:
At the end of this course, student will be able to:
· Describe and characterize nanomaterials and their properties.
· Apply concepts of nanotechnology in drug discovery and delivery systems.
· Apply nanotechnology concepts in designing microfluidic devices.
· Develop microfluidic devices for the microfluic cell culture systems.
· Design BioMeMs and demonstrate its application in various fileds.
· Understand the risks associated with nanomaterial applications.

MODULE 1 INTRODUCTION 10 Hours
Introduction to nanoscience, quantum mechanics, structure-property relationships in materials,
Fabrication methods: Top down and bottom up approaches, Nanolithography(Dip pen, photo, X-ray, electron beam, nanosphere).

MODULE 2 NANOMATERIAL AND NANO TOOLS 10 Hours
Zero dimensional : Nano particle, 1-D: Nano wires, nano rods, 2-D: thin films, special nanomaterials: Buckyballs (Fullerenes), nanotubes, dendrimers, nanoshells, magnetic
nanoparticle. Quantum dot (Nanocrystals), self-assembled monolayers, scanning probe microscopy (Scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy). Characterization of nanomaterials: Physical, chemical and structural. applications of nanomaterial.

MODULE 3 NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR DRUG DISCOVERY & DRUG DELIVERY 10 Hours
Drug discovery using nanocrystals and resonance light scattering (RLS), Nanosensors in drug discovery. Benefits of nanoimaging agents, controlled release of drugs, benefits of nano-drug delivery, nanomaterials and biocompatibility: BioMEMS and dendrimers, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes.
Delivery of small molecules, proteins and nucleic acids: PAMAM dendrimers as nanoscale oral drug delivery systems, nanoemulsions for intravenous drug delivery, cancer vaccine delivery, nanotherapeutics, nanorobots, use of microneedles and nanoparticles for drug delivery.

MODULE 4 MICROFLUIDICS 10 Hours
Microflows (laminar flow), micro drops, Hagen-Pouiselle equation, micromixing, microvalves & micropumps, fabrication of soft materials, application of microfluidics: Lab
on a chip(cellomics, immunoassay), Microparticle based assays, magnetic particle in biotechnology.
Micro manipulations and separations using electric fields. On chip single cell cultivation system.
Microfluidic cell culture device, micro machined bioreactor. Microchips for genomic and proteomic analysis.

MODULE 5 APPLICATIONS AND RISK ASSESSMENT 10 Hours
Introduction to MEMS, biomems, design of bioMEMS, process steps for MEMS. Recent developments in BioMEMS and nanochips. DNA based BioMEMS, application of BioMems in diagnostics. Bioconjugated nanoparticles for biotechnology and bioanalysis, surgical application of MEMS. Drug delivery systems. Effects of nanoparticle exposure in humans, risks assessment, management, ethical aspects.

TEXT / REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Bharat Bhushan (Ed.). “Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology”, Springer, 3rd Ed., 2010.
2. H.Brune, H.Ernst. “Nanotechnology: Assessment and Perspectives”, Springer, 2006.
3. Tuan Vo-Dinh. “Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine”, CRC press, 2007.
4. Melgardt M. de Villiers et al. (Ed.). “Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery”, Springer publications, 2009.
5. Jean Berthier, Pascal Silberzan.“Microfluidics for Biotechnology”, Artech House, 2nd Ed., 2009.
6. Guozhong Cao and Ying Wang (Ed.). “Nanostructure and Nanomaterial” (World Scientific Series in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: Volume 2) Imperial College
Press, 2nd Ed., 2004.
7. M.S. Ramachandra Rao, Shubra Singh. “Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: Fundamentals to Frontiers”, Wiley India, 2012.

CANCER BIOLOGY Subject Code : 14IBT252 IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04

Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objectives: To understand fundamental concepts of cancer and its developmental stages. To describe origin of cancer and process of cancer progression. To study and analyse the genetic and epigenetic factors involved in carcinogenesis. To identify tumour suppressor genes and their characterization. To study the genes responsible for suppression of cancer and to explain therapeutic treatments of cancer.

Course Outcomes: At the end of this course, student will be able to:
· Demonstrate fundamental concepts of cancer and its developmental stages.
· Describe origin of cancer and process of cancer proliferation.
· Analyse the genetic and epigenetic factors involved in carcinogenesis.
· Identify tumour suppressor genes and their characterization.
· Describe the genes responsible for suppression of cancer.
· Explain therapeutic treatments of cancer.

MODULE 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF CANCER 10 Hours
Cancer cell characteristics, terminologies used in cancer cell biology, different forms of cancer, differences between benign and malignant tumor, different stages in development of cancer, Influential factors in human carcinogenesis, carcinogenic contaminants, dietary deficiencies, obesity, chronic alcohol consumption, hormones and cancer, tumor markers, detection using biochemical assays, molecular tools for early diagnosis of cancer.

MODULE 2 PROCESS OF CARCINOGENESIS 10 Hours
Environmental causes for carcinogenesis, chemical carcinogenesis, carcinogen metabolism, radiation and carcinogenesis, DNA and RNA tumor viruses, Cancer cell origin from single abnormal cell (clonal origin) and different cell types (polyclonal origin), change in cells DNA sequence and origin of cancer, Mutations that accelerate the development of cancer, Contribution of non-mutagenic agents, toxic and mitogenic agents and inflammation to tumorigenesis, Multi-step origin of cancer, Genetic instability and Chromosomal anomalies in cancer cells, tumor progression involving mutation, collaboration of two or more mutant genes Darwinian evolution and natural selection, Deranged control of cell differentiation during carcinogenesis, Enhanced mutability and drug resistance in cancer cells, defects in DNA repair mechanism leading to tumorigenesis.

MODULE 3 MOLECULAR ASPECT OF CANCER 10 Hours
Epigenetic regulation of transcription, Evidence for role for epigenetics in carcinogenesis: histone modification and cancer, methylation and cancer, Telomeres and Telomerases in cancer. Proto-oncogenes and Oncogenes, Oncogenes that encode: growth factors or their receptors, cytoplasmic protein kinases, nuclear transcription factors, mechanism of oncogenic activation, product that affect apoptosis, promote tumor formation through secondary effect on other genes. Association of different oncogenes with immortalization and transformation. Angiogenesis is the key for cancer progression, involvement of blood vessels in metastasis, the angiogenic switch, angiogenic inducers, angiogenic inhibitors: antiangiogenic approach to combat cancer. Metastasis: Cell adhesion molecules-E-cadherins, integrins and proteases, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), intravasation and extravasation, metastatic colonization, metastatic tropism, metastasis suppressor gene.

MODULE 4 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENES 10 Hours
Definition of tumor suppressor genes, tumor suppressor genes and their functions, genetic status of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes-Cell fusion experiments to prove the status of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Hereditary predisposition to cancer due to mutant tumor suppressor gene, loss of heterozygosity. Loss of heterozygosity of retinoblastoma gene and its expression. The role of retinoblastoma gene in regulating cell cycle clock-cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), CDK inhibitors, retinoblastoma proteins (pRb) and its role in cell cycle regulation, viral oncoproteins and blocking of pRb, perturbation in pRb function and tumorigenesis, the role of TGFb in cell cycle, the role of p53 in normal cell, mutant p53 interference with normal p53 function, mutation in the p53 pathway and cancer, interaction of DNA viral protein products with RB and p53, Mdm2 and ARF role in p53 function, inactivation of p53 and inherited mutant allele of p53 in predisposition to cancer, inactivation of apoptotic machinery by cancer cells. Other tumor suppressor genes-Neurofibromatosis (NF1), Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) and von-Hippel Lindau syndrome (VHL).

MODULE 5 THERAPIES FOR CANCER 10 Hours
The role of molecular targets in cancer therapies, conventional therapies: chemotherapy of cancer, Therapy from plant derived materials, radiation therapy, Strategies that target DNA repair pathways, DNA methylation inhibitors, inhibitors of histone deacetylases, telomerase inhibitors. antiEGFR drugs, strategies against Raf, Imatinib, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, othe cell cycle kinase targets, inhibitors of mitotic spindle, strategies that aim to correct a p53 mutation, strategies that aim to activate endogenous p53, strategies that aim to suppress, endogenous p53. apoptotic drugs: Direct and indirect activation of caspases, regulation of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, targeting TRAIL and its receptors. Inhibitors of the Wnt pathway and Hh pathway, leukemia and differentiation therapies. Metalloproteinase inhibitors (MPIs), strategis for restoring metastasis suppressors, antiangiogenic therapy and vascular targeting. Immune therapy of cancer: nonspecific immune stimulation, vaccination against cancer: therapeutic vaccines, whole-cell vaccines, peptide vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, vaccines for cancer prevention, adoptive immune therapy, passive therapy with anti-tumor antibodies, cytokine therapy, inhibition of inflammation, vaccine against cervical cancer, second-and third generation therapeutics, pharmacogenomics, nanomedicine in
treatment of tumors.

TEXT / REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Robert A. Weinberg, “The Biology of Cancer”, Garland Science, New York, 2007.
2. Gerald Karp, “Cell and Molecular Biology”, John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York, 1996.
3. Benjamin Lewin, “Genes VIII”, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.
4. Bruce Alberts and other, “Molecular Biology of the Cell”, Garland Publishing, 3rd Ed., 1994.
5. Lauren Picorino, “Molecular Biology of Cancer: Mechanism, Targets and Therapeutics”, Oxford University Press, 2012.
6. Graham L. Patrick. “An introduction to Medical Chemistry”, Oxford University Press, New York 1995.
7. Lodish & David Baltimore, “Molecular Cell Biology”, Scientific American Pub. 2003.
8. Hansh D., Sammes, P. G., Toylor, J. B. “Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry”, Pergamon press, Oxford, 1990.
9. “Wilson and Gisvold’s Text book of organic medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry”, Lippincott-Raven Pub. 10th Ed. 1998.

BIOFUELS ENGINEERING
Subject Code : 14IBT253

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objectives: To understand importance of biofuels. To describe various feedstocks for production of biodiesel and to describe methods of production of biofuels like biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen. To know standard procedures for analysis of purity of these biofuels and to learn national and international standards applicable for utilization of biofuels. To describe methods of hydrogen production using microbes. To understand and apply concepts of fuel cells for energy production using microbial fuel cells.

Course Outcomes:
At the end of this course, student will be able to:
· Demonstrate the importance of biofuels.
· Describe technologies for biofuel production.
· Identify feedstocks for biofuel production.
· Apply analytical procedures for purity analysis of biofuels.
· Know the application of national and international standards of biofuels quality.
· Understand and apply concepts of fuel cells for energy production using microbial fuel cells.

MODULE 1 INTRODUCTION 10 Hours
Description of biofuels; energy use & efficiency; biofuel production – I and II generation biofuels; alternative energies; biochemical pathways review for organoheterotrophic,
lithotrophic & phototrophic metabolism; importance of COD; biofuel feedstocks: biomass, starch, sugar, lignocellulosic, agro & industrial by-products. Biomass production for fuel – algal cultures, yeasts (lipid and carbohydrate). Fuel production through biomass incineration.

MODULE 2 PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL 10 Hours
Chemical, thermodynamic & reaction kinetic aspects of biodiesel production: Esterification and transesterification. Free fatty acids; saponification; single step and two step biodiesel production. Catalysts for biodiesel production – homogeneous (alkali/acidic) and heterogeneous. Sources of oils – edible and non edible; General procedure of biodiesel production and purification. Production technologies: Conventional method, microwave, ultrasonic, supercritical fluid, Lipase mediated process. Quality control aspects: GC analysis of biodiesel, fuel property measurements, ASTM (D-6751) and Indian standards (IS15607). Usage: B100 and B20 and advantages.

MODULE 3 PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL 10 Hours
Process technology for bioethanol production using sugar; starch and lignocellulosic Feedstocks; byproducts of biodiesel industry as feedstock; selection of micro-organisms and feedstock – ethanol tolerance; associated unit operations; determination of bioethanol yield; recovery of bioethanol; process integration. Advances in bioethanol production.

MODULE 4 PRODUCTION OF BIOHYDROGEN 10 Hours
Enzymes involved in H2 Production; photobiological H2 production: Biophotolysis and photofermentation; H2 production by fermentation: Biochemical pathway, batch
Fermentation, factors affecting H2 production, carbon sources, process and culture parameters; detection and quantification of H2. Reactors for biohydrogen production.
Advances in biohydrogen production technology.

MODULE 5 MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS 10 Hours
Biochemical Basis; fuel cell design: anode & cathode compartment, microbial cultures, redox mediators, exchange membrane, power density; MFC performance methods: substrate & biomass measurements, basic power calculations, MFC performance: power density, singlechamber vs two-chamber designs, effectiveness in wastewater treatment; advances in MFC.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Caye M. Drapcho, N.P. Nhuan and T. H. Walker, “Biofuels Engineering Process Technology”, Mc Graw Hill Publishers, New York, 2008.
2. Jonathan R.M, “Biofuels – Methods and Protocols” (Methods in Molecular Biology Series), Humana Press, New York, 2009.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Lisbeth Olsson (Ed.), “Biofuels” (Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology Series), Springer-Verlag Publishers, Berlin, 2007.
2. Glazer and Nikaido, “Microbial Biotechnology – Fundamentals of Applied Microbiology”, Cambridge University Press, 2 Ed., 2007.

FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING
Subject Code : 14IBT21

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objectives: To learn methods involved food processing; To understand and apply drying method in food processing operations; To study the food conversion methods and describe equipments required; To apply method of cooling for food processing and preservation; To analyze and investigate properties of food, quality of food and design
various food processing operations through experiments.

Course Outcomes:
At the end of this course, student will be able to:
· Understand the need for food processing.
· Apply drying methods, heat transfer methods for food processing applications.
· Describe food conversion methods and equipments required.
· Analyse properties of food and their quality before and after processing steps.
· Design food processing operations.
MODULE 1 FOOD PROCESSING METHODS 10 Hours
Scope and importance of food processing; Properties of food- Physical, thermal, mechanical, sensory. Raw material preparation- Cleaning, sorting, grading, peeling.
Processing methods: Heating- Blanching and Pasteurization. Freezing- Dehydrationcanning- additives- fermentation- extrusion cooking- hydrostatic pressure cooking- dielectric heating- micro wave processing and aseptic processing – Infra red radiation processing- Concepts and equipment used.

MODULE 2 DRYING 10 Hours
Moisture content- definition, methods of determination- direct and indirect methods. Equilibrium moisture content- Hysteresis effect- Psychrometry- properties of air, watervapour mixer, problems in psychrometry. Drying-mechanisms-constant rate period and falling rate period- methods and equipment used- factors affecting rate of drying.

MODULE 3 FOOD CONVERSION OPERATION 10 Hours
Size reduction- Fibrous foods, dry foods and liquid foods- Theory and equipmentsmembrane separation- filtration- equipment and application.

MODULE4 FOOD PRESERVATION BY COOLING 10 Hours
Refrigeration, Freezing-Theory, freezing time calculation, methods of freezing, freezing equipments, freeze drying, freeze concentration, thawing, effect of low temperature on food. Water activity, methods to control water activity.

MODULE 5 FOOD ADULTARTION & LAWS 10 Hours
Intentional and unintentional: Preservatives, antioxidants, sweeteners, flavours, colours, vitamins, stabilizers; Indirect additives: organic residues, inorganic residues and
contaminants.
FSSAI, Essential Commodities Act, BIS, Codex Alimentarius, PRP, GAP, GRAS, SSOP, HACCP.

TEXT BOOKS
1. R. Paul Singh., “Introduction to Food Engineering”, Academic Press, 3rd Ed., 2004.
2. P. Fellows, “Food Processing Technology: Principles and practice”. Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambrideg, 2nd Ed., 2005.

REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Dennis,R.H. , “Food Process Engineering”. Academic Publishing and Press, King Saud University, 1981.
2. Rao, M.A. and Rizvi, and Ashim K. Datta “Engineering Properties of Foods”, CRC Press, 2010.
3. Singh, R. Paul and D.R. Heldman, “Introduction to Food Engineering”, Academic Press/ Elsevier, 4th Ed., 2009.
4. Gopala Rao, Chandra, “Essentials of Food Process Engineering”, B.S. Publications, 2006.
5. Toledo, Romeo T., “Fundamentals of Food Process Engineering”, Springer, 3rd Ed., 2007.
6. Smith, P.G., “Introduction to Food Process Engineering”, Springer, 2004.
7. Berk, Zeki, “Food Process Engineering and Technology”, Academic Press / Elsevier, 2009.

FOOD PROCESSING & DOWNSTREAM OPERATIONS LAB
Subject Code : 14IBT26

IA Marks : 25
No. of Practical Hrs./ Week : 03 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Practical Hrs. : 36 Exam Marks : 50

Course Objectives: To learn and demonstrate experiments for the analysis food products and its constituents. To understand concepts of food processing and its principles. To gain hands on experience in downstream operation of fermented products. To be able to design downstream processing strategies.

Course Outcomes:
At the end of this course, student will be able to:
· Demonstrate analytical procedures to determine quality of food products.
· Explain the principles involved in food processing operations through experiments.
· Perform downstream operations involved in purification of fermented products.
· To design downstream operation strategies for obtaining final finished product from fermentation broth.

EXPERIMENTS
1. Analysis of quality of food products:
a. Determination of total soluble solids
b. Determination of titratable acidity and pH of fruit juice
c. Determination of ash and acid insoluble ash
2. Determination of processed food content (any three)
a. salt content in processed products.
b. fat content
c. gluten content
d. crude fiber in foods
e. ascorbic acid.
3. Quality analysis of milk and water
4. Determination of b, Z and F value in thermal processing.
5. Experiments on determination of drying rate of given food materials
6. Experiments on determination of physical properties of foods.
7. Experiments on determination of heat transfer coefficient of parallel flow heat exchanger.
8. Production of citric acid using Aspergillus niger.
9. Ethanol production from oil cake using Baker’s yeast.
10. Microbial production of protein and enrichment using aqueous two-phase extraction.
11. Production of exopolysaccharides using bacteria.
12. Intracellular lipid production from cellulosic sources using red yeast or green alga.

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