MBA 2nd Semester 2014 Scheme & Syllabus

Download 2nd Semester MBA 2014 Scheme Syllabus [PDF]

Subject Code : 14MBA21

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Number of Lecture Hours : 56 Exam Marks : 100
Practical Component : 01 Hour / Week

• To develop a meaningful understanding of HRM theory, functions and practices.
• To apply HRM concepts and skills across various types of organizations.

Module 1: (8 hours)
Human Resource Management:
Introduction, meaning, nature, scope of HRM. Importance and Evolution of the concept of HRM. Major functions of HRM, Principles of HRM, Organization of Personnel department, Role of HR Manager. HRM’s evolving role in the 21st century.

Module 2: (8 hours)
Job Analysis: Meaning, process of Job Analysis, methods of collecting job analysis data, Job Description and Job Specification, Role Analysis.
Human Resource Planning: Objectives, Importance and process of Human Resource Planning, Effective HRP.

Module 3: (8 hours)
Recruitment: Definition, Constraints and Challenges, Sources and Methods of Recruitment, New Approaches to recruitment.
Selection: Definition and Process of Selection.
Placement: Meaning, Induction/Orientation, Internal Mobility, Transfer, Promotion, Demotion and Employee Separation.

Module 4: (8 hours)
Training and development: Training v/s development, Training v/s Education, Systematic Approach to Training, Training Methods, Executive Development, Methods and Development of Management Development, Career and Succession Planning.

Module 5: (8 hours)
Performance Appraisal: Concept of Performance Appraisal, the Performance Appraisal Process, Methods of Performance Appraisal, Essential Characteristic of an Effective Appraisal System.
Compensation: Objectives of Compensation Planning, Job Evaluation, Compensation Pay Structure in India, Wage and Salary Administration, Factors Influencing Compensation Levels, Executive Compensation.

Module 6: (8 hours)
Employee Welfare: Introduction, Types of Welfare Facilities and Statutory Provisions.
Employee Grievances: Employee Grievance procedure, Grievances Management in Indian Industry.
Discipline: Meaning, approaches to discipline, essential of a good disciplinary system, managing difficult employees.

Module 7: (8 hours)
Industrial Relations: Overview of industrial relations and industrial conflict.
Industrial disputes: preventive and settlement machinery, collective bargaining, industrial relations scenario: current issues and future challenges.
Practical Component:
• Give a case and ask the students to prepare the recruitment advertisement for a newspaper.
• Expose students to standard selection tests followed in various sectors.
• Exploring training and development practices.
• Exploring performance appraisal practices in various sectors.
• Exploring employee separation practices.
• Give a job analysis case and ask the students to prepare job description and job specification.
• Ask the students to prepare an appointment letter for the post of office manager of a company known to you.

• Human Resource Management – Rao V. S. P, Excel BOOKS, 2010
• Human Resource Management – Cynthia D. Fisher, 3/e, AIPD, Chennai.
• Human Resources Management: A South Asian Perspective, Snell, Bohlander, & Vohra, 16th Rep., Cengage Learning, 2012.
• Human Resource Management – Lawrence S. Kleeman, Biztantra , 2012.
• Human Resource Management – Aswathappa K HPH

• Human Resource Management – John M. Ivancevich, 10/e, McGraw Hill.
• Human Resource Management in practice – Srinivas R. Kandula, PHI, 2009
• Managing Human Resources – Luis R Gomez-Mejia, David B. Balkin, Robert L. Cardy,6/e, PHI, 2010.
• Human Resource Management & Industrial relations, P.Subba Rao, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai.

Subject Code : 14MBA22

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Number of Lecture Hours : 56 Exam Marks : 100
Practical Component : 01 Hour / Week

• To explain the basic functions and responsibilities of a financial department in a business/ firm;
• To elaborate the key decision areas in financial management-investment, financing, dividend and working capital management
• To explain the various techniques of evaluation of investment proposals
• To discuss the various factors to be considered in designing the target capital structure.

Module 1: (10 Hours)
Financial management – Introduction to financial management, objectives of financial management – profit maximization and wealth maximization. Changing role of finance
managers. Interface of Financial Management with other functional areas.
Indian financial system – Primary market, Secondary market – stocks & commodities market, Money market, Forex markets. (Theory Only)
Sources of Financing: Shares, Debentures, Term loans, Lease financing, Hybrid financing, Venture Capital, Angel investing and private equity, Warrants and convertibles (Theory Only)

Module 2: (10 Hours)
Time value of money –Future value of single cash flow & annuity, present value of single cash flow, annuity & perpetuity. Simple interest & Compound interest, Capital recovery & loan amortization.

Module 3: (8 Hours)
Cost of Capital Cost of capital – basic concepts. Cost of debenture capital, cost of preferential capital, cost of term loans, cost of equity capital (Dividend discounting and CAPM model). Cost of retained earnings. Determination of Weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and Marginal
cost of capital.

Module 4: (10 Hours)
Investment decisions -– Investment evaluation techniques – Net present value, Internal rate of return, Modified internal rate of return, Profitability index, Payback period, discounted payback period, accounting rate of return. Estimation of cash flow for new project, replacement projects.

Module 5: (6 Hours)
Working capital management – factors influencing working capital requirements. Current asset policy and current asset finance policy. Determination of operating cycle and cash cycle. Estimation of working capital requirements of a firm (Does not include Cash, Inventory & Receivables Management)

Module 6: (8 Hours)
Capital structure and dividend decisions – Planning the capital structure. (No capital structure theories to be covered) Leverages – Determination of operating leverage, financial leverage and total leverage. Dividend policy – Factors affecting the dividend policy – dividend policies- stable dividend, stable payout. (No dividend theories to be covered).

Module 7: (4 Hours)
Emerging Issues in Financial management: Derivatives, Mergers and Acquisitions, Behavioural Finance, Financial Modelling, Financial engineering, risk management. (Theory
Practical Components:
• Identifying the small or medium sized companies and understanding the Investment evaluation techniques used by them.
• Using the annual reports of selected companies, students can study the working capital management employed by them. Students can also compare the working capital management of companies in the same sector.
• Students can choose the companies that have gone for stock split and Bonus issue in the last few years and study the impact of the same on the stock price.

• Financial Management – Prasanna Chandra, 8/e, TMH, 2011.
• Financial Management, Shashi K Gupta and R K Sharma, 8th Revised Edition, Kalyani Publishers, -2014
• Financial Management, Khan M. Y.& Jain P. K, 6/e, TMH, 2011.
• Financial Management, Rajiv Srivastava and Anil Misra, Second edition, Oxford University Press,2011
• Financial Management , I M Pandey, 10th Edition, Vikas Publishing House -2014
• Financial Management & Policy- Vanhorne, James C., 12/e, Pearson, 2002

• Financial Management, V K Bhalla ,1st Edition- S.Chand 2014,
• Fundamentals of Financial Management, Brigham & Houston, 10/e, Cengage Learning.
• Corporate Finance, Damodaran , 2/e, Wiley India (P) Ltd., 2004
• Financial Management, Paresh P., Shah 2/e, Biztantra.
• Fundamentals of Financial Management, Sheeba Kapil ,Pearson,2013
• Financial Management, Sumit Gulati & Y P Singh,Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi – 2013

Subject Code : 14MBA23

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Number of Lecture Hours : 56 Exam Marks : 100
Practical Component : 01 Hour / Week

• To provide an understanding on the basic concepts of research methods
• To expose the students to the role that statistics plays in business decisions

Module 1: (6 hours)
Business Research – Meaning, types, process of research- management problem, defining the research problem, formulating the research Hypothesis, developing the research proposals, research design formulation, sampling design, planning and collecting the data for research, data analysis and interpretation. Research Application in business decisions, Features of good research study.

Module 2: (8 hours)
Types of Business Research Design: Exploratory and Conclusive Research Design Exploratory Research: Meaning, purpose, methods –secondary resource analysis,
comprehensive case methods, expert opinion survey, focus group discussions.
Conclusive research Design – Descriptive Research – Meaning, Types – cross sectional studies and longitudinal studies. –
Experimental research design – Meaning and classification of experimental designs- Pre experimental design, Quasi-experimental design, True experimental design, statistical
experimental design.
Observation Research – Meaning – Uses – Participation and Non-participation – Evaluation – Conducting an Observation study – Data collection

Module 3: (6 hours)
Sampling: Concepts- Types of Sampling – Probability Sampling – simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling -Non Probability Sampling – convenience sampling- judgemental sampling, snowball sampling- quota sampling – Errors in sampling.

Module 4: (6 hours)
Data Collection: Primary and Secondary data Primary data collection methods – Observations, survey, Interview and Questionnaire,
Qualitative Techniques of data collection. Questionnaire design – Meaning – process of designing questionnaire.
Secondary data -Sources – advantages and disadvantages Measurement and Scaling Techniques: Basic measurement scales-Nominal scale, Ordinal scale, Interval scale, Ratio scale. Attitude measurement scale – Likert’s Scale, Semantic Differential Scale, Thurstone scale, Multi-Dimensional Scaling.

Module 5: (8 hours)
Preparing the Data for Analysis: Editing, Coding, Classification, Tabulation, Validation Analysis and Interpretation

Module 6: (16 hours)
Hypothesis: Meaning, Types, characteristics, source, Formulation of Hypothesis, Errors in Hypothesis Parametric and Non Parametric Test: T-Test, Z-Test, F-Test, U-Test, K-W Test (Theory Only) Statistical Analysis: Bivarate Analysis (Chi-Square only), Multivariate Analysis (Theory Only) ANOVA: One- Way and Two Way Classification. (Theory Only)

Module 7: (6 hours)
Report writing and presentation of results: Importance of report writing, types of research report, report structure, guidelines for effective documentation.
Practical Components:
• Students are expected to write the research design on Exploratory and Descriptive Research.
• Students are asked to prepare the questionnaire on brand awareness, effectiveness of training in public sector organization, Investors attitude towards Mutual funds in any financial institutions.
• Students are asked to conduct Market survey to know the consumer perception towards any FMCG.
• Identify the problem and collect relevant literatures and data for analysis
• Data Interpretation and report writing: Short and Long reports.
• Report presentation methods, ex: Power Point Presentation, etc

• Research Methodology- C R Kothari, Vishwa Prakashan,2002
• Business Research Methods. Donald R. Cooper & Pamela s Schindler, 9/e, TMH /2007
• Research Methodology – concepts and cases – Deepak Chawla and Neena Sondhi -Vikas Publication – 2014
• Research Methods for Business, Uma Sekaran & Roger Bougie, 6th Edition, Wiley, 2013
• Business Research Methods-SL Guptah and Hetesh Guptha, McGraw hill – 2012
• Marketing Research- Naresh K Malhotrs- 5th Edition, Pearson Education /PHI 2007
• Business Research Methodology – J K Sachdeva – 2nd Edition – HPH, 2011

• Research Methods- William M C Trochi,- 2/e, Biztantra, 2007
• Methodology of Research in social Sciences- O R Krishnaswami, M Ranganatham, HPH, 2007
• Research Methodology –C Murthy- Vrinda Publication – 2011

Subject Code : 14MBA24

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Number of Lecture Hours : 56 Exam Marks : 100
Practical Component : 01 Hour / Week

• To enable students to understand the challenges and complexities faced by businesses and their leaders as they endeavor maximize returns while responsibly managing their duties to stakeholders and society.
• To help students to understand the rationale for government interventions in market systems.
• To help students develop an understanding of Social Responsibility and make their own judgments as to the proper balance of attention to multiple bottom lines.
• To help students develop the skills needed to work through ethical dilemmas

Module 1: (8 Hours)
The Study of Business, Government and Society (BGS): Importance of BGS to Managers – Models of BGS relationships – Market Capitalism Model, Dominance Model, Countervailing Forces Model and Stakeholder Model – Global perspective – Historical Perspective.

Module 2: (8 Hours)
Corporate Governance: Introduction, Definition, Market model and control model, OECD on corporate governance, A historical perspective of corporate governance, Issues in corporate governance, relevance of corporate governance, need and importance of corporate governance, benefits of good corporate governance, the concept of corporate, the concept of governance, theoretical basis for corporate governance, obligation to society, obligation to investors, obligation to employees, obligation to customers, managerial obligation, Indian cases

Module 3: (4 Hours)
Public Policies: The role of public policies in governing business, Government and public policy, classification of public policy, areas of public policy, need for public policy in business and levels of public policy.

Module 4: (8 Hours)
Environmental concerns and corporations: History of environmentalism, environmental preservation-role of stakeholders, international issues, sustainable development, costs and benefits of environmental regulation, industrial pollution, role of corporate in environmental management, waste management and pollution control, key strategies for prevention of pollution, environmental audit, Laws governing environment.

Module 5: (8 Hours)
Business Ethics: Meaning of ethics, business ethics, relation between ethics and business ethics, evolution of business ethics, nature of business ethics, scope, need and purpose, importance, approaches to business ethics, sources of ethical knowledge for business roots of unethical behaviour, ethical decision making, some unethical issues, benefits from managing ethics at workplace, ethical organizations

Module 6: (6 Hours)
Corporate Social Responsibility: Types and nature of social responsibilities, CSR principles and strategies, models of CSR, Best practices of CSR, Need of CSR, Arguments for and against CSR, CSR in Indian perspective, Indian examples.

Module 7: (14 Hours)
Business Law: Law of contract – meaning of contract, agreement, essential elements of a valid contract. Law of agency- meaning, creation and termination of agency. Bailment and Pledge – meaning, rights and duties of bailor and bailee.
Sale of Goods Act 1930: Definition of Sale, Sale v/s Agreement to Sell, Goods, Condition and Warranties, Express and Implied Condition, “Doctrine of Caveat Emptor”, Right and duties of Unpaid Seller.
Meaning, scope and objectives of – Intellectual property law, law relating to patents, law relating to copyrights, law relating to trade mark.

Practical Components:
• Students are expected to study any five CSR initiatives by Indian organizations and submit a report for the same.
• A group assignment on “The relationship between Business, Government and Society in Indian Context and relating the same with respect the models studied in Module 1.
• Case studies/Role plays related ethical issues in business with respect to Indian context.

• Business, Government, and Society: A Managerial Perspective, Text and Cases – John F. Steiner, 12/e, McGraw-Hill, 2011.
• Business and Government – Francis Cherunilam, HPH.
• Corporate Governance: principles, policies and practices – Fernando A. C, 2/e, Pearson, 2011.
• Business Ethics and Corporate Governance – Ghosh B. N, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2012.
• Business Law for Managers, Goel P. K, Biztantra, 2012.
• Corporate Social Responsibility: A Study of CSR Practices in Indian Industry, Baxi C. V & Rupamanjari Sinha Ray, Vikas Publishing House, 2012.

• Business and Society – Lawrence and Weber, 12/e, Tata McGraw- Hill, 2010.
• Business Ethics – Bajaj P. S & Raj Agarwal, Biztantra, 2012.
• Corporate Governance – Keshoo Prasad, 2/e, PHI.
• Corporate Governance, Ethics and social responsibility – Balachandran V, & Chandrashekharan V, 2/e, PHI, 2011.
• Corporate Governance – Machiraju H. R, HPH.
• Business Ethics and Corporate Governance – Prabakaran S, Excel BOOKS.
• Corporate Goverance – Badi N. V, Vrinda Publications, 2012.
• Civic Sense – Prakash Pillappa, Excel BOOKS, 2012.

Subject Code : 14MBA25

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Number of Lecture Hours : 56 Exam Marks : 100
Practical Component : 01 Hour / Week

• To explain core concepts in strategic management and provide examples of their relevance and use by actual companies
• To focus on what every student needs to know about formulating, implementing and executing business strategies in today’s market environments
• To teach the subject using value-adding cases that features interesting products and companies, illustrate the important kinds of strategic challenges managers face, embrace valuable teaching points and spark student’s interest.

Module 1 (8 Hours)
Meaning and Nature of Strategic Management, its importance and relevance. Characteristics of Strategic Management. The Strategic Management Process. Relationship between a Company’s Strategy and its Business Model.

Module 2 (8 Hours)
Strategy Formulation – Developing Strategic Vision and Mission for a Company – Setting Objectives – Strategic Objectives and Financial Objectives – Balanced Scorecard. Company Goals and Company Philosophy. The hierarchy of Strategic Intent – Merging the Strategic Vision, Objectives and Strategy into a Strategic Plan.

Module 3 (7 Hours)
Analyzing a Company’s External Environment – The Strategically relevant components of a Company’s External Environment – Industry Analysis – Industry Analysis – Porter’s dominant economic features – Competitive Environment Analysis – Porter’s Five Forces model – Industry diving forces – Key Success Factors – concept and implementation.

Module 4 (8 Hours)
Analyzing a company’s resources and competitive position – Analysis of a Company’s present strategies – SWOT analysis – Value Chain Analysis – Benchmarking
Generic Competitive Strategies – Low cost provider Strategy – Differentiation Strategy – Best cost provider Strategy – Focused Strategy – Strategic Alliances and Collaborative Partnerships – Mergers and Acquisition Strategies – Outsourcing Strategies –International Business level Strategies.

Module 5 (7 Hours)
Business Planning in different environments – Entrepreneurial Level Business planning – Multi stage wealth creation model for entrepreneurs– Planning for large and diversified companies – brief overview of Innovation, integration, Diversification, Turnaround Strategies – GE nine cell planning grid and BCG matrix.

Module 6 (10 Hours)
Strategy Implementation – Operationalizing strategy, Annual Objectives, Developing Functional Strategies, Developing and communicating concise policies. Institutionalizing the strategy. Strategy, Leadership and Culture. Ethical Process and Corporate Social Responsibility.

Module 7 (8 Hours)
Strategic Control, guiding and evaluating strategies. Establishing Strategic Controls. Operational Control Systems. Monitoring performance and evaluating deviations, challenges of Strategy Implementation. Role of Corporate Governance

Practical Components:
• Business Plan: Students should be asked to prepare a Business Plan and present it at the end of the semester. This should include the following:
• Executive Summary
• Overview of Business and industry analysis
• Description of recommended strategy and justification
• Broad functional objectives and Key Result Areas.
• Spreadsheet with 5-year P&L, Balance Sheet, Cash Flow projections, with detailed worksheets for the revenue and expenses forecasts.
• Analysing Mission and Vision statements of a few companies and comparing them
• Applying Michael Porter’s model to an industry (Retail, Telecom, Infrastructure, FMCG, Insurance, Banking etc
• Pick a successful growing company. Do a web-search of all news related to that company over a one-year period. Analyse the news items to understand and write down the
company’s strategy and execution efficiency.
• Pick a company that has performed very badly compared to its competitors. Collect information on why the company failed. What were the issues in strategy and execution
that were responsible for the company’s failure in the market. Analyse the internal and external factors
• Map out GE 9-cell matrix and BCG matrix for some companies and compare them
• Conduct SWOT analysis of your institution and validate it by discussing with faculty
• Conduct SWOT analysis of companies around your campus by talking to them

• Crafting and Executing Strategy, Arthur A. Thompson Jr., AJ Strickland III, John EGamble, 18/e, Tata McGraw Hill, 2012.
• Strategic Management, Alex Miller, Irwin McGraw Hill
• Strategic Management – Analysis, Implementation, Control, Nag A, 1/e, Vikas, 2011.
• Strategic Management – An Integrated Approach, Charles W. L. Hill, Gareth R. Jones, Cengage Learning.
• Business Policy and Strategic Management, Subba Rao P, HPH.
• Strategic Management, Kachru U, Excel BOOKS, 2009.

• Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, David R, 14/e, PHI.
• Strategic Management: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage, Robert A. Pitts & David Lei, 4/e, Cengage Learning.
• Competitive Advantage, Michael E Porter, Free Press NY
• Essentials of Strategic Management, Hunger, J. David, 5/e, Pearson.
• Strategic Management, Saroj Datta, jaico Publishing House, 2011.
• Business Environment for Strategic Management, Ashwathappa, HPH.
• Contemporary Strategic Management, Grant, 7/e, Wiley India, 2012
• Strategic Management-The Indian Context, R. Srinivasan, 4th edition, PHI

Subject Code : 14MBA26

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Number of Lecture Hours : 56 Exam Marks : 100
Practical Component : 01 Hour / Week

• To develop and strengthen entrepreneurial quality and motivation in students.
• To impart basic entrepreneurial skills and understandings to run a business efficiently and effectively.
• To provide insights to students on entrepreneurship opportunities

Module 1: (8 Hours)
Entrepreneur: Meaning of entrepreneur: Evolution of the concept: Functions of an Entrepreneur, Types of Entrepreneur, Intrapreneur- an emerging class, Concept of Entrepreneurship-Evolution of Entrepreneurship: Development of Entrepreneurship; The Entrepreneurial Culture; Stages in entrepreneurial process.

Module 2: (6 Hours)
Creativity and Innovation: Creativity, Exercises on Creativity, Source of New Idea, Ideas into Opportunities. Creative Problem Solving: Heuristics, Brainstorming, Synectics, Value Analysis
Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Profits and Innovation, Globalization, Concept and Models of Innovation. Significance of Intellectual Property Rights.

Module 3: (8 Hours)
Business Planning Process: Meaning of business plan, Business plan process, Advantages of business planning, Marketing plan, Production/operations plan, Organization plan, financial plan, and final project report with feasibility study, preparing a model project report for starting a new venture.

Module 4: (6 Hours)
Institutions Supporting entrepreneurs: Small industry financing developing countries, A brief overview of financial institutions in India, Central level and state level institutions,
SIDBI,NABARD, IDBI,SIDCO, Indian Institute of Entrepreneurship, DIC, Single Window, Latest Industrial Policy of Government of India

Module 5: (6 Hours)
Family Business: Importance of family business, Types, History, Responsibilities and rights of shareholders of a family business, Succession in family business, Pitfalls of the family business, strategies for improving the capability of family business, improving family business performance.

Module 6: (8 Hours)
International Entrepreneurship Opportunities: The nature of international entrepreneurship, Importance of international business to the firm, International versus domestic entrepreneurship, Stages of economic development, Entrepreneurship entry into international business, exporting, Direct foreign investment, barriers to international trade.

Module 7: (10 Hours)
Informal risk capital and venture capital: Informal risk capital market, venture capital, nature and overview, venture capital process, locating venture capitalists, approaching venture capitalists.
Social Entrepreneurship: Social enterprise-need, types, characteristics and benefits of social enterprises-Social entrepreneurship, Rural entrepreneurship-need and problems of rural entrepreneurship, challenges and opportunities-Role of government. Case studies in Entrepreneurship Development (4hours)

Practical component:
• Make a business plan for your intended business, talk to bankers to find out what they look for in a business plan , modify accordingly and present it in the class
• Analyze the performance of listed family firms. How is their performance compared to the performance of other firms? Does a family firm successfully manage to create wealth for non-family investors?
• Interview a local entrepreneur to find out his/her major motivations to start a business, which of the skills and characteristics do you find in the entrepreneur?
• Study a local for-profit business and try to list out the positive social impacts of the business
• Visit a trade show and try to compare the marketing activities of various stalls in that show , make a list of good practices you come across in the show
• Research on innovation that has been done in the Indian setting that has alleviated the life in rural India. Find out extent of its commercial success and analyze the reasons behind the same. Present your thoughts in the class
• Choose an NGO in your locality. Interview the founder and present the case in class on the motivations, challenges, ecosystem support and their impacts, arrive at possible
solutions and convey back to NGO.

• Entrepreneurship Development-Small Business Enterprise- Poornima Charantimath Pearson Education, 2007
• Entrepreneurship- Rober D Hisrich, Michael P Peters, Dean A Shepherd, 6/e, The McGraw-Hill companies, 2007
• Entrepreneurship Development , Khanka, S Chand Publications
• Entrepreneurship Development, B Janakiram

• Entrepreneurship Theory at crossroads – Dr.Mathew J Manimala, 2/e, Biztantra, 2007
• Entrepreneurship Development and Management – Vasant Desai, Himalaya Publishing House, 2007
• Entrepreneurship-Theory and Practice – Raj Shankar Vijay Nicole Imprints Pvt. Ltd, 2006
• Entrepreneurship – Rajiv Roy, 2/e, Oxford University Press 2011
• Entrepreneurship-Principles and Practices, Kurakto, 7/e, Thomson Publication , 2007,

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