VTU Bio-Technology 5th Semester Syllabus

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Download Soft Copy of VTU Bio-Technology Syllabus 2010

 VTU Bio-Technology 5th Semester Syllabus

MANAGEMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Sub Code : 10AL 51

IA Marks : 25
Hrs/week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Lecture Hrs : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

MANAGEMENT

UNIT – 1
MANAGEMENT: Introduction – Meaning – nature and characteristics of Management, Scope and Functional areas of management – Management as a science, art of profession – Management & Administration – Roles of Management, Levels of Management, Development of Management Thought – early management approaches – Modem management approaches.
7 Hours

UNIT – 2
PLANNING: Nature, importance and purpose of planning process Objectives – Types of plans (Meaning Only) – Decision making Importance of planning – steps in planning & planning premises – Hierarchy of plans.
6 Hours

UNIT – 3
ORGANIZING AND STAFFING: Nature and purpose of organization Principles of organization – Types of organization – Departmentation Committees- Centralization Vs Decentralization of authority. and responsibility – Span of control – MBO and MBE (Meaning Only) Nature and importance of staffing– :Process of Selection & Recruitment (in brief).
6 Hours

UNIT – 4
DIRECTING & CONTROLLING: Meaning and nature of directing Leadership styles, Motivation Theories, Communication – Meaning and importance – coordination, meaning and importance and Techniques of Co Ordination. Meaning and steps in controlling – Essentials of a sound control system – Methods of establishing control (in brief):
7 Hours

PART-B

ENTREPRENEURSHIP

UNIT – 5
ENTREPRENEUR: Meaning of Entrepreneur; Evolution of .the Concept; Functions of an Entrepreneur, Types of Entrepreneur, Entrepreneur – an emerging. Class. Concept of Entrepreneurship – Evolution of Entrepreneurship, Development of Entrepreneurship; Stages in entrepreneurial process; Role of entrepreneurs in Economic Development; Entrepreneurship in India; Entrepreneurship – its Barriers.
6 Hours

UNIT – 6
SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES: Definition; Characteristics; Need and rationale; Objectives; Scope; role of SSI in Economic Development. Advantages of SSI Steps to start and SSI – Government policy towards SSI; Different Policies of SSI; Government Support for SSI during 5 year plans. Impact of Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization on SSI Effect of WTO/GA TT Supporting Agencies of Government for SSI, Meaning, Nature of support; Objectives; Functions; Types of Help; Ancillary Industry and Tiny Industry (Definition Only)
7 Hours

UNIT – 7
INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT: Different Schemes; TECKSOK; KIADB; KSSIDC; KSIMC; DIC Single Window Agency; SISI; NSIC; SIDBI; KSFC.
7 Hours

UNIT – 8
PREPARATION OF PROJECT: Meaning of Project; Project Identification; Project Selection; Project Report; Need and Significance of Report; Contents; Formulation; Guidelines by Planning Commission for Project report; Network Analysis; Errors of Project Report; Project Appraisal. Identification of business opportunities: Market Feasibility Study; Technical Feasibility Study; Financial Feasibility Study & Social Feasibility Study.
7 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Principles of Management – P. C.Tripathi, P.N. Reddy – Tata McGraw Hill,
2. Dynamics of Entrepreneurial Development & Management Vasant Desai – Himalaya Publishing House
3. Entrepreneurship Development – Poornima. M. Charantimath Small Business Enterprises – Pearson Education – 2006 (2 & 4).

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Management Fundamentals – Concepts, Application, Skill Development – Robers Lusier – Thomson
2. Entrepreneurship Development – S.S.Khanka – S.Chand & Co.
3. Management – Stephen Robbins – Pearson Education/PHI – 17th Edition, 2003.

BIOKINETICS & BIOREACTION ENGINEERING
Sub. Code : 10BT-52

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
Law of mass action and rate equation, definitions and examples of elementary and nonelementary reactions, theories of reaction rate and temperature dependency, analysis of
experimental reactor data – evaluation of rate equation by integral and differential analysis for constant volume system. Conceptual numericals. 08 Hours

UNIT 2:
BIOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIA
Equilibrium in chemically reactive systems (single and multiple reactions), evaluation of reaction equilibrium constant, concentration/conversion data, effect of temperature on equilibrium – derivation of G vs. T relation, application of above concepts to biochemical systems. Conceptual numericals. 04 Hours

UNIT 3:
BIOREACTORS
Design equations for homogeneous system – batch, stirred tank and tubular flow reactor, size comparison of single reactors, combination of reactor systems – Qualitative design for parallel and series reactors and recycle reactors. Conceptual numericals. 08 Hours

UNIT 4:
NON-IDEAL BIOREACTORS
Non-ideal reactors, residence time distribution studies for pulse and step input, Exit age distribution of fluid in reactors, RTD’s for CSTR and PFR, calculations of conversions for First order reactions, tanks in series models. Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
ENZYME KINETICS
Enzyme active site, types of enzyme specificities, enzyme kinetics, initial velocity studies, formation of ES complex, derivation of Michaelis-Menton equation, definition of Km and Vmax, Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee plots. Units of enzyme activity, Enzyme inhibition: competitive, uncompetitive and non-competitive; Regulations – allosteric and feed back regulation. Conceptual numericals. 10 Hours

UNIT 6:
KINETICS OF MICROBIAL GROWTH AND PRODUCT FORMATION
Phases of cell growth in batch cultures; simple unstructured kinetic models for microbial growth – Monod model; Growth of Filamentous Organisms. Growth associated (primary) and nongrowth associated (secondary) product formation kinetics; Leudeking-Piret models; substrate and product inhibition on cell growth and product formation; Conceptual numericals. 05 Hours

UNIT 7:
METABOLIC STOICHIOMETRY AND ENERGETICS
Stoichiometry of cell Growth and Product Formation- elemental balances, degrees of reduction of substrate and biomass; available-electron balances; yield coefficients of biomass and product formation; maintenance coefficients. Energetic analysis of microbial growth and product formation – oxygen consumption and heat evolution in aerobic cultures; thermodynamic efficiency of growth. Conceptual numericals. 05 Hours

UNIT 8:
MEDIA DESIGN AND STERILIZATION
Medium requirements for fermentation processes- Carbon, nitrogen, minerals, vitamins and other complex nutrients; oxygen requirements; Medium formulation for optimal growth and product formation – examples of simple and complex media; Thermal death kinetics of microorganisms; Batch and continuous heat – Sterilization of Liquid media; Filter sterilization of liquid media.
07 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
Chemical Reaction Engineering by Levenspiel O., John Wiley.
Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering by Fogler, H.S., Prentice Hall.
Bioprocess Engineering by Shuler and Kargi Prentice Hall.
Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism by Paul F Cook & W W Cleland, Garland Science.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Refer Syllabus Book

BIOINSTRUMENTATION & BIOSENSORS
Sub. Code : 10BT-53

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
Electrical quantities and units; functional elements of an instrumentation system; static and dynamic characteristics; principles of analog and digital meters; CRO, energy meters, time and frequency meters; multimeters. Transducers: Classification, resistive strain gages, RTD, LVDT, Peizoelectric transducers, electromagnetic transducers, optical transducers, transducers for biomedical applications. Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours

UNIT 2:
BIOMEDICAL IMAGING & INSTRUMENTATION
The terminology of medical instrumentation and imaging, a review of medical and physiological signals; Principles, instrumentation (schematic) and applications of: EEG, ECG, EMG, Radiography, Nuclear Medicine, SPECT, PET, CT, MRI, Ultrasound Imaging, Photoacoustic imaging, Digital Mammography, Endoscopy. 10 Hours

UNIT 3:
CARDIAC AND VASCULAR SYSTEM
Overview of cardiovascular system, Types of blood pressure sensors, Lumped parameter modeling of a catheter-sensor system, Heart sounds, Cardiac catheterization, Indirect
measurement of blood pressure, Measuring blood flow rate, Measuring blood volume, Pacemakers, Defibrillators, Cardiac-assist devices, Replacement heart valves – related instrumentation of equipments involved and sensors. Conceptual numericals. 05 Hours

UNIT 4:
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Modeling the respiratory system, Measuring gas flow rate, Measuring lung volume, Tests of respiratory mechanics, Measuring gas concentration, Tests of gas transport, Ventilators, Anesthesia machines, Heart-Lung machine – related instrumentation of equipments involved and sensors. Conceptual numericals. 05 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS
pH meters, Radiometric Devices, Fluorescence Spectrophotometers, Chromatology (chromatographic techniques – GC & HPLC), Electrophoresis, and Lab on a chip – related
instrumentation, Validation/Calibration, Commissioning and Maintenance of all the above equipments. Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours

UNIT 6:
ASSAY TECHNOLOGIES AND DETECTION METHODS
Introduction; Bioassay Design and Implementation; Radiometric Assays; Scintillation Proximity Assays; Types of fluorescence measurements and instrumentation; Reporter gene Assay applications; Bio-analytical Applications. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS
Introduction to Automation, types, LERT classification system, components of a robot, softwares used in robotics, Barcode technology, objectives, decoding, symbologies used, barcode reader (pen-type, laser type, CCD camera and camera based readers). PC based and Microcontroller based automation. 04 Hours

UNIT 8:
BIOSENSORS
Introduction to Biosensors: Concepts and applications. Biosensors for personal diabetes management. Microfabricated Sensors and the Commercial Development of Biosensors. Electrochemical sensors, Chemical fibrosensors, Ion-selective FETs, Noninvasive blood-gas monitoring, Blood-glucose sensors. Noninvasive Biosensors in Clinical Analysis. Applications of Biosensor-based instruments to the bioprocess industry. Application of Biosensors to environmental samples. Biochips and their application to genomics. BIAcore – an optical Biosensor. 10 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
Bioinstrumentation and Biosensors by Donald L Wise, Marcel Dekker Inc.
Biosensors by Cooper J M (2004). Oxford Publications.
Hand book of Biomedical Instrumentation – R. S. Khandpur, TMH.
Biosensors and their applications by Yang Victor C & Ngo That T, Springer.
Biosensors – An introduction by Eggins Brain R. Wiley, John & Sons.
Advances in Laboratory Automation-Robotics by J.R. Strimaitis and J.N. Little, Zymark Corporation.
Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation by Geddes & Baker.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Refer Syllabus Copy

IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY
Sub. Code : 10BT-54

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Introduction, cells and organs of the immune system, Primary and secondary Lymphoid organs, antigens, antibodies and their structure, types of immune responses; anatomy of immune response. Classification of immune system – innate and adaptive immunity. 06 Hours

UNIT 2:
HUMORAL-IMMUNITY
B-lymphocytes and their activation; structure and function of immunoglobulins; immunoglobulin classes and subclasses (allotypes, idiotypes and anti-idiotypic antibodies), Genetic control of antibody production, production of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. 08 Hours

UNIT 3:
CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
Thymus derived lymphocytes (T cells) – their ontogeny and types, MHC Complex, antigen presenting cells (APC), mechanisms of T cell activation, macrophages, dendritic cells,
langerhans cells, mechanism of phagocytosis, Antigen processing and presentation. 06 Hours

UNIT 4:
IMMUNE REGULATION AND TOLERANCE
Complement activation and types and their biological functions, cytokines and their role in immune response, immunotolerance, Hypersensitivity its types and treatment. 06 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
IMMUNOLOGICAL DISORDER
Autoimmune disorders and types, pathogenic mechanisms and treatment (rheumatoid arthritis), experimental models of auto immune disease, primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders, mechanism of AIDS. 06 Hours

UNIT 6:
TRANSPLANTATION IMMUNOLOGY
Immunological basis of graft, types of transplantation, mechanism of graft rejection, role of HLA in graft rejection, tissue typing, immunosuppression and immunosuppressive drugs, tumor specific antigens. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY
Vaccines and their types, production of recombinant-DNA vaccines. Catalytic antibodies, application of PCR technology to produce humanized antibodies (Single chain fragment
variable), immunotherapy with genetically engineered antibodies. Brief mention about stem cells and applications to immunology. 06 Hours

UNIT 8:
IMMUNODIAGNOSIS
Antigen antibody interaction – Precipitation reactions, Agglutination reactions, Blood typing, A, B, ABO & Rh, principles and applications of ELISA, Radio Immuno Assay (RIA), western blot analysis, immuno-electrophoresis, Immunofluorescence, chemiluminescence assay, FACS. 08 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
Immunology – an Introduction by Tizard, Thomson.
Immunology by J Kuby, WH Freeman.
Immunology & Immunotechnology by Ashim K Chakravarthy, Oxford University Press.
Immundiagnostics by S C Rastogi, New Age International.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Essential Immunology by Roitt I. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Molecular Immunology By Benjamini E.
Immunology A short course by Benjamini E. and Leskowitz S. Wiley Liss.
The Immune System by Peter Parham, Garland Science.
Understanding Immunology by Peter Wood, Pearson Education.

GENETIC ENGINEERING & APPLICATIONS
Sub. Code : 10BT-55

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
Extrachromosomal elements, Construction of recombinant DNA molecules, vectors in rDNA technology, salient features of vectors, types of vectors-plasmids, cosmids, phagemids and viruses. Construction of vectors (BAC, Blue script and YAC) 06 Hours

UNIT 2:
ENZYMES IN GENETIC ENGINEERING
Exonucleases and Restriction Endonculeases: classification, mode of action. Enzymes in modification – Polynucleotide phosphorylase, DNase, Methylases, phosphatases, polynucleotide Kinase, Ligases, RNase and their mechansim of action. 06 Hours

UNIT 3:
NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION AND AMPLIFICATION
Methods of nucleic acid detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its applications, variations in PCR and applications, methods of nucleic acid hybridization, probe and target sequences, Southern and Northern hybridization techniques, nucleic acid mutagenesis in vivo and in vitro. 08 Hours

UNIT 4:
CONSTRUCTION OF DNA LIBRARIES
Isolation and purification of nucleic acids (DNA & RNA), quantification, storage, Isolation of plasmids, Construction of genomic and cDNA libraries, screening and preservation.06 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES
Gene transfer techniques in plants, animals and microbes – Transformation, electroporation, microprojectile system, liposome mediated transfer, gene gun etc. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer in plants – Ti plasmid: structure and functions, Ti plasmid based vectors – advantages. Chloroplast transformation. 08 Hours

UNIT 6:
TRANSGENIC SCIENCE AND GENETIC IMPROVEMENT
Transgenic science in plant improvement, biopharming – plants as bioreactors, transgenic crops for increased yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
Techniques of gene mapping in plants. Marker-assisted selection and breeding for improvement. Transgenic science for animal improvement, biopharming – animals as bioreactors for recombinant proteins, Gene mapping in farm animals. Marker-assisted selection and genetic improvement of livestock. 08 Hours

UNIT 7:
OTHER APPLICATIONS
Microbial biotechnology – Genetic manipulation, engineering microbes for the production of antibiotics, enzymes, Insulin, growth hormones, monoclonal antibodies, clearing oil spills. 06 Hours

UNIT 8:
GENE THERAPY
Introduction. Methods of Gene therapy. Gene targeting and silencing. Gene therapy in the treatment of cancer, SCID, muscular dystrophy, respiratory disease (emphysema), cystic fibrosis, etc., Challenges in gene therapy. Future of gene therapy. 04 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
Introduction to Genetic Engineering by Nicholl. Cambridge Low Price Edition.
Principles of gene manipulation – An introduction to genetic engineering, Old R.W., Primrose S.B., Blackwell Scientific Publications.
From Genetics to Gene Therapy – the molecular pathology of human disease by David S Latchman, BIOS scientific publishers.
Genes IX by Benjamin Lewis, Oxford University & Cell Press.
DNA Science by David A Micklos, Greg A Freyer and Dvaid A Crotty, I K International.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Practices by Channarayappa, University Press.
A Text book of Molecular Biotechnology by Ashok Chauhan, IK Intl.
Genetic Engineering Vol. 1-4 (Williamson Edition). Academic Press.
Recombinant DNA by Watson et al., Scientific American Book.
Vectors by Rodriguer and Denhardt, Butterworth Publishers.
Current protocols in molecular biology, Greena Publishing Associates, NY.
Berger S.L. Kimmel A.R. Methods in enzymology, Vol.152, Academic Press.
Molecular cloning Volumes I, II and III. Sambrook J et al. Cold Spring Harbor lab Press.

BIOINFORMATICS
Sub. Code : 10BT-56

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
DATABASES & TOOLS
Introduction to Bioinformatics, Need for informatics tools and exercises, Bioinformatics resources: NCBI, EBI, ExPASy, RCSB. Significance of databases towards informatics projects. Primary and Secondary Databases. GenBank, DDBJ, EMBL, PIR, Uniprot-KB, SWISS-PROT, TrEMBL, UniParc. Format of databases, Gene bank flat file. Protein Data Bank (PDB) flat file; FASTA Format, PIR Format; Structure file formats, PDBSUM, PDBLite, MMDB, SCOP, Pfam, ProDOM; Database of structure viewers. Specialized databases: NCBI, Pubmed, OMIM, Medical databases, KEGG, EST databases; Genome databases at NCBI, EBI, TIGR, SANGER. Overview of other popular tools for various bioinformatics exercises. 06 Hours

UNIT 2:
SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT AND DATABASE SEARCHES
Introduction, The evolutionary basis of sequence alignment, the Modular Nature of proteins, Optional Alignment Methods, Substitution scores, substitution matrices, PAM, BLOSUM, Gap penalties, Statistical significance of Alignments, Database similarity searching, FASTA, BLAST, Low-Complexity Regions, Repetitive Elements. Practical Aspect of Multiple Sequence Alignment, Progressive Alignment Methods, CLUSTALW, Motifs and Patterns, PROSITE, 3DPSSM. MeMe, PSI-BLAST, PHI-BLAST, PRATT, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), and Threading methods. Conceptual numericals. 08 Hours

UNIT 3:
PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS
Introduction to Phylogenetic analysis, rooted and unrooted trees, Elements of phylogenetic Models, Phylogenetic Data Analysis: Alignment, Substitution Model Building, Tree Building, and Tree Evaluation, Tree – Building Methods-Distance based and character based methods, Evaluating Trees and Data- Boot strapping (parametric and non parametric), Phylogenetic softwares (CLUSTALW, PHYLIP etc), Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours

UNIT 4:
PREDICTIVE METHODS
Predictive Methods using Nucleotide sequences: Framework, Masking repetitive DNA, Database searches, Codon Bias Detection, Detecting Functional Sites in the DNA (promoters, transcription factor binding sites, translation initiation sites), Integrated Gene Parsing, finding RNA Genes, Web based tools (GENSCAN, GRAIL, GENEFINDER).
Predictive Methods using Protein sequences: Protein Identity based on composition, Physical properties Based on sequence, secondary structure and folding classes, specialized structures or features, tertiary structure. Related web based software (JPRED, PROSEC, NNPREDICT, SOPMA, DSSP, STRIDE) 06 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
PLASMID MAPPING AND PRIMER DESIGN
Restriction mapping, Utilities, DNA strider, MacVector and OMIGA, gene construction KIT, Vector NTI, Web based tools (MAP, REBASE); Primer design – need for tools, Primer design programs and software (PRIME3). Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours

UNIT 6:
GENOME BIOINFORMATICS
Sequencing methods, Bioinformatics tools and automation in Genome Sequencing, analysis of raw genome sequence data, Utility of EST database in sequencing, Bioinformatics in detection of Polymorphisms, SNPs and their relevance, Bioinformatics tools in microarray data analysis. Tools for comparative genomics: BLAST2, AVID, Vista, MUMmer, COG, VOG. Qualitative discussions on Machine Learning Tools (Artificial Intelligence, Genetic algorithm and neural networks). 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
MOLECULAR MODELING & VIZUALIZATION
Scope and applications of insilico modeling in modern biology. Comparative modeling, Constructing an initial model, refining the model, manipulating the model; molecular
superposition and structural alignment, concept of energy minimization, different types of interactions and formulation of force fields. Basic MD algorithm, its limitations, treatment of long range forces. Structure Visualization and Graphical representation of molecular structures: small molecules (low molecular weight – peptides, nucleotides, disaccharides, simple drugs molecules) and macromolecules (high molecular weight molecules – proteins, DNA, RNA, membranes). Usages of visualization software available in public domain like VMD, Rasmol, Pymol, SpdbViewer, Chime, Cn3D and GRASP. Rotameric Structures of Proteins (Conformational Flexibility), Canonical DNA Forms (DNA Sequence Effects). 08 Hours

UNIT 8:
INSILICO DRUG DESIGN
Molecular modeling in drug discovery, deriving bioactive conformations, molecular docking, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), deriving the Pharmacophoric Pattern, Receptor Mapping, Estimating Biological Activities, Ligand – Receptor Interactions: Dockingsoftwares (AUTODOCK, HEX) Calculation of Molecular Properties, Energy Calculations (no derivation). Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
BIOINFORMATICS by Andreas D Baxevanis. Wiley Interscience.
Essentials of Bioinfomatics, Jin Xinog, Texas A & M University, Cambridge University press.
BIOINFORMATICS: by David W Mount, cold spring harbor.
Introduction to Bioinformatics by Arthur Lesk, III edition, Oxford Publications.
Structural Bioinformatics by Philip E Bourne, John Wiley & Sons.
BIOINFORMATICS: Stuart M Brown, NYU Medical Center, NY USA.
DISCOVERING GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS & BIOINFORMATICS BY A M CAMPBELL & L J HEYER, PEARSON EDUCATION.
Fundamental Concepts of Bioinformatics by D E Krane & M L Raymer, Pearson.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Computational methods for macromolecular sequence analysis: R F Doolittle. Acad. Press.
Computational methods in Molecular Biology. S.L.Salzberg, D B Searls, S Kasif, Elsevier.
BIOINFORMATICS – METHODS AND APPLICATIONS: GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS AND DRUG
DISCOVERY BY S C RASTOGI, N MENDIRATTA & P RASTOGI, PHI.
The molecular modeling perspective in drug design by N Claude Cohen, Academic Press.
Analytical Tools for DNA, Genes & Genomes: by Arseni Markoff, New Age.
Introduction to Bioinformatics by ANNA TRAMONTANO, TAYLOR & FRANCIS
BIOINFORMATICS by Des Higgins & Willie Taylor Oxford.

GENETIC ENGINEERING & IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY LABORATORY
Sub. Code : 10BTL-57

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 03 Exam Hrs. : 03
Exam Marks : 50

1. Preparation of DNA for PCR applications- Isolation, purity & quantification
2. Introduction to PCR – working of PCR equipment, programming, preparation of reagents and buffer
3. Isolation of total RNA from plant/animal sources
4. Gene/ DNA amplification by random primers-RAPD
5. DNA amplification by specific primer
6. Southern hybridization (Demo)
7. Gene Transformation Gene Cloning-PCR product/GUS gene
8. Agglutination Technique: Blood group identification
9. Bacterial Agglutination Technique-Widal test (Tube / slide agglutination)
10. Ouchterlony Double Diffusion (ODD) and Radial Immunodiffusion (RID)
11. ELISA- Microtitre plate
12. Countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIEP)
13. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis (RIEP)
14. SDS PAGE and Western blot
15. Separation of lymphocytes from peripheral blood.

TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKS
Refer Syllabus Copy

BIOINFORMATICS LABORATORY
Sub. Code : 10BTL-58

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 03 Exam Hrs. : 03
Exam Marks : 50

1. Bibliographic search from PUBMED, SCIRUS, MEDMINER and Sequence retrieval from Nucleic acid and Protein databases.
2. Sequence (FASTA and BLAST) searches – Retrieval of homologs, paralogs, orthologs, and xenologs
3. Pair wise comparison of sequences – Analysis of parameters affecting alignment.
4. Multiple alignments of sequences and pattern determination using PROSITE
5. Evolutionary studies / Phylogenetic analysis – Analysis of parameters affecting trees
6. Identification of functional sites in Genes / Genomes.
7. Secondary structure prediction of proteins and nucleic acid (DNA/RNA)
8. Study of posttranslational modifications using relevant tools
9. Restriction mapping: Analysis of maps for suitable molecular biology experiment.
10. Primer Design: Factors affecting primer design.
11. PDB structure retrieval and visualization: Analysis of homologous structures.
12. Comparative Modeling of homologous sequences and validation of modeled structures.
13. Determination of ligand-protein interactions using SPDBV/ LIGPLOT
14. Superposition of structures – Calculation of RMSD.
15. Docking studies – Analysis of substrate / ligand binding using homologous structures
16. Derivation of pharmacophore patterns for selective ligands.

TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKS
Refer Syllabus Book for Complete Information

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