Medical Electronics 7th Semester Syllabus

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BIOMEDICAL DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
Subject Code : 10ML71

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO BIOMEDICAL SIGNALS: The nature of biomedical signals, the action potential, objectives of biomedical signal analysis, Difficulties in biomedical signal analysis, computer aided diagnosis.
Neurological signal processing: The brain and its potentials, The electrophysiological origin of brain waves, The EEG signal and its characteristics, EEG analysis.
7 Hours

UNIT – 2
Linear prediction theory, The Autoregressive (AR) method, Recursive estimation of AR parameters, Spectral error measure, Adaptive segmentation, Transient detection and elimination- the case of epileptic patients, overall performance.
6 Hours

UNIT – 3
SLEEP EEG: Data acquisition and classification of sleep stages, The Markov model and Markov chains, Dynamics of sleep-wake transitions, Hypnogram model parameters, Event history analysis for modeling sleep.
6 Hours

UNIT – 4
ADAPTIVE FILTERS: Principle of an adaptive filter, the steepest descent algorithm, adaptive noise canceller, cancellation of 60 Hz interference in electrocardiography, applications of adaptive filters. Canceling donor-heart interference in heart-transplant electrocardiography, Cancellation of ECG signal from the electrical activity of the chest muscles, canceling of maternal ECG in fetal ECG, Cancellation of High frequency noise in Electro-surgery.
7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
SIGNAL AVERAGING: Basics of signal averaging, a typical signal averager, signal averaging as a digital filter, Removal of artifacts by averaging. Filtering for removal of artifacts: Introduction, Random noise, structured noise and physiological interference, stationary versus non stationary process, high frequency noise in ECG, motion artifact in ECG, power line interference in ECG signals, Maternal interference in Fetal ECG, muscle contraction interference in VAG signals.
7 Hours

UNIT – 6
DATA COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES: Lossy and Lossless data reduction Algorithms. ECG data Compression using Turning point, AZTEC, FAN, and Hoffman coding technique.
6 Hours

UNIT – 7
CARDIOLOGICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING : Pre-processing. ECG QRS Detection techniques. Rhythm analysis. Arrhythmia detection Algorithms. Automated ECG Analysis. ECG Pattern Recognition. Heart rate variability analysis, ST–segment analyzer, portable, arrhythmia monitor.
7 Hours

UNIT – 8
Introduction to continuous and discrete wavelet transforms. Applications of wavelets in medicine.
6 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Biomedical Digital Signal Processing-Willis J.Tompkins, PHI,
  • 2. Biomedical Signal Processing- principles and techniques, Tata McGraw-Hill, D.C.Reddy, 2005
  • 3. Biomedical Signal Analysis. IEEE Press, 2001. Rangaraj M. Rangayyan
  • 4. Wavelet Transforms by Raghuveer M. Rao and Ajit S. Bopardikar, Pearson, 1998.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Biomedical Signal Processing -Akay M, , Academic: Press 1994
  • 2. Biomedical Signal Processing -Cohen.A, -Vol. I Time & Frequency Analysis, CRC Press, 1986.

MEDICAL IMAGING SYSTEMS
Subject Code : 10ML72

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
X-RAY IMAGING: Fundamentals of X-ray – Electromagnetic radiation, Interactions between X-rays and matter, Intensity of X-ray beam, Attenuation, Generation and Detection of X-rays – X-ray generation, X-ray generators, Filters, Beam restrictors and grids, Intensifying screens, fluorescent screens, and image intensifiers, X-ray detectors, X-ray image characteristics – Spatial resolution, Image noise, Image contrast, Receiver operating curve (ROC), Biological effects of ionizing radiation, Film processors-wet & dry.
6 Hours

UNIT – 2
X-RAY DIAGNOSTIC METHODS: Conventional X-ray radiography, Fluoroscopy, Angiography, Mammography and Xeroradiography, Image subtraction.
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY: Conventional tomography, Computed tomography – Projection function, Algorithms for image reconstruction, CT number, Image artifacts, Spiral CT. Recent developments – Digital radiography, Digital subtraction angiography (DSA), 3D reconstruction, Dynamic spatial reconstructor (DSR).
7 Hours

UNIT – 3
ULTRASOUND IMAGING: Fundamentals of acoustic propagation – Stress strain relationship, Characteristic impedance, Intensity, Reflection and refraction, Attenuation, absorption & scattering, Doppler effect, Generation and detection of Ultrasound-Piezoelectric effect, Ultrasonic transducers, Transducer beam characteristics-Huygen’s principle, Beam profiles, Pulsed ultrasonic field, Axial and Lateral resolution, Focusing, Arrays.
7 Hours

UNIT – 4
ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSTIC METHODS : Pulse echo systems- Amplitude mode (A-mode), Brightness mode (B-mode), Motion mode (Mmode), Constant depth mode (C-mode), Doppler methods, Duplex imaging, Tissue characterization, Colour Doppler flow imaging, Power Doppler Imaging, Image characteristics – Ultrasonic texture or speckle, Speckle reduction, Compensation of phase aberration, Biological effects of ultrasound, video printers.
06 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING: Introduction, Fundamentals of Radioactivity – Nuclear particles, Nuclear activity and half-life, Units of measuring nuclear activity, Specific activity, Interaction of nuclear particles and matter, Attenuation of Gamma radiation, Radionuclides, Generation & Detection of Nuclear Emission – Radionuclide generators, nuclear radiation detectors, Collimators, Diagnostic methods using radiation detector probes – Thyroid function test, Renal function test, Blood volume measurement, Radionuclide imaging systems- Rectilinear scanner, Scintillation camera, SPECT, PET.
7 Hours

UNIT – 6
BASICS OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: fundamentals of nuclear magnetic resonance- Angular momentum, magnetic dipole moment, magnetization, Larmor frequency, Rotating frame of reference and RF magnetic field, Free induction decay (FID), Fourier spectrum of the NMR signal, Spin density, Relaxation times, Pulse sequences
6 Hours

UNIT – 7
MRI SYSTEM & IMAGING METHODS: Introduction, Magnet, Room temperature and magnetic field gradients, NMR Coil/Probe, Transmitter, Receiver, Data acquisition. Imaging Methods- Introduction, slice selection, frequency encoding, phase encoding, Spin-Echo imaging- Gradient echo imaging, Blood flow imaging, Characteristics of MRI images- spatial resolution, image contrast. Biological effects of magnetic fields- Static magnetic fields, Radio-frequency fields, Gradient magnetic fields, Imaging safety, Functional MRI.
7 Hours

UNIT – 8
THERMAL IMAGING & ADVANCES IN MEDICAL IMAGING: Medical thermography, Physics of thermography, Infrared detectors, Thermographic equipment, Quantitative medical thermography, Pyroelectric vidicon camera.
IMAGE GUIDED INTERVENTION- Introduction, Stereotactic neurosurgery, Stereotactic neurosurgery based on digital image volumesimage acquisition, planning and transfer, Intraoperative Imaging- Intraoperative diagnostic imaging, transfer by matching preoperative with intraoperative images, augmented reality.
6 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Principles of Medical Imaging-by Kirk Shung, Michael B. Smith and Banjamin Tsui, Academic Press, 1992.
  • 2. Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation– by R.S.Khandpur, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2003.
  • 3. Fundamentals of Medical Imaging-by Paul Suetens, Cambridge University Press, 2002.

BIOMATERIALS & ARTIFICIAL ORGANS
Subject Code : 10ML73

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
BIOMATERIALS: Introduction to biomaterials, uses of biomaterials, biomaterials in organs & body systems, materials for use in the body, performance of biomaterials.
METALLIC BIOMATERIALS: Introduction, Stainless steel, Cobalt- Chromium alloy, Titanium alloys, Titanium-Nickel alloys, Dental metals, Corrosion of metallic implants, Manufacturing of implants.
6 Hours

UNIT – 2
CERAMIC BIOMATERIALS: Introduction, nonabsorbable/relatively bioinert bioceramics, biodegradable/resorbable ceramics, bioreactive ceramics, deterioration of ceramics, bioceramic-manufacturing techniques
POLYMERIC BIOMATERIALS: Introduction, polymerization and basic structure, polymers used as biomaterials, sterilization, surface modifications  to for improving biocompatibility.
6 Hours

UNIT – 3
COMPOSITE BIOMATERIALS: Structure, bounds on properties, anisotropy of composites, particulate composites, fibrous composites, porous materials, biocompatibility.
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERIC BIOMATERIALS: Introduction, Glycolide based biodegradable homopolymers polyesters, non-glycolide linear aliphatic polyesters, aliphatic and aromatic polycarbonates, and biodegradation properties of synthetic biodegradable polymers.
TISSUE DERIVED BIOMATERIALS: Structure and properties of collagen and collagen-rich tissues, biotechnology of collagen, design of  resorbable collagen-based medical implant.
7 Hours

UNIT – 4
HARD TISSUE REPLACEMENTS: Bone repair and joint implants-long bone repair and joint replacements, dental implants- effects of material selection, effects of surface properties, surface chemistry.
PRESERVATION TECHNIQUES FOR BIOMATERIALS: Phase behavior, nonfreezing storage-hypothermic, freeze-thaw technology, freezedrying, and vitrification.
7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
ARTIFICIAL ORGANS: INTRODUCTION: Substitutive medicine, outlook for organ replacement, design consideration, evaluation process.
ARTIFICIAL HEART AND CIRCULATORY ASSIST DEVICES: Engineering design, Engg design of artificial heart and circulatory assist devices, blood interfacing implants – introduction, total artificial hearts & ventricular assist devices, vascular prostheses, Non-blood interfacing implants for soft tissues- sutures and allied augmentation devices, percutaneous and skin implants, maxillofacial implants, eye and ear implants.
7 Hours

UNIT – 6
Cardiac Valve Prostheses: Mechanical valves, tissue valves, current types of prostheses, tissue versus mechanical, engineering concerns and hemodynamic assessment of prosthetic heart valves, implications for thrombus deposition, durability, current trends in valve design, vascular grafts-history, synthetic grafts, regional patency, thrombosis, neointimal hyperplasia, graft infections.
6 Hours

UNIT – 7
ARTIFICIAL KIDNEY: Functions of the kidneys, kidney disease, renal failure, renal transplantation, artificial kidney, dialyzers, membranes for haemodialysis, haemodialysis machine, peritoneal dialysis equipment-therapy format, fluid and solute removal.
ARTIFICIAL BLOOD: Artificial oxygen carriers, flurocarbons, hemoglobin for oxygen carrying plasma expanders, hemoglobin based artificial blood.
6 Hours

UNIT – 8
ARTIFICIAL LUNGS: Gas exchange systems, Cardiopulmonary bypass (heart-lung machine)-principle, block diagram and working, artificial lung versus natural lung. Liver functions, hepatic failure, liver support systems, general replacement of liver functions.
ARTIFICIAL PANCREAS: Structure and functions of pancreas, endocrine pancreas and insulin secretion, diabetes, insulin, insulin therapy, insulin administration systems.Tracheal replacement devices, laryngeal replacement devices, artificial esophagus Artificial Skin: Vital functions of skin, current treatment of massive skin loss, design principles for permanent skin
replacement.
7 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Biomedical Engineering Handbook-Volume1 (2nd Edition) by J.D.Bronzino (CRC Press / IEEE Press, 2000).
  • 2. Biomedical Engineering Handbook-Volume 2 (2nd Edition) by J.D.Bronzino (CRC Press / IEEE Press, 2000)
  • 3. Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation (2nd Edition) by R.S.Khandpur (Tata McGraw Hill, 2003)

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING
Subject Code : 10ML74

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART A

Unit – 1
INTRODUCTION
Background, digital image representation, examples of field that use DIP, fundamental steps in digital image processing, elements of digital image  processing system 6 hours

Unit – 2
DIGITAL IMAGE FUNDAMENTALS
Simple image model, Sampling and quantization, some basic relationships between pixels, some basic transformations 6 Hours

Unit 3
IMAGE TRANSFORMS
Introduction to Fourier transform, The Discrete Fourier transform, Some Properties of the 2-dimensional Fourier transform, The Fast Fourier Transform, other separable image transforms, The Hotelling transform
7 Hours

Unit – 4
IMAGE ENHANCEMENT IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN
Background, introduction to the frequency domain, smoothing and sharpening frequency domain filters, homomorphic filtering, implementation, generation of spatial masks from frequency domain specifications, color image processing
7 Hours

PART B

Unit – 5 & 6
IMAGE ENHANCEMENT IN SPATIAL DOMAIN
Background, Basic gray level transformations, histogram processing, enhancement using arithmetic/logic operations, basics of spatial filtering, smoothing and sharpening spatial filters, combining spatial enhancement methods 12 Hours

Unit – 7 & 8
IMAGE RESTORATION
Degradation model, Noise models, restoration in the presence of noise only (Spatial and frequency domain filters), Diagonalisation of circulant and block circulant matrices, algebraic approach to restoration, Inverse filtering, LMS filtering, constrained least square restoration, interactive restoration, restoration in the spatial domain
14 Hours

Text Books:
12. Digital Image Processing by R C Gonzalez & R E Woods, 2e, Pearson Education.
13. Digital Image Processing and Computer Vision by Milan Sonka, First edition, Cengage learning.

Reference Books:
1 Digital Image Processing by S.Jayaraman, S.Esakkirajan, T.Veerakumar, Tata Mcgraw hill, 2009.
Fundamentals of Digital Image processing by A K Jain ,PHI / Pearson Education, 1989

Digital Image Processing by Sid Ahmed, McGraw Hill
ELECTIVE-II (GROUP B)
SPEECH PROCESSING
Subject Code : 10ML751

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
DIGITAL MODELS FOR SPEECH SIGNALS: Process of Speech Production, Acoustic phonetics, Digital models for Speech signals.
6 Hours

UNIT – 2
TIME DOMAIN MODELS FOR SPEECH PROCESSING:Time dependent processing of speech, Short time Energy and average magnitude, Short time average zero crossing rate, Speech Vs silence discrimination using energy and zero crossing. Pitch period estimation, Short time autocorrelation function, Short time average magnitude difference function, Pitch period estimation using autocorrelation function.
7 Hours

UNIT – 3
SHORT TIME FOURIER ANALYSIS: Linear filtering interpretation, Filter bank summation method, Design of digital filter banks, Spectrographic displays. Cepstrum analysis.
7 Hours

UNIT – 4
DIGITAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE SPEECH WAVEFORM:
Sampling speech signals, Review of the statistical model for speech, Instantaneous quantization, Adaptive Quantization, General theory of differential quantization, Delta modulation.
6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
LINEAR PREDICTIVE CODING OF SPEECH: Basic principles of linear predictive analysis, Solution of LPC equations, Prediction error signal, Frequency domain interpretation, Applications of LPC parameters.
7 Hours

UNIT – 6
SPEECH SYNTHESIS: Principles of Speech synthesis, Synthesis based on waveform coding, analysis synthesis method, speech production mechanism, Synthesis by rule, Text to speech conversion.
6 Hours

UNIT – 7
SPEECH RECOGNITION: Principles of Speech recognition, Speech period detection, Spectral distance measures, Structure of word recognition systems, Dynamic time warping (DTW), Word recognition using phoneme units, HMM.
7 Hours

UNIT – 8
SPEAKER RECOGNITION: Principles of Speaker recognition, Speaker recognition methods, examples of speaker recognition system.
6 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Digital Processing of Speech Signals- L R Rabiner and R W Schafer, Pearson Education 2004.
  • 2. Digital Speech Processing- Synthesis and Recognition-Sadoaki Furui, Second Edition, Mercel Dekker 2002.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Introduction to Data Compression-Khalid Sayood, Third Edition, Elsivier Publications.
  • 2. Digital Speech- A M Kondoz, Second Edition, Wiley Publications

ELECTRO-OPTICAL DEVICES
Subject Code : 10ML752

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

Part A

UNIT-1
Introduction to Opto-electronic devices: Classification of optical fiber, Principle of light transmission through fiber, Loss and band width limiting mechanism, Light sources for fiber optics, Source coupling. 7 Hours.

UNIT-2
Fundamentals of Optics: Introduction to optics, Polarization, Diffraction, Interference, Dispersion, Holograms, Dispersion holograms. 6 Hours.

UNIT-3
Optical Sources: Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), Structure, Materials, Characteristics, Efficiency, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). 6 Hours.

UNIT-4
Photo Detectors: Thermal detectors, Photo detectors, Vacuum photo diode, Photo multiplier tube, Photo multiplier tube, Photo conductive detector, LDR, PIN diode. 7 Hours.

Part B

UNIT-5
Optical Instruments: Optical pyrometer: Infrared thermometer, Polarimeter, Light intensity meter, Spectro photo meter, X-ray fluoroscopic instruments, Optical filters. 7 Hours.

UNIT-6
Fundamentals of Lasers: Principle of lasers, Fundamentals of laser emission, Different types of lasers, Gas laser, Liquid lasers, Semiconductor lasers.
7 Hours.

UNIT-7
Use of lasers: Measurement of distance, measurement of velocity, measurement of acceleration, measurement of length. 6Hours.

UNIT-8
Applications of lasers in medicine: Laser assisted diagnosis, and therapy fundamentals, Laser surgery, thermal interaction between laser and tissue advances, Laser safety fundamentals. 6 Hours.

Text Books:

  • 1. Optical fiber Communication by Gerd Keiser, Mc Graw Hill International Editions
  • 2. Optical Communications – Components and Systems by JH Franz and VK Jain -N
  • 3. Lasers and Optical Fibers in Medicine by Abrahm Katizer, Academic press.

References:

  • 1. Optical fiber Communication and its Applications by S C Gupta, Prentice
  • 2. Optical fiber Communication by John M Senior, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi

LINEAR ALGEBRA
Subject Code : 10ML753

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
LINEAR EQUATIONS: Fields; system of linear equations, and its solution sets; elementary row operations and echelon forms.
6 Hours

UNIT – 2
Matrix operations; invertible matrices, LU-factorization.
6 Hours

UNIT – 3
VECTOR SPACES: Vector spaces; subspaces; bases and dimension; coordinates; summary of row-equivalence; computations concerning subspaces.
7 Hours

UNIT – 4
LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS: Linear transformations; algebra of linear transformations; isomorphism; representation of transformations by matrices; transpose of a linear transformation.
7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
CANONICAL FORMS: Characteristic values; invariant subspaces; directsum decompositions; invariant direct sums; primary decomposition theorem; cyclic bases; Jordan canonical form
7 Hours

UNIT – 6
INNER PRODUCT SPACES: Inner products; inner product spaces; orthogonal sets and projections.
6 Hours

UNIT – 7
Gram-Schmidt process; QR-factorization; least-squares problems; unitary operators.
6 Hours

UNIT – 8
SYMMETRIC MATRICES AND QUADRATIC FORMS: Digitalization; quadratic forms; constrained optimization; singular value decomposition.
7 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Linear Algebra and its Applications-4th edition Gilbert Strang, Cengage Learning.
  • 2. Linear Algebra and its Applications- David C. Lay3rd Edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pvt. Ltd, 2005.
  • 3. Introductory Linear Algebra with Applications-.Bernard Kolman and David R. Hill, Pearson Education (Asia) Pvt. Ltd, 7th edition, 2003.

OPERATING SYSTEMS
Subject Code : 10ML754

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEMS AND CLASSIFICATION: What is an operating system, Mainframe systems, Desktop systems, multiprocessor system, Distributed system, Clustered system, Real time system, Handled system, Feature migration, computing environments. Operating system structures: System components, OS Services, System calls, System programs, System structure, Virtual machines.
7 Hours

UNIT – 2
PROCESS, INTER PROCESS COMMUNICATION, THREADS & CPU SCHEDULING: Process concept, Process scheduling, Operation on processes, Co-operating processes, Inter process communication. Threads – overview, Multithreading models, Threading issues, P threads, Java threads. CPU scheduling – Basic concepts, Scheduling criteria, Scheduling algorithms, multiple processors scheduling, real time scheduling.
7 Hours

UNIT – 3
PROCESS SYNCHRONIZATION AND HANDLING DEADLOCKS: The critical section problem, Synchronization hardware, Semaphores, Classical problems of synchronization, critical regions, monitors.
6 Hours

UNIT – 4
DEADLOCK – System model, Deadlock characterization, Methods for handling deadlocks – deadlock prevention, deadlock avoidance, deadlock detection and recovery from deadlock.
6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
STORAGE MANAGEMENT: Main memory management – Background, Swapping, Contiguous, allocation, Paging, Segmentation, Segmentation with paging Virtual memory – Background, Demand paging, Process creation, Page replacement algorithms, Allocation of frames, Thrashing
7 Hours

UNIT – 6
FILE SYSTEM INTERFACE – File concept, Access methods, Directory structure, File system mounting, File system implementation, Directory implementation, Allocation methods, free space management. Mass storage structures – Disk structure, Disk scheduling methods, Disk management, Swap space management.
7 Hours

UNITS – 7 & 8
PROTECTION AND SECURITY: Goals of protection, domain of protection, access matrix, implementation of access matrix, Revocation of access rights, The security problem, Authentication, Program threats, System threats, Security systems and facilities, Intrusion detection, introduction to cryptography, basics of Linux operating system.
12 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Operating System Concepts-by Abraham silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin, Greg Gagne, 6th edition, John wiley & sons 2003.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Operating system concepts and design- Milan Milankovic 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill 1992.
  • 2. Operating systems- Harvey M Deital Addison Wesley 1990
  • 3. Operating Systems concepts based approach, D.M Dhamdhere, Tata Mc Graw Hill 2002.

ELECTIVE-III (GROUP C)
PATTERN RECOGNITION IN MEDICINE
Subject Code : 10ML761

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION : Pattern Recognition (PR) overview , pattern recognition typical system, classification, patterns & features extraction with examples, Design cycles, Training , learning and adaptation , Pattern recognition approaches. Statistical decision theory. Probability: Introduction, probability of events, random variables, joint distributions and densities, moments of random variables, estimation of parameters from samples, minimizing risk estimators.
7 Hours

UNIT – 2
Statistical decision making: Introduction, byes theorem, multiple feature, conditionally independent feature, decision boundaries, unequal costs of error, estimation of error rates the leaving one out technique, characteristic curves, estimating the composition of populations.
6 Hours

UNIT – 3
Nonparametric decision making: introduction, histograms kernel & window  stimators nearest neighbour classification techniques, adaptive decision boundaries. 7 Hours

UNIT – 4
Clustering: Introduction, hierarchil clustering, partitional clustering. Formulations of unsupervised learning problems, Clustering for Unsupervised Learning and classification.
6 Hours

PART – B

UNITS – 5
SYNTACTIC PATTERN RECOGNITION: Overview, quantifying structure in pattern description and recognition, grammar based approach, elements of formal grammar.
Structural Recognition via Parsing and other grammars; Graphical approaches to syntPR. Learning Via Grammatical inference.
7 Hours

UNIT – 7
Neural Pattern Recognition: Introduction to neural networks, Neural network for PR applications, Physical neural networks, Artificial neural network model. Introduction to neural pattern associators and matrix approaches and examples.
7 Hours

UNIT – 7 & 8
Feedforward networks and training by backpropagation: Introduction, Multilayer, Feedforward structure, Training the feedforward netwoek, Examples, Unsupervised Learning in NeurPR: Hopefield approach to neural computing, Examples, 12 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Pattern Recognition and image analysis – Earl Gose, PHI, 2002
  • 2. Robert Schalkoff, Pattern Recognition : Statistical, structural and Neural Approaches, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1992.

Reference :

  • 1. Pattern Classification- Richard O. Duda, peter E. Hart and David G Stork John Wiley and Sons, Inc 2nd Ed. 2001.

BIOSTATISTICS
Subject Code : 10ML762

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO BIOSTATISTICS: Introduction, Some basic concepts, Measurement and Measurement Scales, Simple random sample, Computers and biostatistical analysis.
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS: Introduction, ordered array, grouped datafrequency distribution, descriptive statistics – measure of central tendency, measure of dispersion, measure of central tendency computed from grouped data, variance and standard deviation-grouped data.
7 Hours

UNIT – 2
BASIC PROBABILITY CONCEPTS: Introduction, two views of probability – objective and subjective, elementary properties of probability, calculating the probability of an event.
PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS: Introduction, probability distribution of discrete variables, binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, continuous probability distributions, normal distribution and applications.
6 Hours

UNIT – 3
SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION: Introduction, sampling distribution, distribution of the sample mean, distribution of the difference between two samples means, distribution of the sample proportion, distribution of the difference between two sample proportions.
6 Hours

UNIT – 4
ESTIMATION: Introduction, confidence interval for population mean, tdistribution, confidence interval for difference between two population means, population proportion and difference between two population proportions, determination of sample size for estimating means, estimating proportions, confidence interval for the variance of normally distributed population and ratio of the variances of two normally distributed populations.
7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
HYPOTHESIS TESTING : Introduction, hypothesis testing – single population mean, difference between two population means, paired comparisons, hypothesis testing-single population proportion, difference between two population proportions, single population variance, ratio of two population variances. 7 Hours

UNIT – 6
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA): Introduction, completely randomized design, randomized complete block design, factorial experiment.
6 Hours

UNIT – 7
LINEAR REGRESSION AND CORRELATION: Introduction, regression model, sample regression equation, evaluating the regression equation, using the regression equation, correlation model, correlation coefficient.
6 Hours

UNIT – 8
MULTIPLE REGRESSION AND CHI-SQUARE DISTRIBUTION: Multiple linear regression model, obtaining multiple regression equation, evaluating multiple regression equation, using the multiple regression equation, multiple correlation model, mathematical properties of Chi-square distribution, tests of goodness of fit, tests of independence, tests of homogeneity. 7 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Biostatistics-A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences by Wayne W. Daniel, John Wiley & Sons Publication, 6th Edition.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Principles of Biostatistics- by Marcello Pagano and Kimberlee Gauvreu, Thomson Learning Publication, 2006.
  • 2. Introduction to Biostatistics- by Ronald N Forthofer and Eun Sul Lee, Academic Press
  • 3. Basic Biostatistics and its Applications- by Animesh K. Dutta 2006.

ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING
Subject Code : 10ML763

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS: Definition and characteristics, Areas of application, general properties, open and close loop adaptation, Application closed loop adaptation, examples of adaptive systems. The adaptive linear combiner: General description, input signal and weight vectors, desired response and error, the performance function gradient and minimum mean square error. Example of a performance surface, alternative expression of the gradient, De correlation of error and input components.
7 Hours

UNIT – 2
PROPERTIES OF QUADRATIC PERFORMANCE SURFACE:
Normal form of input correlation Matrix, Eigen and eigen vectors of the input correlation matrix. An example with two weights, geometrical significance of Eigen vectors and Eigen values.
7 Hours

UNIT – 3
SEARCHING THE PERFORMANCE SURFACE: Methods of searching the performance surface. Basic idea of gradient search methods, A simple gradient search algorithm and its solution.
6 Hours

UNIT – 4
Stability and rate of convergence, the learning curve, Gradient search by newtons method in multi dimensional space, gradient search by the method of steepest descent, comparison of learning curves.
6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
GRADIENT ESTIMATION AND EFFECTS ON ADAPTATION:
Gradient component estimation by derivatives measurements, the performance penalty, derivative measurement and performance penalties with multipleweights.
6 Hours

UNIT – 6
Variance of the gradients estimate, effects on the weight vector solution, excess mean square error and time constants. Miss adjustment, comparative performance of Newton’s steepest descent methods, total miss adjustment and other practical considerations.
6 Hours

UNIT – 7
THE LMS ALGORITHM: Derivation of LMS algorithm, convergence of the weight vectors, an example of convergence, learning curve, noise in the weight vector solution, miss adjustment, performance.
7 Hours

UNIT – 8
ADAPTIVE MODELING SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION: General description, adaptive modeling of multi path communication channel, Adaptive modeling in geo physical exploration, adaptive modeling in FIR digital filters synthesis. Introduction to adaptive arrays and adaptive beam forming: Side lobe cancellation, beam forming with pilot signaling, spatial configuration, adaptive algorithms, narrow band experiments and broad band experiments.
7 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Adaptive signal Processing- B. Widrow & S D Streans, Pearson Education 1985.

REFERENCE BOOK:

  • 1. Adaptive filters-C F N Cowan & P M Grant, Prentice Hall, 1985.

MICRO AND SMART SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY
Subject Code : 10MS769

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO MICRO AND SMART SYSTEMS
a) What are smart-material systems? Evolution of smart materials, structures and systems. Components of a smart system. Application areas. Commercial products.
b) What are microsystems? Feynman’s vision. Micromachined transducers.
Evolution of micro-manufacturing. Multi-disciplinary aspects.
Applications areas. Commercial products.
6 Hours

UNIT – 2
MICRO AND SMART DEVICES AND SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND MATERIALS
a) Definitions and salient features of sensors, actuators, and systems.
b) SENSORS: silicon capacitive accelerometer, piezo-resistive pressure sensor, blood analyzer, conductometric gas sensor, fiber-optic gyroscope and surface-acoustic-wave based wireless strain sensor.
c) ACTUATORS: silicon micro-mirror arrays, piezo-electric based inkjet print-head, electrostatic comb-drive and micromotor, magnetic micro relay, shape-memory-alloy based actuator, electro-thermal actuator
d) SYSTEMS: micro gas turbine, portable clinical analyzer, active noise control in a helicopter cabin
7 Hours

UNIT – 3
MICROMANUFACTURING AND MATERIAL PROCESSING:
a) Silicon wafer processing, lithography, thin-film deposition, etching (wet and dry), wafer bonding, and metallization.
b) Silicon micromachining: surface, bulk, moulding, bonding based process flows.
c) Thick-film processing:
d) Smart material processing:
e) Processing of other materials: ceramics, polymers and metals
f) Emerging trends
7 Hours

UNIT – 4
MODELLING:
a) Scaling issues.
b) Elastic deformation and stress analysis of beams and plates. Residual stresses and stress gradients. Thermal loading. Heat transfer issues. Basic fluids issues.
c) Electrostatics. Coupled electromechanics. Electromagnetic actuation.
Capillary electro-phoresis. Piezoresistive modeling. Piezoelectric
modeling. Magnetostrictive actuators.
6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
COMPUTER-AIDED SIMULATION AND DESIGN: Background to the finite element element method. Coupled-domain simulations using Matlab. Commercial software.
6 Hours

UNIT – 6
ELECTRONICS CIRCUITS AND CONTROL: Carrier concentrations, semiconductor diodes, transistors, MOSFET amplifiers, operational amplifiers. Basic Op-Amp circuits. Charge-measuring circuits. Examples from microsystems. Transfer function, state-space modeling, stability, PID controllers, and model order reduction. Examples from smart systems and micromachined accelerometer or a thermal cycler.
7 Hours

UNIT – 7
INTEGRATION AND PACKAGING OF MICRO ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS: Integration of microelectronics and micro devices at wafer and chip levels. Microelectronic packaging: wire and ball bonding, flip-chip. Low-temperature-cofired-ceramic (LTCC) multi-chipmodule technology. Microsystem packaging examples.
7 Hours

UNIT – 8
CASE STUDIES: BEL pressure sensor, thermal cycler for DNA amplification, and active vibration control of a beam.
6 Hours

PART – C

UNIT – 9
MINI-PROJECTS AND CLASS-DEMONSTRATIONS (Not For Examination)
a) CAD lab (coupled field simulation of electrostatic-elastic actuation with fluid effect)
b) BEL pressure sensor
c) Thermal-cycler for PCR
d) Active control of a cantilever beam

TEXT BOOK:
1. MEMS & Microsystems: Design and Manufacture- Tai-Ran Tsu, Tata Mc-Graw-Hill.
2. “Micro and Smart Systems” by Dr. A.K.Aatre, Prof. Ananth Suresh, Prof.K.J.Vinoy, Prof. S. Gopalakrishna,, Prof. K.N.Bhat.,John Wiley Publications
3.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Animations of working principles, process flows and processing techniques- A CD-supplement with Matlab codes, photographs and movie clips of processing machinery and working devices.
2. Laboratory hardware kits for- (i) BEL pressure sensor, (ii) thermal-cycler and (iii) active control of a cantilever beam.
3. Microsystems Design- S. D. Senturia, 2001, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, USA. ISBN 0-7923-7246-8.
4. Analysis and Design Principles of MEMS Devices-Minhang Bao, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, ISBN 0-444-51616-6.
5. Design and Development Methodologies-Smart Material Systems and MEMS: V. Varadan, K. J. Vinoy, S. Gopalakrishnan, Wiley.
6. MEMS- Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik, Tata McGraw Hill 2007.

BIOMEDICAL DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB
Subject Code : 10MLL77

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 50

1. Computation of Convolution and Correlation Sequences.
2. Signal Averaging to Improve the SNR
3. Read and plotting of ECG data, spectrum of ECG with 50 HZ noise.
4. Realization of IIR filters for ECG analysis
5. Design of FIR Filter for ECG.
6. Integer filters for ECG
7. PSD estimation for ECG, EEG, and EMG
8. QRS detection and Heart rate determination.
9. Correlation and Template matching.
10. Realization of Notch filter for removal of line interference
11. Data Compression Techniques: AZTEC, TP algorithms.
12. Data Compression Techniques:FAN, CORTES algorithmes.

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING LAB
Subject Code : 10MLL78

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 50

1. Simulation and display of an image, negative of an image (Binary & Gray Scale)
2. Implementation of relationships between pixels
3. Implementation of transformations of an image
4. Contrast stretching of a low contrast image, histogram, and histogram equalization
5. Display of bit planes of an image
6. Display of FFT (1-D & 2-D) of an image
7. Computation of mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the given images
8. Implementation of image smoothening filters (Mean and Median filtering of an image)
9. Implementation of image sharpening filters and edge detection using gradient filters
10. Image compression by DCT, DPCM, HUFFMAN coding
11. Implementation of image restoring techniques
12. Implementation of image intensity slicing technique for image enhancement
13. Canny edge detection algorithm.

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