VTU Bio Medical Engineering 4th Semester Syllabus

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS – IV
Sub Code : 10MAT41

IA Marks : 25
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART-A

UNIT-1
Numerical Methods- 1
Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations of first order and first degree; Picard’s method, Taylor’s series method, modified Euler’s method, Runge-kutta method of fourth-order. Milne’s and Adams – Bashforth predictor and corrector methods (No derivations of formulae).
6 Hours

UNIT-2
Numerical Methods – 2
Numerical solution of simultaneous first order ordinary differential equations: Picard’s method, Runge-Kutta method of fourth-order. Numerical solution of second order ordinary differential equations: Picard’s method, Runge-Kutta method and Milne’s method.
6 Hours

UNIT-3
Complex variables – 1
Function of a complex variable, Analytic functions-Cauchy-Riemann equations in cartesian and polar forms. Properties of analytic functions. Application to flow problems- complex potential, velocity potential, equipotential lines, stream functions, stream lines.
7 Hours

UNIT-4
Complex variables – 2
Conformal Transformations: Bilinear Transformations. Discussion of Transformations: w = z2, w = ez , w = z + (a2 / z) . Complex line integrals- Cauchy’s theorem and Cauchy’s integral formula.
7 Hours

PART-B

UNIT-5
Special Functions
Solution of Laplace equation in cylindrical and spherical systems leading Bessel’s and Legendre’s differential equations, Series solution of Bessel’s differential equation leading to Bessel function of first kind. Orthogonal property of Bessel functions. Series solution of Legendre’s differential equation leading to Legendre polynomials, Rodrigue’s formula.
7 Hours

UNIT-6
Probability Theory – 1
Probability of an event, empherical and axiomatic definition, probability associated with set theory, addition law, conditional probability, multiplication law, Baye’s theorem.
6 Hours

UNIT-7
Probability Theory- 2
Random variables (discrete and continuous), probability density function, cumulative density function. Probability distributions – Binomial and Poisson distributions; Exponential and normal distributions.
7 Hours

UNITSampling Theory
Sampling, Sampling distributions, standard error, test of hypothesis for means, confidence limits for means, student’s t-distribution. Chi -Square distribution as a test of goodness of fit
6 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. B.S. Grewal, Higher Engineering Mathematics, Latest edition, Khanna Publishers
  • 2. Erwin Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Latest edition, Wiley Publications.

Reference Book:

  • 1. B.V. Ramana, Higher Engineering Mathematics, Latest edition, Tata Mc. Graw Hill Publications.
  • 2. Peter V. O’Neil, Engineering Mathematics, CENGAGE Learning India Pvt Ltd.Publishers.

MICROCONTROLLERS
(Common to EC/TC/EE/IT/BM/ML)

Sub Code : 10ES42

IA Marks : 25
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Microprocessors and microcontroller. Introduction, Microprocessors and Microcontrollers, RISC & CISC CPU Architectures, Harvard & Von- Neumann CPU architecture, Computer software. The 8051 Architecture: Introduction, Architecture of 8051, Pin diagram of 8051, Memory organization, External Memory interfacing, Stacks.

UNIT 2:
Addressing Modes: Introduction, Instruction syntax, Data types, Subroutines, Addressing modes: Immediate addressing , Register addressing, Direct addressing, Indirect addressing, relative addressing, Absolute addressing, Long addressing, Indexed addressing, Bit inherent addressing, bit direct addressing. Instruction set: Instruction timings, 8051 instructions: Data transfer instructions, Arithmetic instructions, Logical instructions, Branch instructions, Subroutine instructions, Bit manipulation instruction.

UNIT 3:
8051 programming: Assembler directives, Assembly language programs and Time delay calculations.

UNIT 4:
8051 Interfacing and Applications: Basics of I/O concepts, I/O Port Operation, Interfacing 8051 to LCD, Keyboard, parallel and serial ADC, DAC, Stepper motor interfacing and DC motor interfacing and programming

PART – B

UNIT 5:
8051 Interrupts and Timers/counters: Basics of interrupts, 8051 interrupt structure, Timers and Counters, 8051 timers/counters, programming 8051 timers in assembly and C.

UNIT 6:
8051 Serial Communication: Data communication, Basics of Serial Data Communication, 8051 Serial Communication, connections to RS-232, Serial communication Programming in assembly and C. 8255A Programmable Peripheral Interface:, Architecture of 8255A, I/O addressing,, I/O devices interfacing with 8051 using 8255A. Course Aim – The MSP430 microcontroller is ideally suited for development of low-power embedded systems that must run on batteries for many years. There are also applications where MSP430
microcontroller must operate on energy harvested from the environment. This is possible due to the ultra-low power operation of MSP430 and the fact that it provides a complete system solution including a RISC CPU, flash memory, on-chip data converters and on-chip peripherals.

UNIT 7:
Motivation for MSP430microcontrollers – Low Power embedded systems, On-chip peripherals (analog and digital), low-power RF capabilities. Target applications (Single-chip, low cost, low power, high performance system design). MSP430 RISC CPU architecture, Compiler-friendly features, Instruction set, Clock system, Memory subsystem. Key differentiating factors between different MSP430 families. Introduction to Code Composer Studio (CCS v4). Understanding how to use CCS for Assembly, C, Assembly+C projects for MSP430 microcontrollers. Interrupt programming. Digital I/O – I/O ports programming using C and assembly, Understanding the muxing scheme of the MSP430 pins.

UNIT 8:
On-chip peripherals. Watchdog Timer, Comparator, Op-Amp, Basic Timer, Real Time Clock (RTC), ADC, DAC, SD16, LCD, DMA. Using the Low-power features of MSP430. Clock system, low-power modes, Clock request feature, Low-power programming and Interrupt. Interfacing LED, LCD, External memory. Seven segment LED modules interfacing. Example – Real-time clock. Case Studies of applications of MSP430 – Data acquisition system, Wired Sensor network, Wireless sensor network with Chipcon RF interfaces.

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. “The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems – using assembly and C ”-, Muhammad Ali Mazidi and Janice Gillespie Mazidi and Rollin D. McKinlay; PHI, 2006 / Pearson, 2006
  • 2. “MSP430 Microcontroller Basics”, John Davies, Elsevier, 2008.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. “The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture, Programming & Applications”, 2e Kenneth J. Ayala ;, Penram International, 1996 / Thomson Learning 2005.
  • 2. “The 8051 Microcontroller: Hardware, software and applications”, V.Udayashankara and MalikarjunaSwamy, TMH, 2009
  • 3. MSP430 Teaching CD-ROM, Texas Instruments, 2008 (can be requested http://www.uniti.in )
  • 4. Microcontrollers: Architecture, Programming, Interfacing and System Design”,Raj Kamal, “Pearson Education, 2005

CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Common to EC/TC/EE/IT/BM/ML)
Sub Code : 10ES43

IA Marks : 25
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Modeling of Systems: Introduction to Control Systems, Types of Control Systems, Effect of Feedback Systems, Differential equation of Physical Systems -Mechanical systems, Friction, Translational systems (Mechanical accelerometer, systems excluded), Rotational systems, Gear trains, Electrical systems, Analogous systems

UNIT 2:
Block diagrams and signal flow graphs: Transfer functions, Block diagram algebra, Signal Flow graphs (State variable formulation excluded),

UNIT 3:
Time Response of feed back control systems: Standard test signals, Unit step response of First and second order systems, Time response specifications, Time response specifications of second order systems, steady – state errors and error constants. Introduction to PID Controllers(excluding design)

UNIT 4:
Stability analysis: Concepts of stability, Necessary conditions for Stability, Routh- stability criterion, Relative stability analysis; More on the Routh stability criterion.

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Root–Locus Techniques: Introduction, The root locus concepts, Construction of root loci.

UNIT 6:
Frequency domain analysis: Correlation between time and frequency response, Bode plots, Experimental determination of transfer functions, Assessment of relative stability using Bode Plots. Introduction to lead, lag and lead-lag compensating networks (excluding design).

UNIT 7:
Stability in the frequency domain: Introduction to Polar Plots, (Inverse Polar Plots excluded) Mathematical preliminaries, Nyquist Stability criterion, Assessment of relative stability using Nyquist criterion, (Systems with transportation lag excluded).

UNIT 8:
Introduction to State variable analysis: Concepts of state, state variable and state models for electrical systems, Solution of state equations.

TEXT BOOK :

  • 1. J. Nagarath and M.Gopal, “Control Systems Engineering”, New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers, Fourth edition – 2005

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. “Modern Control Engineering “, K. Ogata, Pearson Education Asia/ PHI, 4th Edition, 2002.
  • 2. “Automatic Control Systems”, Benjamin C. Kuo and Farid Golnaagi, Wiley Studnt 8th Edition, 2009
  • 3. “Feedback and Control System”, Joseph J Distefano III et al., Schaum’s Outlines, TMH, 2nd Edition 2007.

BIOMEDICAL TRANSDUCERS AND MEASUREMENTS
Sub Code : 10BM44

IA Marks : 25
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART- A

UNIT – 1
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS & BASIC TRANSDUCERS:
Measurement, Signals and Noise in the measurement-Measurement, signals and noise, signal to noise ratio, different types of noise. Characteristics of Measurement system-Transducer and measurement system, static characteristics, dynamic characteristics, standard and calibration, accuracy and error. Basic medical instrumentation system, General constraints in design of medical instrumentation systems. 6 Hours

UNIT – 2
BIOELECTRIC SIGNALS AND ELECTRODES:
Electrocardiogram(ECG), Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrooculogram (EOG), Electroretinogram (ERG), Recording Electrodes – Electrode-tissue interface, polarization, skin contact impedance, motion artifacts, Silver-Silver Chloride electrodes, Electrodes for ECG, Electrodes for EEG, Electrodes of EMG, Electrical conductivity of electrode jellies and creams, microelectrodes. 6 Hours

UNIT – 3
PRESSURE MEASUREMENT: Physiological pressure ranges and measurement sites, Direct pressure measurement-catheters for pressure measurement, diaphragm displacement transducers, catheter tip pressure transducers, implantable pressure transducers and pressure telemetering capsules. Indirect pressure measurement-Indirect measurement of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, Detection of Kortokoff sounds, Mean BP measurements by Oscillometric method, BP measurement by Doppler ultrasound. 7 Hours

UNIT – 4
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT: Requirements for measurement ranges, Temperature transducers – Thermistors, thermocouples, wire and thin film thermoresistive elements, P-N junction diodes and transistors, infrared radiation thermometers, infrared thermography. Clinical thermometer probes, tympanic thermometers, telemetering capsules, direct calorimetry.
7 Hours

PART- B

UNIT – 5 & 6
FLOW MEASUREMENT: Requirements for measurement ranges – blood flow in a single vessel, tissue blood flow, and respiratory gas flow.  Electromagnetic flowmeters – principle, methods of magnetic field excitation, perivascular probes, intravascular probes. Ultrasonic blood flowmeters– propagation of ultrasound in the tissue, ultrasonic Doppler flowmeters, blood flow measurement through Doppler imaging. Indicator dilution method – principle and working, thermodilution method, Fick method, thermistor velocity probe, impedance cardiography, Laser Doppler flowmeters, NMR blood flowmeters. 13 Hours

UNIT – 7 & 8
CHEMICAL MEASUREMENT AND BIOSENSORS: Objectives of chemical measurement, requirements and limitations in chemical measurement. Chemical Transducers – Electrochemical transducers, Electrode potential and reference electrodes, potentiometric sensors, amperometric sensors, electrochemical gas sensors, chemical transducers of acoustic and thermal principles. Biosensors – Enzyme based biosensors, immunosensors, and microbial sensors. Continuous measurement of chemical quantities – intravascular measurements, tissue measurements, measurement by blood drainage, measurement by microdialysis, measurement by effluent fluid analysis. Transcutaneous measurements – Transcutaneous measurement of pO2, Transcutaneous measurement of pCO2, Transcutaneous arterial oxygen saturation monitoring – the basic of oximetry, early oximeters, pulseoximeter, Electronic nose. 13 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Biomedical Transducers and Instruments – by Tatsuo Togawa, Toshiyo Tamura and P. Ake Oberg, CRC Press, 1997.
  • 2. Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation – by R.S.Khandpur, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2003

REFERENCE BOOK:

  • 1. Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurement – by Leslie Cromwell, Fred J Weibell and Erich A. Pfeiffer, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall India Pvt. Ltd., 2004.
  • 2. Transducers and Instrumentation by D. V. S. Murty Prentice Hall India Pvt ltd. 2nd Edition

Question Paper Pattern: Student should answer FIVE full questions out of 8 questions to be set each carrying 20 marks, selecting at least TWO questions from each part

FUNDAMENTALS OF HDL
(Common to EC/TC/IT/BM/ML)

Sub Code : 10EC45

IA Marks : 25
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Introduction: Why HDL? , A Brief History of HDL, Structure of HDL Module, Operators, Data types, Types of Descriptions, simulation and synthesis, Brief comparison of VHDL and Verilog

UNIT 2:
Data –Flow Descriptions: Highlights of Data-Flow Descriptions, Structure of Data-Flow Description, Data Type – Vectors.

UNIT 3:
Behavioral Descriptions: Behavioral Description highlights, structure of HDL behavioral Description, The VHDL variable –Assignment Statement, sequential statements.

UNIT 4:
Structural Descriptions: Highlights of structural Description, Organization of the structural Descriptions, Binding, state Machines, Generate, Generic, and Parameter statements.

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Procedures, Tasks, and Functions: Highlights of Procedures, tasks, and Functions, Procedures and tasks, Functions. Advanced HDL Descriptions: File Processing, Examples of File Processing

UNIT 6:
Mixed –Type Descriptions: Why Mixed-Type Description? VHDL User- Defined Types, VHDL Packages, Mixed-Type Description examples

UNIT 7:
Mixed –Language Descriptions: Highlights of Mixed-Language Description, How to invoke One language from the Other, Mixed-language Description Examples, Limitations of Mixed-Language Description.

UNIT 8:
Synthesis Basics: Highlights of Synthesis, Synthesis information from Entity and Module, Mapping Process and Always in the Hardware Domain.

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. HDL Programming (VHDL and Verilog)- Nazeih M.Botros- Dreamtech Press, (Available through John Wiley – India and Thomson Learning) 2006 Edition

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Verilog HDL –Samir Palnitkar-Pearson Education
  • 2. VHDL -Douglas perry-Tata McGraw-Hill
  • 3. A Verilog HDL Primer- J.Bhaskar – BS Publications
  • 4. Circuit Design with VHDL-Volnei A.Pedroni-PHI

LINEAR IC’s & APPLICATIONS
(Common to EC/TC/IT/BM/ML)
Sub Code : 10EC46

IA Marks : 25
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Operational Amplifier Fundamentals: Basic Op-Amp circuit, Op-Amp parameters – Input and output voltage, CMRR and PSRR, offset voltages and currents, Input and output impedances, Slew rate and Frequency limitations; Op-Amps as DC Amplifiers- Biasing Op-Amps, Direct coupled -Voltage Followers, Non-inverting Amplifiers, Inverting amplifiers, Summing amplifiers, Difference amplifier.

UNIT 2:
Op-Amps as AC Amplifiers: Capacitor coupled Voltage Follower, High input impedance – Capacitor coupled Voltage Follower, Capacitor coupled Non-inverting Amplifiers, High input impedance – Capacitor coupled Noninverting Amplifiers, Capacitor coupled Inverting amplifiers, setting the upper cut-off frequency, Capacitor coupled Difference amplifier, Use of a single polarity power supply.

UNIT 3:
Op-Amps frequency response and compensation: Circuit stability, Frequency and phase response, Frequency compensating methods, Bandwidth, Slew rate effects, Zin Mod compensation, and circuit stability precautions.

UNIT 4:
OP-AMP Applications: Voltage sources, current sources and current sinks, Current amplifiers, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifiers, Limiting circuits.

PART – B

UNIT 5:
More applications: Clamping circuits, Peak detectors, sample and hold circuits, V to I and I to V converters, Log and antilog amplifiers, Multiplier and divider, Triangular / rectangular wave generators, Wave form generator design, phase shift oscillator, Wein bridge oscillator.

UNIT 6:
Non-linear circuit applications: crossing detectors, inverting Schmitt trigger circuits, Monostable & Astable multivibrator, Active Filters –First and second order Low pass & High pass filters.

UNIT 7:
Voltage Regulators: Introduction, Series Op-Amp regulator, IC Voltage regulators, 723 general purpose regulator, Switching regulator.

UNIT 8:
Other Linear IC applications: 555 timer – Basic timer circuit, 555 timer used as astable and monostable multivibrator, Schmitt trigger; PLL-operating principles, Phase detector / comparator, VCO; D/A and A/ D converters – Basic DAC Techniques, AD converters.

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. “Operational Amplifiers and Linear IC’s”, David A. Bell, 2nd edition, PHI/Pearson, 2004
  • 2. “Linear Integrated Circuits”, D. Roy Choudhury and Shail B. Jain, 2nd edition, Reprint 2006, New Age International

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. “Op – Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits”, Ramakant A. Gayakwad, 4th edition, PHI,
  • 2. “Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits”, Robert. F. Coughlin & Fred.F. Driscoll, PHI/Pearson, 2006
  • 3. “Op – Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits”, James M. Fiore, Thomson Learning, 2001
  • 4. “Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits”, Sergio Franco, TMH, 3e, 2005

MICROCONTROLLERS LAB
(Common to EC/TC/EE/IT/BM/ML)

Sub Code : 10ESL47

IA Marks : 25
Hrs/ Week : 03 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 42 Exam Marks : 50

I. PROGRAMMING
1. Data Transfer – Block move, Exchange, Sorting, Finding largest element in an array.
2. Arithmetic Instructions – Addition/subtraction, multiplication and division, square, Cube – (16 bits Arithmetic operations – bit addressable).
3. Counters.
4. Boolean & Logical Instructions (Bit manipulations).
5. Conditional CALL & RETURN.
6. Code conversion: BCD – ASCII; ASCII – Decimal; Decimal – ASCII; HEX – Decimal and Decimal – HEX .
7. Programs to generate delay, Programs using serial port and on-Chip timer / counter.
Note: Programming exercise is to be done on both 8051 & MSP430.

II. INTERFACING:
Write C programs to interface 8051 chip to Interfacing modules to develop single chip solutions.
8. Simple Calculator using 6 digit seven segment display and Hex Keyboard interface to 8051.
9. Alphanumeric LCD panel and Hex keypad input interface to 8051.
10. External ADC and Temperature control interface to 8051.
11. Generate different waveforms Sine, Square, Triangular, Ramp etc. using DAC interface to 8051; change the frequency and amplitude.
12. Stepper and DC motor control interface to 8051.
13.. Elevator interface to 8051.

HDL LAB
(Common to EC/TC/IT/BM/ML)
Sub Code : 10ECL48

IA Marks : 25
Hrs/ Week : 03 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 42 Exam Marks : 50

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