MTech Nano Technology 2nd Sem Syllabus

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MICRO AND NANO FLUIDICS
Sub Code : 12INT253

IA Marks : 50
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objective:
A comprehensive understanding of micro and nano fluidics. Learn about Fabrication techniques of Nanofluidic channels, Lab-on-chip concept and application. Understanding the behavior of Biomolecule’s in microfluidic channels.

Course content
1. Introduction: Fundamentals of kinetic theory-molecular models, micro and macroscopic properties, binary collisions, distribution functions, Boltzmann equation and Maxwellian distribution functions-Wall slip effects and accommodation coefficients, flow and heat transfer analysis of microscale Couette flows, Pressure driven gas micro-flows with wall slip effects, heat transfer in micro-Poiseuille flows, effects of compressibility.
Pressure driven liquid microflow: apparent slip effects, physics of near-wall microscale liquid flows, capillary flows, electro-kinetically driven liquid micro – flows and electric double layer (EDL) effects, concepts of electroosmosis, electrophoresis and dielectro-phoresis.
12 Hours

2. Laminar flow: Hagen-Poiseullie eqn, basic fluid ideas, Special considerations of flow in small channels, mixing, microvalves & micropumps, Approaches toward combining living cells, microfluidics and ‘the body’ on a chip, Chemotaxis, cell motility. Case Studies in Microfluidic Devices.


Ionic transport: Polymer transport – microtubule transport in nanotuble channels driven by Electric Fields and by Kinesin Biomolecular Motors – Electrophoresis of individual nanotubules in microfluidic channels.
12 Hours

3. Fabrication techniques for Nanofluidic channels – Biomolecules separation using Nanochannels – Biomolecules Concentration using Nanochannels – Confinement of Biomolecules using Nanochannels. Hydrodynamics: Particle moving in flow fields – Potential Functions in Low Renoylds Number Flow – Arrays of Obstacles and how particles Move in them: Puzzles and Paradoxes in Low Re Flow.
08 Hours

4. Microfluidics and Lab-on-a-chip: Microfluidic Devices – Microchannels, Microfilters, Microvalves, Micropumps, Microneedles, Microreserviors, Micro-reaction chambers. Concepts and Advantages of Microfluidic Devices – Fluidic Transport – Stacking and Scaling – Materials for The Manufacture (Silicon, Glass, Polymers) – Fluidic Structures – Fabrication Methods – Surface Modifications – Spotting – Detection Mechanisms. Microcontact printing of Proteins-Strategies- printing types- methods and characterization- Cell nanostructure interactions-networks for neuronal cells. Applications in Automatic DNA sequencing, DNA and Protein microarrays.
09 Hours

5. BioMEMS: Introduction and Overview, Biosignal Transduction Mechanisms: Electromagnetic Transducers Mechanical Transducers, Chemical Transducers, Optical Transducers – Sensing and Actuating mechanisms (for all types). Case Studies in Biomagnetic Sensors, Applications of optical and chemical transducers. Ultimate Limits of Fabrication and Measurement, Recent Developments in BioMEMS and BioNEMS – An alternative approach to traditional surgery, Specific targeting of tumors and other organs for drug delivery, Micro-visualization and manipulation, Implantation of microsensors, microactuators and other components of a larger implanted device or external system (synthetic organs).
09 Hours

Text Books
1. Joshua Edel “Nanofluidics” RCS publishing, 2009.
2. Patric Tabeling “Introduction to Microfluids” Oxford U. Press, New York 2005.
3. K. Sarit “Nano Fluids; Science and Technology”, RCS Publishing, 2007.

References
1. M. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, CRC Press, 1997
2. G. Kovacs, Micromachined Transducers, McGraw-Hill, 1998
Steven S Saliterman, Fundamentals of BioMEMS and Medical Microdevices, 2006

Course Outcome:
Students will able to
1. Demonstrate knowledge about Pressure driven liquid microflow, laminar flow, ionic transport, fabrication techniques for nano fluidic channels.
2. Analyze the biomolecule behavior in microfluidic channels.
3. Design the lab on chip devices and BiMEMS devices and their applications.

CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES
Sub Code : 14INT22

IA Marks : 50
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objective:
The course aims at providing overview of various characterization techniques. Analyze the data obtained from different techniques and evaluate size, structure, morphology and properties of nanomateirals.
1.Basics of nanomaterial characterization; elemental or compositional information, structural and microstructural information. 4 Hours

2.X-Ray based characterization: Principles and applications of X-ray diffraction, powder (polycrystalline) and single crystalline XRD techniques; Debye-Scherrer equation to treat line broadening and strain induced in nanoparticles and ultra-thin films. Basics of structure refinement (Reitveld). Rotating anode and synchrotron based X-ray diffraction for probing structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy – basic principle, instrumentation, X-ray absorption techniques: XANES, EXAFS.
14 Hours

3.Electron microscopy techniques: Introduction, Principles and applications of Electron beam, Electron beam interaction with matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM/FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM/HRTEM), Electron-diffraction, SAED. Scanning Probe Microscopy: Principles and applications, Atomic Force Microscope, Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
11 Hours

4.Spectroscopic techniques: UV-VIS Spectrophotometers, IR/FTIR Spectrophotometers, Principles, operation and application for band gap measurements. Raman spectroscopy principles and applications. Optical microscope: Nanoparticle size measurement by Dynamic light scattering methods zeta potential.
10 Hours

5.Magnetic characterization: Types of magnetic materials, Magnetic susceptibility, Curie-Weis plot for paramagnetic materials, Neel temperature, Curie temperature VSM and SQUID magnetometers – M vs H, M vs T, MH-loops.
Electrical measurements: Cyclic Voltameter, IV, AC and DC electric measurements, impedance spectral information.
11 Hours

Text Books
1. Characterization of Nanostructure materials by XZ.L.Wang
2. Instrumental Methods of Analysis, 7th edition- Willard, Merritt, Dean, Settle
3. Scanning Probe Microscopy: Analytical Methods (NanoScience and Technology)- Roland Wiesendanger

Reference Books
4. X-Ray Diffraction Procedures: For Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials, 2nd Edition – Harold P. Klug, Leroy E. Alexander
5. Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Textbook for Materials Science (4-Vol Set)- David B. Williams and C. Barry Carter
6. Physical Principles of Electron Microscopy: An Introduction to TEM, SEM, and AEM – Ray F. Egerton

Course Outcome:
Students will be able to analyze the data from various characterization techniques used to evaluate nanomaterial structure, size, morphology and properties. Able to understand the size and structure relationship and their suitability for an given engineering application.

MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS) AND NANOELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS (NEMS)
Sub Code : 14INT23

IA Marks : 50
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objectives
1. Learn about basics and typical applications of microsystems
2. Illustrate scaling laws & microsensors and microactuators
3. Illustrate the various principles of operations of mems transducers
4. Learn basic electrostatics and its applications in MEMS sensors and actuators
5. Learn about ways to fabricate& a packaging needs MEMS device

Course Content
1. Introduction To MEMS : Historical background of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Feynman’ s vision, Nano Technology and its Applications Multi-disciplinary aspects, Basic Technologies, Applications areas, Scaling Laws in miniaturization, scaling in geometry, electrostatics, electromagnetic, electricity and heat transfer.
10 Hours

2. Micro And Smart Devices And Systems: Principles :Transduction Principles in MEMS Sensors: Micro sensors-thermal radiation, mechanical and bio-sensors, Actuators: Different actuation mechanisms – silicon capacitive accelerometer, piezo-resistive pressure sensor, blood analyzer, conductometric gas sensor ,silicon micro-mirror arrays, piezo-electric based inkjet print head, electrostatic comb-driver , Smart phone application, Smart buildings
10 Hours

3. Materials & Micro manufacturing: Semiconducting Materials., Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Silicon Nitride , Quartz, Poly Silicon, Polymers, Materials for wafer processing, Packaging Materials Silicon wafer processing, lithography, thin-film deposition, etching (wet and dry), waferbonding. Silicon micromachining: surface, bulk, LIGA process, Wafer bonding process.
10 Hours

4. Electrical and Electronics Aspects : Electrostatics, Coupled Electro mechanics, stability and Pull-in phenomenon, Practical signal conditioning Circuits for Microsystems. Characterization of pressure sensors, RF MEMS. Switches varactors , tuned filters. Micromirror array for control and switching in optical communication, Application circuits based on microcontrollers for pressure sensor, Accelerometer, Modeling using CAD Tools (Intellisuite)
10 Hours

5. Integration And Packaging Of Microelectromechanical Systems: Integration of microelectronics and micro devices at wafer and chip levels. Microelectronic packaging: wire and ball bonding, flip-chip. Microsystem packaging examples, Testing of Micro sensors, Qualification of Mems devices
10 Hours

Text Book:
1. G. K. Ananthasuresh, K. J. Vinoy, S. Gopalakrishnan, K. N. Bhat, V. K. Aatre, “Micro and Smart Systems”, Wiley India, 2010.
2. T R Hsu, “MEMS and Microsystems Design and Manufacturing”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition, 2008

Reference Books
3. Chang Liu, “Foundations of MEMS”, Pearson International Edition, 2006.
4. S. D. Senturia, “Micro System Design”, Springer International Edition, 2001.

Course outcome
Students will be able to
1 Understand the basics and develop applications for microsystems
2 operations of mems transducers
3 Applications of electrostatics in MEMS sensors and actuators
4 Fabricate MEMS device

NANOMATERIALS AND ENERGY SYSTEMS
Sub Code : 14INT24

IA Marks : 50
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objective:
Learn about basic principles of different renewable energy technology. Apply nanomaterial in improving renewable energy storage and generation application. Understand the nanosize and morphology influence on improving energy generation and storage efficiency.

Course Content
1. Renewable energy Technology: Energy challenges, nanomaterials and nanostructures in energy harvesting, developments and implementation of nanotechnology based renewable energy technologies, solar cell structures: quantum well and quantum dot solar cells, photo-thermal cells for solar energy harvesting, thin film solar cells, CIGS solar cells, Dye sensitized solar cells. Organic PV cells, Concentrated solar power (CSP): Reflective materials, absorptive coatings, thermal storage.
10 Hours

2. Energy storage: Introduction, Battery types, Li-ion Battery, Battery components materials, cathodes, anodes, effect of nanosize on energy storage and electrode materials performance. LIB for automobiles application, EV’s, HEV, PHEV and power grid.
10 Hours

3. Super capacitors: Introduction, Electrochemical energy storage, Electrochemical capacitors, Electrochemical double layer capacitor, electrode materials supercapacitors, Hybrid Nanostructures for supercapacitors- metal oxides, conducting polymers, Electrolytes for super capacitors, types of electrolytes.
10 Hours

4. Hydrogen storage technology: Hydrogen production methods, purification, hydrogen storage methods and materials: metal hydrides and metal organic framework materials, volumetric and gravimetric storage capacities, hydriding and dehydriding kinetics, high enthalphy formations and thermal management during hydriding reaction, multiple catalytic- degradation of sorption properties, automotive applications. Catalyst of hydrogen production, steam reforming & Water splitting. Nanoporous membranes for hydrogen separation.
10 Hours

5. Fuel cell technology: Fuel cell principles, types of fuel cells (Alkaline Electrolytie, phosphoric acid, Molten carbonate, solid oxide and direct methanol and proton exchange fuel cells), Principle and operation of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, materials and fabrication methods for fuel cell technology, micro fuel cell power sources-biofuels.
10 Hours

Text Book
1. D. Linden, Handbook of Batteries and Fuel Cells, Mcgraw-Hill, Noew York,1984
2. W. A. van Schalkwijk and B. Scrosati, Advances in Lithium- Ion Batteries, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Newyork, 2002
3. Linden , D. and Reddy , T.B. ( 2002 ) Handbook of Batteries , 3rd edn , McGraw – Hill , New York.

Reference
1. Crompton, T.R. ( 2000 ) Battery Reference Book , 3rd edn , Newnes , Oxford .
2. K. E. Aifantis and S. A. Hackney and R. Vasant Kumar, High Energy Density Lithium Batteries, Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2009.
3. University of Cambridge ( 2005 ) DoITPoMS Teaching and Learning Packages,http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/batteries/index.php (accessed 5 February 2010).

Course Outcome:
Students get a clear understanding of nanotechnology being employed for different energy and environment applications.

Elective – II
ADVANCED MATERIALS
Sub Code : 14INT251

IA Marks : 50
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objective
Provide foundation about crystal structure, arrangement of atoms in different structure. Course gives an over view of various advance materials and their application. Enrich students with advanced material science techniques.

Course Content
1. Crystal structure: Crystal systems, Crystal classes, Bravais lattice. Unit cell: Wigner-Seitz cell, equivalent positions in a unit cell. Notations of planes and directions. Atomic packing: packing fraction, Co-ordination number. Examples of simple crystal structures: NaCl, ZnS and diamond. Symmetry operations, point groups and space groups.
X-ray diffraction: X-ray diffraction, Bragg law. Laue equations. Atomic form factor and Structure factor. Concept of reciprocal lattice and Ewald’s construction. Experimental diffraction methods: Laue, Rotating crystal method and Powder method.
10 Hours

2. Crystal binding: Types of binding. Van der Waals-London interaction, Repulsive interaction. Modelung constant. Born’s theory for lattice energy in ionic crystals and comparison with experimental results. Ideas of metallic binding, Hydrogen bonded crystals.
Lattice vibrations: Vibrations of monoatomic lattices. First Brillouin zone. Quantization of lattice vibrations – Concept of Phonon, Phonon momentum. Specific heat of lattice (qualitative).
10 Hours

3 Photonic Materials: Need For New Photonic Materials, composite materials for nonlinear optics, nanostructured waveguides for nonlinear optics quantum and nonlinear optics for advanced imaging applications.
Spintronics Materials: Modeling the growth of Mn on semiconductor substrates, Dilute magnetic semiconductor nanocrystals, Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics
10 Hours

4. Smart Materials and Systems: Thermoresponsive materials, piezoelectric materials, electrostrictive and magnetostrictive materials, Magnetic materials, superparamagntism in metallic nanoparticles, Giant and colossal magnetic materials, ferrofluids, ER and MR fluids, biomimetic materials, smart gel, shape memory alloys and polymers.
10 Hours

5. Nanocomposites: Polymer nanocomposites, Nanofiber or Nanotube Fillers, Nanotube/Polymer Composites, Layered Filler Polymer Composite Processing, Polypropylene and Polyethylene Matrices, Polymethylmethacrylate/Polystyrene Matrices, Epoxy and Polyurethane
Matrices. Carbon Based Nanocomposites, Functional Low-Dimensional Nanocomposites, Encapsulated Composite Nanosystems, Magnetic Multilayer Nanocomposites.
10 Hours

Text Books
1. Introduction to Solid State Physics, C. Kittel, Wiley Eastern
2. A practical approach to X-Ray diffraction analysis by C.Suryanarayana
3. Semiconductor Physics, P. S. Kireev, MIR Publishers.

References
1. Solid State Physics, A. J. Dekkar, Prentice Hall Inc.
2. Introduction to Superconductivity, M. Tinkham, McGraw-Hill, International Editions
3. Elementary Solid State Physics: Principles and applications, M. A. Omar, Addison-Wesley.

Course Outcome:
Students will able to
1. Understand the crystal structure and characterization of various nanomaterials
2. Evaluate the characteristic crystal structure and their influence on properties of the materials.
3. Demonstrate their knowledge in advanced material science which helps in applications of various materials in engineering applications.

BIOSENSORS AND INSTRUMENTATION
Sub Code : 12INT252

IA Marks : 50
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objective:
Presents underlying basic concept and principles of various sensors used to develop nanosensors. Background to understand the sensor characteristic and their physical effect. Knowledge about sensors to detect small molecules, DNA, proteins, and cells in the context of their applications.

1. Fundamentals of sensors: Micro and nano-sensors, biosensor, packaging and characterization of sensors, method of packaging at zero level, and first level. Thermal energy sensors: temperature sensors, heat sensors, electromagnetic sensors, electrical resistance sensors, electrical current sensors, electrical voltage sensors, electrical power sensors, magnetic sensors, Mechanical sensors, pressure sensors, gas and liquid flow sensors, position sensors, chemical sensors, optical and radiation sensors- gas sensor.
8 Hours

2. Sensor Characteristics and Physical Effects: Active and Passive sensors – Static characteristic: Accuracy, offset and linearity – Dynamic characteristic: First and second order sensors, Physical effects involved in Signal Transduction: Photoelectric effect – Photodielectric effect, Photoluminescence Effect – electroluminescence effect – chemiluminescence effect, Doppler effect, Barkhausen effect, Hal effect – nernst / Ettinshausen effect, Thermoelectric effect – Peizoresistive effect – piezoelectric effect, pyroelectric effect, magneto-mechanical effect (magnetostriction) – Magnetoresistive effect, Faraday-Henry Law,
magneto optice Kerr effect, Kerrand Pockels Effect.
Sensors for measurement of chemicals: potentiometric sensors, ion selective electrodes, ISFETS; Amperometric sensors, Clark Electrode.
14 Hours

3. Sensor Architecture and Classification:
Medically Significant Measurands, Functional Specifications of Medical Sensors; Sensor characteristics : linearity, repeatability, hysteresis and drift. Sensors for physical measurands: strain, force, pressure, acceleration, flow, volume, temperature and biopotentials.
8 Hours

4. Biological Sensors: Sensors/receptors in the human body, basic organization of nervous system, neural mechanism. Chemoreceptor: hot and cold receptors, barro receptors, sensors for smell, sound, vision, osmolality and taste. Noninvasive blood-gas monitoring, Blood-glucose sensors. Noninvasive Biosensors in Clinical Analysis. Applications of Biosensor-based instruments for the bioprocess industry. Application of Biosensors for environmental samples.
12 Hours

5. Nano based Inorganic Sensors
Introduction to Density of states (DOS), one dimensional gas sensors:- gas sensing with nanostructured thin films, absorption on surfaces, metal oxide modifications by additives, surface modifications, Nano optical sensors, nano mechanical sensors, plasmon resonance sensors with nano particles.
08 Hours

Text Books
1. Nanotechnology enabled sensors by Kouroush Kalantar – Zadeh, Benjamin Fry, Springer Verlag New York, (2007)
2. Biosensing: International Research and Development, Jerome Schultz, Milar Mrksich, Sangeeta N. Bhatia, David J. Brady, Antionio J. Ricco, David R. Walt, Charles L. Wilkins, Springer 2006
3. Sensors and signal conditioning, 2nd edition Ramon Pallas-Areny, John G. Webster John Wiley & Sons (2001).

References:
1 Handbook of Biosensors and Electronic Noses: Medicine, Food and the Environment: CRC-Press; 1 edition;1996.
2 D. L. Wise, Biosensors: Theory and Applications, CRC Press,1993.

Course Outcome:
Students will able to
1. Learn sensors architecture and classification,
2. Develop the biological sensors and inorganic nanosensors.
3. Demonstrate the knowledge of sensor characteristic and their physical effect.
4. Design the simple sensor device to detect small biomolecules, gas molecules and so on.

SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING TECHNIQUES
Sub Code : 14INT21

IA Marks : 50
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Course Objective
The course aims at providing overview of various synthesis techniques. Introduce different types of synthesis and processing techniques. Learn to choose suitable synthesis process and condition to get desired nanostructures.

Course Content
1. Introduction: Importance of Synthesis and Processing techniques, nanofabrication, Bottom-Up versus Top- Down; Top-down approach with examples. Stability and dispersion of Nanoparticles, Surface modification of inorganic nanoparticles by organic functional groups
08 Hours

2. Physical Methods: Ball milling synthesis, Arc discharge, RF-plasma, Plasma arch technique, Inert gas condensation, electric explosion of wires, Ion sputtering method, Laser pyrolysis, Molecular beam epitaxy and electrodeposition. Electro spinning, Physical vapor Deposition (PVD) – Chemcial vapour Deposition (CVD)
– Atomic layer Deposition (ALD) – Self Assembly- LB (Langmuir-Blodgett) technique.
12 Hours

3. Chemical methods: Chemical precipitation methods- co-precipitation, arrested precipitation, sol-gel method, chemical reduction, photochemical synthesis, electrochemical synthesis, Microemulsions or reverse micelles, Sonochemical synthesis, Hydrothermal, solvothermal, supercritical fluid process, solution combustion process,4 spray pyrolysis method, flame spray pyrolysis, gas phase synthesis, gas condensation process, chemical vapor condensation. Fundamental aspects of VLS (Vapor-Liquid-Solid) and SLS (Solution- Liquid-Solid) processes – VLS growth of Nanowires – Control of the size of the nanowires – Precursors and catalysts – SLS growth – Stress induced recrystallization.
12 Hours

4. Biological methods: Use of bacteria, fungi, Actinomycetes for nanoparticle synthesis, Magnetotactic bacteria for natural synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles; Mechanism of formation; Viruses as components for the formation of nanostructured materials; Natural and artificial synthesis of nanoparticles in microorganisms; Use of microorganisms for nanostructure formation, Role of plants in nanoparticle synthesis, synthesis of nanoparticles using proteins and DNA templates.
08 Hours

5. Lithography: Nanomanipulation and Nano lithography – Soft Lithography – Electron beam lithography, SEM based nanolithography, AFM based nanolithography, Ion beam lithography- Oxidation and metallization – Mask and its application – Deep UV lithography, X-ray based Lithography, Dip pen lithography. Self-assembly of Nanoparticles and Nanowires.
10 Hours

Text Books
1. Guozhong Cao, “Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, synthesis, properties and applications”, Imperial College Press, 2004
2. M.S. Ramachandra Rao, Shubra Singh, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: fundamentals to Frontiers, Wiley 2013.
3. Introduction to Nanotechnology – Charles P. Poole Jr. and Franks. J. Qwens.

Reference Books
1. Nanomaterials – A. K. Bandyopadhyay, New Age International Publishers, 2nd Edition, 2010
2. T. Pradeep , “NANO The Essential , understanding Nanoscience and Nanotechnology”. Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing Company Limited, 2007.
3. C.A. Mirkin and C.M. Niemeyer, Nanobiotechnology- II, More Concepts and Applications, WILEY-VCH, Verlag Gmb H&Co, 2007.
4. David G. Bucknall. Nanolithography and patterning techniques in microelectronics, CRC Press,

Additional Readings
1. Hari Singh Nalwa – Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology.
2. Processing & properties of structural Naonmaterials by Leon L. Shaw (editor)
3. Chemistry of Nanomaterials : Synthesis, properties and applications by CNR Rao et.al.
4. Nanochemistry: A chemical approach to Nanomaterials Roayal Society of Chemistry, Ozin and Arsenault, Cambridge UK 2005,
5. Nanoparticles: From Theory to Applications, G.Schmidt, Wiley Weinheim 2004.

Course Outcome:
Students get an idea of various synthesis and processing techniques used to design desired nanostructure and size and morphology controlled nanostructure to get desired property. Students will be able have controlled synthesis of material for various application.

LAB COMPONENT II
Sub Code : 14INT26

IA Marks : 25
Hrs/ Week : 03 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 36 Exam Marks : 50

1 Synthesis of Carbon nanotubes/Graphene sheets by
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) method
2 Sterilization technique
3 Green synthesis of nanoparticle using plant/flower/fungal extract.
4 Antibiological activity of nanomaterials
5 Primary Cell and Microbial cell culture
6 Spectroscopic techniques: UV-visible, IR spectroscopy and principle, Sample measurement, analysis of data, interpretation
7 Measurement and analysis of Carbon and metal oxide nanomaterials by Raman spectroscopy.
8 Measurement and analysis of X-ray diffraction, crystal structure identification and data interpretation, crystal size determination
9 AFM operation and observation of nanostructures
10 Current (I) and Voltage (V) measurements
11 Gas/pressure monitoring Sensors device fabrication and measurement
12 Dye sensitized solar cell device fabrication and I-V measurement

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