Medical Electronics 8th Semester Syllabus

Download VTU MEDICAL ELECTRONICS 2010 Syllabus
Download MEDICAL ELECTRONICS 2010 Scheme

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS DESIGN
Subject Code : 10ML81

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
Introduction. Embedded system overview, design challenge-optimizing design matrix, common design matrix, time to market design matrix, the NRE and unit cost design matrix, the performance design matrix, processor technology, software and hardware, IC technology, Design technology.
7 Hours

UNIT – 2
CUSTOM SINGLE PURPOSE PROCESSORS: Hardware Introduction, combinational logics, sequential logics, custom single processor design, RT level custom single purpose processor design, optimizing custom single purpose processors.
6 Hours

UNIT – 3
GENERAL-PURPOSE PROCESSORS SOFTWARE: Introduction, basic architecture, operations, programmers view, development environment, Application-specific instruction-set processors, selecting a microprocessor, General-purpose processor design.


7 Hours

UNIT – 4
STANDARD SINGLE PURPOSE PROCESSOR: peripherals: Introduction, Timers, counter and watch dog Timers, UART.
6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
PulseWidth Modulator, LCD controllers, Key pad Controllers, Stepper motor Controllers, Analog to Digital converters, Real time clocks.
6 Hours

UNIT – 6
MEMORY: Introduction, Memory writes ability and storage performance, Common memory types, Composing Memory, Memory Hierarchy and Cache, Advanced RAM.
7 Hours

UNIT – 7
INTERFACING: Introduction, communication basics, Microprocessor Interfacing: I/O addressing, Microprocessor Interfacing: Interrupts, Microprocessor Interfacing: Direct Memory Access
6 Hours

UNIT – 8
Arbitration, Multilevel Bus Architecture, Advanced Communication Principles, Serial Protocols, Parallel Protocols, Wireless Protocols. Digital Camera Example. Introduction, to a simple Digital Camera, Requirement Specification, Design.
7 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Embedded system Design-By Frank Vahid & Tony Givargis, John Wiley, 2003

REFERENCE BOOK:

  • 1. Embedded systems By Raj Kamal, TMH, 2003

NEURAL NETWORKS
Subject Code : 10ML82

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

Part – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL NEURAL NETWORK: Classic neuron, Bioelectric potential, Electrochemical mechanism of action potential, Nernst equation-electrochemistry give rise to electrical events, Membrane potential distributed model, Synaptic electrical events, slow potential theory of neurons.
7 Hours

UNIT – 2
ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK: What is an artificial neural network, Benefits, model of a neuron, Types of activation function, neural networks viewed as directed graphs, architectural graph of a neuron with feedback, Network Architectures, Artificial intelligence and Neural Networks.
7 Hours

UNIT – 3
Learning Processes: Learning in context to neural Networks, learning paradigms, supervised & unsupervised learning, Five basic learning rules- Error correction Learning, Memory based learning.
6 Hours

UNIT – 4
Hebbian learning, Competitive and Boltzmann learning, learning tasks, Memory, adaptation, Statistical nature of learning processes, Statistical learning theory. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
SINGLE LAYER PERCEPTION: Introduction, Adaptive filtering problem, Unconstrained optimization techniques, Newton’s method, Gauss- Newton method, Linear least square filter, Least mean square algorithm, Learning curves, Learning Rate, Annealing techniques, Perceptron, convergence theorem
7 Hours

UNIT – 6
MULTILAYER PERCETRON: Introduction, Some Preliminaries, Back propagation algorithm, XOR Problem, Heuristics for making the back propagation algorithm perform better, Feature detection, Hessian matrix, generalization, Cross validation, Virtues and limitations of back propagation algorithm.
7 Hours

UNIT – 7
RADIAL BASIS FUNCTION NETWORKS: Architecture, learning algorithms, Applications.
6 Hours

UNIT – 8
HOPFIELD NETWORKS – Architecture, Capacity of Hopfield models, Energy analysis of Hopfield networks.
6 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. An Introduction To Neural Networks-James A. Anderson 2e, PHI, 1995
  • 2. Neural Networks- Simon Haykin Pearson Education/PHI, 2001.
  • 3. Neural Networks by Satish Kumar, Tata Mcgraw-hill 2009

REFERENCE BOOKS

  • 1. Introduction To Artificial Neural Systems- Jacck M Zurada, Jaico publishing
  • 2. Artificial Neural Networks- B Yegnanarayana, PHI, 2001
  • 3. Fundamentals of Artificial Neural Networks- Mohammad Hassan, PHI, 1999
  • 4. Neural network design- Martin T.Hagan, Cengage Learning

ELECTIVE-IV (GROUP D)
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXPERT SYSTEMS
Subject Code : 10ML831

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNITS – 1 & 2
INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: Scope, history and applications: predicate calculus inference rules. Logic based financial advisor, structures and strategies for state space search graph theory, strategies for space search, using state space to represent reasoning with predicate calculus.
12 Hours

UNIT – 3
HEURISTIC SEARCH: An algorithm for heuristic search, admissibility monotonic and informed ness heuristics in games, complexity issues, control and implementation of state space search recursion based search, pattern directed search. Production systems, predicate calculus and planning the black board architecture for problems solving.
7 Hours

UNIT – 4
LISP AND PROLOG: Knowledge representation languages issues in knowledge representation. Network representation language, structured representations, introduction to LISP, search in LISP: a functional approach to the farmer, Wolf, Goat and cabbage problem, higher order functions and procedural abstraction, search strategies in LIPS.
7 Hours

PART – B

UNITS – 5& 6
EXPERT SYSTEMS: Introduction, History basic concepts, structure of expert systems, the human element in ES and how ES works, problem areas addressed by ES, ES success factors, types of expert systems, ES and the internet interacts web, knowledge engineering, scope of knowledge, difficulties in knowledge acquisition methods of knowledge acquisition, machine learning, intelligent agents, selecting appropriate knowledge acquisition method, knowledge acquisition form multiple experts validation and verification of the knowledge base, analyzing coding, documenting and diagramming .
13 Hours

UNITS – 7 & 8
EXPERT SYSTEMS-II, SOCIAL IMPACTS REASONING IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, INFERENCE WITH RULES, WITH FRAMES: model based reasoning, case based reasoning explanation and meta knowledge inference with uncertainty representing uncertainty probabilities and related approaches, theory of certainty (certainty factors) qualitative reasoning, the development Life cycle, phases I, II, III, IV, V, VI the future of expert system development process social impacts.
13 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Decision support systems and Intelligent Systems- Efrain Turban and Jay E Aranson. 5e, Pearson Education, 1998.
  • 2. A Guide to expert Systems- Donald A Waterman, Pearson Education, 1995.

REFERENCE BOOK:

  • 1. Artificial intelligence structures and Strategies for complex problem solving- G.F. Luger & W.A Stubble Field 3e, Pearson Education, 1998.

FUZZY LOGIC AND APPLICATIONS
Subject Code : 10ML832

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
CRISP SETS AND FUZZY SETS: Introduction, crisp sets, the notion of fuzzy sets, Basic concepts of fuzzy sets, classical logic, fuzzy logic.
7 Hours

UNIT – 2
OPERATIONS ON FUZZY SETS: General discussion, fuzzy complement, fuzzy union, fuzzy intersection, and combinations of operations
7 Hours

UNITS – 3 & 4
FUZZY RELATIONS: Crisp and fuzzy relations, Binary relation, Binary relations on a single set, equivalence and similarity relations, compatibility or tolerance relations, ordering morphism, fuzzy relations equations.
12 Hours

PART – B

UNITS – 5 & 6
FUZZY MEASURES: General discussion, Belief and plausibility measures, probability measures, possibility and necessity measures, relationship among classes of fuzzy measures.
14 Hours

UNITS – 7 & 8
APPLICATIONS: General discussion, natural life and social sciences, engineering, medicine, management and decision-making, computer science and systems science
12 Hours

TEXT BOOK

  • 1. Fuzzy sets, Uncertainty and information-Klein and Folger, Prentice Hall, 1987.

REFERENCE BOOK

  • 1. Fuzzy logic with engineering applications- Timothy. J. Ross, McGraw Hill International edition, 1997.

BIOSENSORS AND SMART SENSORS
Subject Code : 10ML833

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION: What are Biosensors? Advantages and limitations, various components of biosensors, the growing of biosensor. The biosensor family, the biomolecule ingredients, proteins, enzymes complexes, enzymes kinetics, the proteins of the immune systems.
6 Hours

UNIT – 2
TRANSDUCERS IN BIOSENSORS: Various types of transducers; principles and applications – Calorimetric, optical, potentiometric / amperometric conductrometric/resistormetric, piezoelectric, semiconductor, impedimetric, mechanical and molecular electronics based transducers. Chemiluminescences – based biosensors.
7 Hours

UNIT – 3
APPLICATION AND USES OF BIOSENSORS: Biosensors in clinical chemistry, medicine and health care, biosensors for veterinary, agriculture and food. Biosensors for personal diabetes management, application of biosensors to environmental samples. Biochips and their application to genomics.
6 Hours

UNIT – 4
SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRODES: Measurement of H +, Ion selective interfaces, Ion selective electrodes, semiconductor electrodes, MIS structures, semiconductor solution interface, FET, chemical sensitive FETA (CHEMFETA), suspended gate field effect transistor, selectivity via pattern recognition, Ion selective FET (ISFET), reference FET, CHEMFET, assessment of CHEMFETS.
7 Hours

PART – B

UNITS – 5 & 6
AMPEROMETRIC ASSAY TECHNIQUES: Analysis of charge transfer, volumetric techniques, potential step techniques, non steady state measurement, and applications of charge transfer measurement of the oxygen electrode.
SOURCE OF ERROR – Depletion of sample, non-Faradic current error, selectivity interference from other electro active species, Amperometric electrodes for estimation of Ion concentration, macromolecules system, Redox enzymes, modified electrodes, mediated electron transfer, microelectrode fabrication and application.
12 Hours

UNIT – 7
PHOTOMETRIC ASSAY TECHNIQUES: Energy transition, ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra, fluorescence and phosphorescence, infra Red transitions, light scattering, Raman scattering, applications of ultraviolet visible spectra, indicator linked bioassay, irrational spectroscopy, the optical transducer, wave guides in sensors, device construction, PH optical probes, light scattering analysis.
7 Hours

UNIT – 8
OPTICAL BIOSENSORS & OTHER TECHNIQUES: Indicator labeled bioassay, chemiluminescence, bioluminescence, surface plasma resonance, piezoelectric based sensors and surface acoustic waves.
7 Hours

TEXT BOOKS

  • 1. Biosensors- by Elizabeth A. H Hall – Open University press, Milton Keynes.
  • 2. Commercial Biosensors- by Graham Ramsay, John Wiley and son, INC. (1998).

REFERENCE BOOKS

  • 1. Biosensors- by Eggins
  • 2. Biosensors edited by AEG CASS – OIRL press, Oxford University.
  • 3. Transducers and Instrumentation-by Murthy D V S. Prentice Hall, 1995

LOW POWER VLSI DESIGN
Subject Code : 10ML834

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION: Need for low power VLSI chips, Sources of power dissipation on Digital Integrated circuits. Emerging Low power approaches, Physics of power dissipation in CMOS devices.
6 Hours

UNIT – 2
DEVICE & TECHNOLOGY IMPACT ON LOW POWER: Dynamic dissipation in CMOS, Transistor sizing & gate oxide thickness, Impact of technology Scaling, Technology & Device innovation.
7 Hours

UNIT – 3
POWER ESTIMATION, SIMULATION POWER ANALYSIS: SPICE circuit simulators, gate level logic simulation, capacitive power estimation, static state power, gate level capacitance estimation, architecture level analysis, data correlation analysis in DSP systems, Monte Carlo simulation.
7 Hours

UNIT – 4
PROBABILISTIC POWER ANALYSIS: Random logic signals, probability & frequency, probabilistic power analysis techniques, signal entropy. Circuit level: Power consumption in circuits. Flip Flops & Latches design, high capacitance nodes, low power digital cells library.
6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
LOGIC LEVEL: Gate reorganization, signal gating, logic encoding, state machine encoding, pre-computation logic.
6 Hours

UNIT – 6
LOW POWER ARCHITECTURE & SYSTEMS: Power & performance management, switching activity reduction, parallel architecture with voltage reduction, flow graph transformation, low power arithmetic components, low power memory design.
7 Hours

UNIT – 7
LOW POWER CLOCK DISTRIBUTION: Power dissipation in clock distribution, single driver Vs distributed buffers, Zero skew Vs tolerable skew, chip & package co-design of clock network
7 Hours

UNIT – 8
ALGORITHM & ARCHITECTURAL LEVEL METHODOLOGIES: Introduction, design flow, Algorithmic level analysis & optimization, Architectural level estimation & synthesis.
6 Hours

TEXT BOOKS

  • 1. Practical Low Power Digital VLSI Design-Gary K. Yeap, KAP, 2002
  • 2. Low power design methodologies Rabaey, Pedram-Kluwer Academic, 1997.

REFERENCE BOOK

  • 1. Low-Power CMOS VLSI Circuit Design-Kaushik Roy, Sharat Prasad, Wiley, 2000.

ELECTIVE-V (GROUP E)
BIO-MEMS
Subject Code : 10ML841

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

Part A

UNIT-1
Introduction to BioMEMS: What are BIOMEMS, The driving force behind biomedical applications, biocompatiability, Silicon fabrication: Hard fabrication considerations, lithography, etching techniques, Thin film deposition process, ion implantation, substrate bonding 7 Hours.

UNIT-2
Soft fabrications & Polymer Materials: Introduction, Biomaterials, soft lithography, micromolding, smart polymers & hydrogels, nanomedicine, thick film technologies, polymers, physical properties, copolymers 6 Hours.

UNIT-3
Microfluidic Principles & Sensors: Introduction, transport process, electrokinetic phenomena, microvalves, micromixers, micropumps 6 Hours.

UNIT-4
Sensor principles & microsensors: Introduction, fabrication, basic sensors, optical fibres, piezoelectricity, SAW devices, electrochemical detection, applications to medicine. 7 Hours.

Part B

UNIT-5
Microactuators & drug delivery: Introduction, activation methods, microactuators for microfluids, equivalent circuit representation, drug delivery
7 Hours.

UNIT-6
Clinical laboratory medicine: introduction, chemistry, hematology, immunology, urine analysis 7 Hours.

UNIT-7
Micro-Total-Analysis Systems: Lab-On_A-Chip, capillary electrophoresis arrays, cell, molecule & particle handling, surface modification, Microspheres
6Hours

UNIT-8
Emerging BioMEMS technology: introduction, Minimal invasive surgery, cardiovascular, neurosciences, diabetics, point-of-care diagnosis, cell-based biosensors, oncology 6 Hours.

Text Books:

  • 1. Fundamentals of BioMEMS & Medical Microdevices, Steven Salitreman, Cengage Learning India, 2006
  • 2. Lab-On-A-Chip: Miniaturized systems for chemical analysis & synthesis, Edwin ooterrbroek, Alert Berg, Elsevier, 2003

ADVANCED DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING
Subject Code : 10ML842

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART A

Unit 1
COLOR IMAGE PROCESSING
Color Fundamentals, Pseudo-color Image processing, Color transformations, Smoothing & sharping, Color Segmentation, Noise in color images, Color Image compression 6 hours

Unit 2
IMAGE COMPRESSION
Fundamentals, image compression models, elements of information theory, error-free compression, lossy compression, image compression standards
7 hours

Unit 3
MORPHOLOGICAL IMAGE PROCESSING
preliminaries, dilation and erosion, opening and closing, the Hit-or-miss transformation, some basic morphological algorithms, extensions to gray scale images 7 hours

Unit 4
IMAGE SEGMENTATION
Detection of discontinuities, edge linking and boundary detection, Thresholding, region oriented segmentation, segmentation of morphological watersheds, the use of motion in segmentation 6 hours

PART B

Unit 5
REPRESENTATION & DESCRIPTION
Representation, boundary descriptors, regional descriptors, use of principal components for description, relational descriptors 6 hours

Unit 6
OBJECT RECOGNITION
Patterns and pattern classes, recognition based on decision-theoretic methods, structural methods, 6 hours

Unit 7 & 8
WAVELET & MULTIRESOLUTION PROCESSING
Background, Multiresolution expansions, wavelet transforms in one dimension, fast wavelet transforms, wavelet transforms in two dimensions, wavelet packets
14 hours

Text Books

  • 1. Digital Image Processing by R C Gonzalez & R E Woods, 2e, Pearson Education.

References

  • 1. Fundamentals of Digital Image processing by A K Jain ,PHI / Pearson Education, 1989
  • 2. Digital Image Processing by Sid Ahmed, McGraw Hill

REHABILITATION ENGINEERING
Subject Code : 10ML843

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO REHABILITATION & REHABILITATION TEAM: What is Rehabilitation, Epidemiology of Rehabilitation, Health, Levels of Prevention, Preventive Rehabilitation, Diagnosis of Disability, Functional Diagnosis, Importance of Physiatry in Functional diagnosis, Impairment disability handicap, Primary & secondary Disabilities, Effects of prolonged inactivity & Bed rest on body system.
6 Hours

UNIT – 2
REHABILITATION TEAM: Classification of members, The Role of Physiatrist, Occupational therapist, Physical therapist, Recreation therapist, Prosthetist-Orthotist, Speech pathologist, Rehabilitation nurse, Social worker, Corrective therapist, Psychologist, Music therapist, Dance therapist & Biomedical engineer.
6 Hours

UNIT – 3
THERAPEUTIC EXERCISE TECHNIQUE : Co-ordination exercises, Frenkels exercises, Gait analyses-Pathological Gaits, Gait Training, Relaxation exercises-Methods for training Relaxation, Strengthening exercises-Strength training, Types of Contraction, Mobilisation exercises,  Endurance exercises.
7 Hours

UNIT – 4
PRINCIPLES IN MANAGEMENT OF COMMUNICATION: Impairment-introduction to communication, Aphasia, Types of aphasia, Treatment of aphasic patient, Augmentative communication-general form of communication, types of visual aids, Hearing aids, Types of conventional hearing aid, Writing aids.
7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
ORTHOTIC DEVICES IN REHABILITATION ENGINEERING: General orthotics, Classification of orthotics-functional & regional, General principles of Orthosis, Biomechanics of orthoses, merits & demerits of orthotics, Material design consideration in orthotics, Calipers-FO, AFO, KAFO, HKAFO. Spinal Orthosis, Cervical, Head cervical thoracic orthosis, Thoraco lumbar sacral orthosis, Lumbo sacro orthosis, Splints-its functions & types.
7 Hours

UNIT – 6
AMPUTATION: Levels of Amputation – Surgical process, Expected Outcomes, Post operative dressings – Rigid dressings, Semi rigid dressings, Soft dressings, Examination- Range of Motion, Muscle Strength, Status of Residual Limb, Status of the un involved limb, Functional status, emotional status.
6 Hours

UNIT – 7
PROSTHETIC DEVICES: Introduction, Partial Foot Prostheses- Footankle assembly, Trans femoral Prostheses – Knee unit, Axis system, Friction Mechanisms, Extension aid, Stabilizers, Socket. Disarticulation Prostheses- Knee Disarticulation Prostheses, Hip Disarticulation Prostheses
7 Hours

UNIT – 8
MOBILITY AIDS: Walking frames, Parallel bars, Rollators, Quadripods, Tripods & walking sticks, Crutches, Wheel chairs. 6 Hours

TEXT BOOKS

  • 1. Rehabilitation Medicine-Dr. S. Sunder, Jaypee Medical Publications, New Delhi.
  • 2. Physical Rehabilitation-Susan B O’Sullivan, Thomas J Schmitz. 5th edition

ARM PROCESSOR
Subject Code : 10ML844

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

Unit 1 and 2
Introduction to embedded systems, ARM embedded system, ARM processor fundamentals: Registers, Current program status register, pipeline, exceptions, Interrupts, the Vector table, Core extensions, ARM processor families 14 Hours

Unit 3
Introduction to ARM instruction set: Data processing instructions, Branch instructions, load-store instructions, software interrupt instructions, program status register instructions, Coprocessor instructions. 6 Hours

Unit 4
Introduction to thumb instruction set: Thumb programmers model, Thumb branch instructions, data processing instructions, Single register load-store Instructions, Multiple-Register load-store instruction, Stack instruction, Software interrupt instruction. 6 Hours

PART – B

Unit 5
ARM assembly language Programming 7 Hours

Unit 6
Architectural Support for High-Level languages: Data types, Floating-point data types, The ARM floating point architecture, Expressions, Conditional statements, Loops, functions and procedures.
6 Hours

Unit 7
Introduction to DSP on the ARM, FIR filters, IIR filters, DFT 7 Hours

Unit 8
Embedded operating systems 6 Hours

TEXT BOOKS

  • 1. ARM system developers guide, Andrew N Sloss, Dominic Symes and Chris wright, Elsevier, Morgan Kaufman publishers, 2008.
  • 2. Arm-System-On-Chip- Architecture: By Steve Furber-Pearson.

REFERENCE BOOKS

  • 1. “Embedded system design”, Frank vahid/Tony givargis, John wiley &sons, 2003.
  • 2. “Embedded/Real time systems, Real-Time systems”, Dr.K.V.K.K Prasad, Dreamtech press, 2004.

Leave a reply