VTU Bio-Technology 6th Semester Syllabus 2010

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VTU Bio-Technology 6th Semester Syllabus

BIOPROCESS CONTROL & AUTOMATION
Sub. Code : 10BT-61

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT 1:
INSTRUMENTATION
Instrumentation – principles, Introduction to flow, pressure, temperature and liquid level measurements, measurement of important physico-chemical and biochemical parameters, methods of on-line and off-line biomass estimation, flow injection analysis for measurement of substrates, products and other metabolites. 08 Hours

UNIT 2:
FIRST ORDER SYSTEMS
Process characteristics, Laplace transforms, first order systems – examples, mercury in glass thermometer, liquid level system, linearization, response of first order system for step, pulse, impulse and sinusoidal changes in input, conceptual numericals. 06 Hours

UNIT 3:
FIRST ORDER SYSTEMS IN SERIES
Interacting and non-interacting systems and their dynamic response to step, pulse and impulse inputs; conceptual numericals. 04Hours

UNIT 4:
SECOND ORDER SYSTEMS
Second order systems with transfer functions (spring-damper, control valve, U-tube manometer), response of second order system to step, pulse / impulse and sinusoidal input – Overdamped, underdamped and critically damped condition of second order system, transportation lag.
08 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
CONTROLLERS AND FINAL CONTROL ELEMENTS
Actuators, Positioners, Valve body, Valve plugs, Characteristics of final control elements, controllers – two position control, proportional control, derivative control, integral control, P-I (proportional-integral) control, P-D (proportional- derivative) control, P-I-D (proportionalintegral- derivative) control, conceptual numericals. 05 Hours

UNIT 6:
CLOSED LOOP CONTROL SYSTEMS
Block diagrams for servo and regulatory problems. Transient response of first and second order processes for set point changes and load changes with proportional and PI controllers, conceptual numericals. 05 hours

UNIT 7:
CONTROLLER DESIGN AND STABILITY
Criteria for stability, Routh test; Root locus (basics), Introduction to frequency response, Qualitative discussion about Bode criteria and Nyquist criteria; Conceptual numericals.
10 Hours

UNIT 8:
BIOPROCESSES DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
Dynamics and control of bioreactors & sterilizers. On-line data analysis for state and parameter estimation techniques for biochemical processes. 06 Hours

TEXT BOOKS

Process System analysis and Control by Donald R Coughanowr, McGraw-Hill.
Chemical Process Control by George Stephanopoulos, Prentice-Hall of India.

REFERENCE BOOKS

Process dynamics and control by D E Seborg, T F Edger, John Wiley.
Process Control by Wayne C. Bequette, Pearson Education Asia.
Essentials of Process Control by Luyben and Luyben. McGraw-Hill Education.
Process Modeling, Simulation and Control by William Luyben, McGraw-Hill Education.
Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals by Bailey and Ollis, Mcgraw Hill.
Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi, Prentice Hall.
Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Pauline M. Doran, Academic Press.
Rate controlled separations by Wankat P.C, Elsevier.

CLINICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
Sub. Code : 10BT-62

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
DRUG MANUFACTURE AND FORMULATION
Introduction to pharma industry, Biotechnology and Drug design, Basic concepts and applications, composition, preparation, physicochemical considerations in manufacture of
current biotech products & herbal medicines. Need of formulation and formulation development considerations. Concept & testing of preformulations & their parameters. Tablets: compressed, granulation, coatings, pills, capsules. Parental preparations, herbal extracts, Oral liquids, Ointments. Overview of Process Validation for pharmaceutical industries, Pilot Plant, Scale-Up Techniques. 08 Hours

UNIT 2:
ANALYSIS OF PHARMACEUTICALS
Analytical methods and tests for various drugs -Physicochemical and bioanalytical considerations. Validation of analytical methods. packaging techniques- Glass containers,
plastic containers, film wrapper, bottle seals; Quality assurance and control- storage and stability of biotech products. 04 Hours

UNIT 3:
PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS
Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of protein based drugs. Basic concepts, ADME definitions , Need of pharmacokinetic study. Interpretations from pharmacokinetics parameters. Examples of Pharmacodynamic parameters of various drugs. Evolution of Drug Metabolism Phase I Metabolism (microsomal oxidation, hydroxylation, dealkylation) Phase II Metabolism (Drug conjugation pathway) CYP Families. 07 Hours

UNIT 4:
PHARMACOTHERAPY
Classification of drugs based on therapeutic actions using suitable examples Special emphasis on Vitamins, cold remedies, laxatives, analgesics, non-steroidal contraceptives, external antiseptics, antacids, antibiotics, biologicals, herbal products. Pharmacotherapy of migraine, cancer, TB, diabetes and male sexual dysfuntion. Hormone replacement therapy. 07 Hours

PART-B

UNIT 5:
CLINICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
The philosophy behind and organization of clinical research. Disease target identification and selection, receptor-based approaches, agonists, antagonists, enzyme inhibitors, Pre-clinical development to support testing in humans: In vitro and in vivo testing of new compounds, Relationship between animal and human pharmacology. Safety testing – acute, sub acute toxicology, immunotoxicology. Concepts of pharmacovigilance. 07 Hours

UNIT 6:
BIOTHERAPY
Biotherapeutics: Clinical importance of Therapeutic Proteins: Therapeutic Antibodies and Enzymes; Hormones and Growth Factors used as therapeutics (erythropoietin & insulin as examples). Interferons, Interleukins and additional Regulatory Factors. Preservation and clinical use of blood and blood components, principles and safety guide lines for blood transfusion. Advanced Sustained Release, Advanced drug Delivery Systems: Liposomes and Nanoparticles, biodegradable drug delivery system (hydrogel based). 08 Hours

UNIT 7:
STEM CELLS IN HEALTH CARE
Types and identification of stem cells, Fate Mapping of Stem Cells, Use of stem cells in therapy of neurological, hematopoetic, hepatic, pancreatic disorders. Applications of epidermal stem cell in Tissue engineering. Hematopoietic Stem Cells, Classification and clinical manifestations of hematopoietic stem cell disorders. 06 Hours

UNIT 8:
CLINICAL RESEARCH
General principles and guide to data sources, types of epidemiology study designs, ecological (correlation) studies, case reports, prevalence surveys or cross-sectional studies, case control studies, Clinical trials-informed consent, Placebo Responses, Clinical Registries. Clinical Research Institutes, Data Management, Clinical Research from Pharmaceutical Industry Perspective. 05 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
Biochemistry and Biotechnology by Gary Walsh, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Principles and Practice of Clinical Research by J. I. Gallin and F. P. Ognibene, Elsevier Publication.
Hematology by William J. Williams, Ernest Beutler, Allan JU. Erslev, Marshall A. Lichtman, IK Publishers.
Stem Cell Biology by Marshak, Cold Spring Harbour Symposium Pulblications.
Current Trends in Pharmacology by Arunabha Ray & Kavitha Gulati, IK Intl.
An Introduction to Synthetic Drugs by Singh & Rangnekar, Himalaya publishing House.
Biopharmaceuticals, Biochemistry and Biotechnology by Gary Walsh, Wiley Pub.
Principles of Medicinal Chemistry by Foye, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers.
Industrial Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by Heinrich Klefenz, Wiley-VCH edition.
Biopharmaceutical Drug Design and Development by S Wu-Pong, Y Rojanasakul, and J Robinson.
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by K Sambamurthy & Ashutosh Kar, New Age.
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by S P Vyas and V K Dixit, CBS Publishers.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology by Bartram G. Katzung, Mc Graw Hill.
The Theory & Practice of Industrial Pharmacy by Leon Lachman, Herbert A. Lieberman &
Joseph & Kanig, Vergese Publishing House Bombay.
Enzyme Technologies for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications by Herbert A Kirst,
Wu-Kuang Yeh, Milton J. Marcel Dekker Publications.
Developmental Biology, by Scott F. Gilbert, Wiley Publications.
Current Trends in Pharmacology by Arunabha Ray & Kavitha Gulati, IK Intl.
Developmental Biology, Scott F. Gilbert, Cambridge University Press.
Molecular Biology of the Cell, by Bruce Alberts, Dennis Bray, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, James D. Watson, Garland Science.
Text book of Medical Biochemistry by R L Nath, New Age Publishers.
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by K Sambamurthy & Ashutosh Kar, New Age Publishers.
ICH guideline Q6B, Freelance Publishing.
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology by Bartram G. Katzung, Mc Graw Hill.

ENZYME TECHNOLOGY & BIOTRANSFORMATION
Sub. Code : 10BT-63

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
Introduction to enzymes, Classification, Sources, Mechanism of enzyme action. Strategies of purification of enzymes, criteria of purity, molecular weight determination and characterization of enzymes. 06 Hours

UNIT 2:
BIOCATALYSTS
Advantages of enzymes vs chemical catalysts, Isolated Enzymes versus whole cell systems, enzymes in fermentation, Biocatalytic Application, Enzyme catalysis (Acid-base, Covalent, Metal ion catalysis, Substrate strain & entropy effects) Mechanism of coenzymes ( NAD/NADP, FAD/FADH2, PLP, Coenzyme A, TPP, Biotin) 08 Hours

UNIT 3:
ENZYMES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE
Acetylcholinesterase, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE Inhibitors, HMG Co A reductase inhibitors, pseudocholinesterase, 5′-nucleotidase (5NT), glucose-6-phosphate
dehydrogenase (GPD), CKisoforms, immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) and chymotrypsin; amylase isoenzymes, 06 Hours

UNIT 4:
ENZYMATIC TECHNIQUES
Enzyme and isoenzyme measurement methods with two examples (fixed incubation and kinetic methods); Methods for investigating the kinetics of Enzyme catalysed reactions – Initial velocity studies, rapid-reaction techniques. Standardization and optimization methods, stability of enzymes. 06 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES
Techniques of enzyme immobilization; kinetics of immobilized enzymes, effect of solute, partition & diffusion on the kinetics of immobilized enzymes, design and configuration of
immobilized enzyme reactors; applications of immobilized enzyme technology, Economic argument for immobilization. 08 Hours

UNIT 6:
ENZYMATIC TRANSFORMATION
Reaction engineering for enzyme-catalyzed biotransformations. Catalytic antibodies. Biocatalysts from extreme Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic microorganisms (extremozymes). The design and construction of novel enzymes, artificial enzymes, Biotransformation of drugs (hydroxylation of Steroids), Host Guest Complexation chemistry, enzyme design using steroid templates. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
Importance of enzymes in diagnostics, Enzyme pattern in diseases like Myocardial infarctions (SGOT, SGPT & LDH). Isoenzymes (CK, LD, ALP). Use of isozymes as markers in cancer and other diseases. Enzymes in immunoassay techniques. Therapeutic enzymes. Inborn errors of metabolism. 06 Hours

UNIT 8:
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
Enzymes used in detergents, use of proteases in food, leather and wool industries; methods involved in production of glucose syrup from starch (using starch hydrolyzing enzymes), production of maltose and sucrose, glucose from cellulose, uses of lactase in dairy industry, glucose oxidase and catalase in food industry; Restriction enzymes and DNA ligases. 06 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
Fundaments of Enzymology by Nicholas C Price and Stevens, Oxford Press.
Enzymes – Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Clinical Chemistry by Trevor Palmer, Horwood Publishing Limited.
Biotransformations in Organic Chemistry by Kurt Faber, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Enzymes in Industry: Production and Applications by W. Gerhartz, VCH Publishers.
Enzyme Technology by M.F. Chaplin and C. Bucke, Cambridge Press.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Enzyme Technology by Messing, Wiley, New York
Purifying Proteins for Proteomics by Richard J Simpson, IK International.
Proteins and Proteomics by Richard J Simpson, IK International.
Enzymes by Dixon and Webb, IRL Press.
Principles of Enzymology for technological Applications by Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford University Press.
Biocatalyst for Industry by J.S. Dordrick, Plenum press, New York.
Enzymes in Industry: Production and Applications by W. Gerhartz VCH Publishers.
Fundaments of Enzymology by Prices and Stevens, Oxford Press.

GENOMICS & PROTEOMICS
Sub. Code : 10BT-64

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
Genes and Proteins, Polymorphisms – types of polymorphism, genome sequences and database subscriptions, Prediction of new genes and their function by databases. 04 Hours

UNIT 2:
SEQUENCING & GENOME PROJECTS
Early sequencing efforts. Methods of preparing genomic DNA for sequencing, DNA sequencing: Sanger Dideoxy method, Fluorescence method, shot-gun approach. Genome projects on E.coli., Arabidopsis and rice; Human genome project and the genetic map. 06 Hours

UNIT 3:
GENOMICS
Gene variation and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), Expressed sequenced tags (ESTs), Gene-disease association, diagnostic genes and drug targets, genotyping tools – DNA Chips and their application, diagnostic assays; comparative genomics. Functional genomic studies with model systems such as Drosophila, Yeast or C. elegans. 08 Hours

UNIT 4:
GENOME MANAGEMENT IN EUKARYOTES
Cell differentiation and gene regulation. Inheritance pattern in eukaryotes, Mutations, Regulation of transcription, transcription factors and the co-ordination of gene expression, translation and post-translational modification in eukaryotes. Interference RNA, RNA silencing, SiRNA: Applications in Functional genomics, Medicine and Gene Knockdown. 08 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
STRUCTURAL GENOMICS
General architecture of prokarytoc and eukaryotic genome. C-Values of genomes. Organization of genome within nucleus, mitochondrial and chloroplast genome. 04 Hours

UNIT 6:
GENOME ANALYSIS
Genetic and physical maps: Breeding requirements for mapping. Molecular markers – RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, microsatellites and SNPs. Methods of molecular mapping, Marker assisted selection. Map-based cloning, T-DNA and transposon tagging. Differential display via RT-PCR. Micro-array in functional genomics. Bioinformatics analysis – clustering methods. Approaches to Physical mapping, FISH – DNA amplification markers; Telomerase as molecular markers. Genome mapping approaches for microorganisms. 07 Hours

UNIT 7:
PROTEOMICS
Introduction to proteins, Methods of protein isolation, purification, quantification, Large scale preparation of proteins and peptides, Merrifield Synthesis of peptides, use of peptides as probes. Proteomics databases, proteins as drugs; Proteome functional information, two hybrid interaction screens. 05 Hours

UNIT 8:
PROTEOME ANALYSIS
Mass-spec based analysis of protein expression and post-translational modifications. “Protein Chip” – interactions and detection techniques. Methods of measurement of mRNA expression, DNA array hybridization, Non-DNA array hybridization, Two dimensional PAGE for proteome analysis, Image analysis of 2D gels, High throughput proteome analysis by stable isotope labeling, Automation in proteomics, Applications of proteome analysis to drug development and toxicology, Phage antibodies as tools for proteomics, Glycoanalysis in proteomics, Proteomics as tool for disease diagnostics and plant genetics. 10 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
Introduction to Genomics by Arthur M Lesk, Oxford University Press.
Plant Genome Analysis. Edited by Peter M Gresshoff, CRC Press.
Genetic Analysis – Principles, Scope and Objectives by JRS Finchman, Blackwell Science.
DISCOVERING GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS & BIOINFORMATICS BY A M CAMPBELL & L J HEYER, PEARSON EDUCATION.
Protein Arrays, Biochips and Proteomics by J S Albala & I Humprey-Smith, CRC Press.
Genomics & Proteomics by Sabesan, Ane Books.
Purifying Proteins for Proteomics by Richard J Simpson, IK International.
Proteins and Proteomics by Richard J Simpson, IK International.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Biocomputing Informatics and the Genome Projects by Smith D.W., Academic Press.
Genes IX by Benjamin Lewis. Oxford University & Cell Press.
BIOINFORMATICS – METHODS AND APPLICATIONS: GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS AND DRUG
DISCOVERY BY S C RASTOGI, N MENDIRATTA & P RASTOGI, PHI.

BIOPROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN & CAED
Sub. Code : 10BT-65

Refer Syllabus Book for Complete Info

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 04
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN
a) Types of joints (welded)
b) Types of pipe fittings
c) Types of valves- ball and safety 10 Hours

UNIT 2:
PROCESS EQUIPMENTS DESIGN USING CAED
Detailed process and mechanical design of the following equipments
a) Fermentor vessels (bioreactor)
b) Double pipe heat exchanger
c) Shell and tube heat exchangers
d) Distillation column (packed bed)
e) Condenser (vertical condenser) 42 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
Process equipment design by M V Joshi, Macmilan Indian Limited.
Unfired pressure vessel I S Code 2825, JAICO Publishing House.
Shell and tube heat exchanger specifications, I S Code 4503, Gulf Publishing Company.
Chemical engineers hand book by Perry and Green, McGraw-Hill.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Process equipment and mechanical aspect by V C Bhattachary, CBS Publishers.
Mechanical equipment design, Brownell and Young, Wiley Publishing.
Fermentation and biochemical engineering hand book, Principles, process design and
equipment. H C Vogel, & Noyes Edition. William Andrew Publishing.
Chemical Engineering by Coulson and Richardson, Elsevier Science.
Equipment design by Atkins, Macmillan Publishing.

ELECTIVE A
ANIMAL BT
Sub. Code : 10BT-661

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
History and development of animal tissue culture. Equipment and materials (culture vessels, CO2 incubator, inverted microscope, cell counters). Principles of sterile techniques. Sources of tissues, types of tissues – epithelial, muscle, connective, nerve and blood. Introduction to balanced salt solutions. Cell culture media – components of the medium, physical, chemical and metabolic functions of media. Role of serum and supplements, serum-free media, features and specifications of MEM, DMEM, RPMI and Ham’s medium. Role of antibiotics in media. 08 Hours

UNIT 2:
TECHNIQUES
Measurement of cell number – hemocytometer, coulter counter. Measurement of cell viability and cytotoxicity. Dye exclusion and inclusion tests, colonigenic assay, macromolecular estimation, MTT based assay. Measuring parameters of growth – growth curves, PDT, Plating efficiency and factors influencing growth. 05 Hours

UNIT 3:
CELL LINES
Primary culture – Mechanical and enzy0matic mode of desegregation, establishment of primary culture. Subculture – passage number, split ratio, seeding efficiency, criteria for subculture. Cell lines – definite and continuous cell lines, characterization, authentication, maintenance and preservation of cell lines. Contamination – bacterial, viral, fungal and mycoplasma contaminations, detection and control, cell transformation – normal v/s. transformed cells, growth characteristics of transformed cells. Viral and chemical-mediated methods of cell immortalization. 08 Hours

UNIT 4:
CELL CULTURE
Scale-up of animal cell culture – Factors to be considered. Scale-up of suspension cultures – Batch reactor, continuous culture, perfusion systems. Scale-up of monolayer cultures – roller bottles, Nunc cell factory, microcarrier cultures, organotypic culture, matrices, factors affecting culture and perspectives. 05 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
INVITRO FERTILIZATION & CLONING
Conventional methods of animal improvement, predominantly selective breeding and crossbreeding. Embryo biotechniques for augumentation of reproductive efficiency and faster multiplication of superior germ plasm. Super ovulation Oestrus synchronization. Embryo collection, evaluation and transfer. Invitro maturation of oocytes. Invitro fertilisation and embryo culture. Embryo preservation. Micro manipulation and cloning. Artificial insemination, preparation of foster mother, surgical and non-surgical methods of embryo transfer, donor and recipient aftercare. Cloning – concept of nuclear transfer, nuclear reprogramming and creation of Dolly. Stem cells – embryonic and adult stem cells, plasticity and concept of regenerative medicine. 10 Hours

UNIT 6:
HUMAN GENOME
Human genome – complexicity of the genome, outlines of human genome project, human disease genes. Molecular biological techniques for rapid diagnosis of genetic diseases. Chemical carcinogenesis, transfection, oncogenes and antioncogenes. Cryo preservation and transport of animal germ plasm (i.e. semen, ovum and embryos). Genetherapy – ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy methods, applications. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
TRANSGENICS
Tansgenic animals – retroviral, microinjection, and engineered embryonic stem cell method of transgenesis. Application of transgenic animals – biopharming, disease models, functional knockouts. 04 Hours

UNIT 8:
OTHER APPLICATIONS
Application of animal cell culture – Vaccine production, specialized cell types. Concepts of tissue engineering – skin, liver, kidney, bladder and heart. Principles and species suitable for aquaculture (Indian major carps and prawns). Genetic status of culture stocks. Chromosome manipulations – Production of all male and sterile populations, Hypophysation in fishes and prawns. Pearl culture – pearl producing mollusks, rearing of oysters, nucleation for pearl formation and harvesting of pearls. Probiotics and their significance in aquaculture. Molecular tools for the identification of diseases in aquatic species. 06 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
Culture of Animal Cells by R Ian Fredhney, Wiley-Liss Publications.
Animal Cell Biotechnology by Spier, RE and Griffith, JB Academic Press, London.
Animal Biotechnology by Murray Moo-Young, Pergamon Press, Oxford Press.
Animal Cell Technology: Principles and Practices by Butter M, Oxford Press.
Molecular Biotechnology by Sandy B. Primrose, Blackwell Scientific Publishers.
An Introduction to Molecular Biotechnology by MICHAEL WINK, WILEY.
Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Practices by Channarayappa, University Press.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Methods in Cell Biology, Vol. 57, Animal Cell Culture Methods Ed. JP Mather and D Bames. Academic Press.
Fish & Fisheries of India by V. G. Jhingram, Central Publishing House.
Living resources for Biotechnology, Animal cells by A. Doyle, R. Hay and B.E. Kirsop, Cambridge University Press.
Animal Cell Culture – Practical Approach, Edition: John RW. Masters, Oxford Press.
Animal Cell Culture Techniques, Edition: Martin Clynes, Springer.
Cell Culture Lab Fax. Editors: M Butler & M Dawson, Bios Scientific Publications Ltd. Oxford.

PLANT BT
Sub. Code : 10BT-662

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
Introduction to cell and tissue culture. Tissue culture media (composition and preparation). Organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis. Embyo culture. Androgenesis and gynogenesis. Endosperm culture. Protoplast culture and selection of cybrids. Cryopreservation. 04 Hours

UNIT 2:
PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING
Induction to Plant Genetic Engineering: Types of plant vectors and their use – Particle bombardment, electroporation, microinjection. Agrobacterium mediated transformation –
Technique and applications. Ti and Ri-plasmids as vectors. Screening and selection of transformants – PCR and hybridization methods. Viruses as a tool to delivery foreign DNA. Transformation of monoctos. Mechanism of transgene interaction – Transgene stability and gene silencing. Generation and maintenance of transgenic plants. 08 Hours

UNIT 3:
PLANTS FOR BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC STRESSES
Introduction to biotic stresses, types. Application of plant transformation – bt genes, Structure and function of Cry proteins – mechanism of action, critical evaluation. Non-bt like protease inhibitors, alpha amylase inhibitor, Transgenic technology for development of virus, bacterial and fungal resistance plants. Abiotic stress – Introduction to drought and salinity stresses, transgenic strategies for development of drought resistant plants, case studies 08 Hours

UNIT 4:
IMPROVEMENT OF VARIETIES
Post-harvest losses, long shelf life of fruits and flowers, use of ACC synthase, polygalacturanase, ACC oxidase, male sterile lines, barstar and barnase systems. Herbicide resistance – phosphoinothricin, glyphosate, atrazine; insect resistance. Biosafety regulations and evaluation of transgenics contained conditions. Implications of gene patents. 06 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
MOLECULAR FARMING AND APPLICATIONS
Plant metabolic engineering and industrial products: Molecular farming for the production of industrial enzymes, biodegradable plastics, polyhydroxybutyrate, antibodies, edible vaccines. Metabolic engineering of plants for the production of fatty acids, industrial oils, flavonoids etc., Engineering of carotenoid and provitamin biosynthetic pathways. 06 Hours

UNIT 6:
NITROGEN FIXATION AND APPLICATIONS
Nitrogen fixation and biofertilizers – Diazotrophic microorganisms, nitrogen fixation genes. Two component regulatory mechanisms. Transfer of nif genes and nod genes – structure, function and role in nodulation; Hydrogenase – Hydrogen metabolism. Genetic engineering of hydrogenase genes. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
SIGNAL TRANSUCTION IN PLANTS
Signal transduction in plants: Mechanism, plant hormone signaling- Molecular mechanism of Auxins, Gibberlins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid and ethylene, transduction, light perception and signaling network in higher plants, calcium and sphingolipids signaling. 06 Hours

UNIT 8:
ALGAL TECHNOLOGIES
Blue-green algae and Azolla – Identification of elite species and mass production for practical application. Mycorrhizae – importance in agriculture and forestry. Algae as a source of food, feed, single cell protein, biofertilizers; industrial uses of algae. Mass cultivation of commercially valuable marine macroalgae for agar agar, alginates and other products of commerce and their uses. Mass cultivation of microalgae as a source of protein and feed. 08 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
Plant Cell Culture : A Practical Approach by R.A. Dixon & Gonzales, IRL Press.
Plant biotechnology in Agriculture by K. Lindsey and M.G.K. Jones, Prentice hall, New Jersey.
Plant Biotechnology, Prakash and Perk, Oxford & IBH Publishers Co.
Plant Biotechnology by J Hammond, P McGarvey and V Yusibov, Springer Verlag.
Biotechnology in Crop Improvement by HS Chawla, Intl Book Distributing Company.
Biodegradation and Detoxification of Environmental Pollutants by Chakrabarthy AM. CRC Press.
Practical Application of Plant Molecular Biology by RJ Henry, Chapman and Hall.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Practices by Channarayappa, University Press.
Plant Tissue Culture: Applications and Limitations by S.S. Bhojwani, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Plant Cell and Tissue Culture for the Production of Food Ingredients by TJ Fu, G Singh and WR
Curtis (Eds): Kluwer Academic Press.
Biotechnology in Agriculture by MS Swamynathan, McMillian India Ltd.
Gene Transfer to Plants by Polyykus I and Spongernberg, G.Ed. Springer Scam.
Genetic Engineering with Plant Viruses by T Michael, A Wilson and JW Davis, CRC Press.
Molecular Approaches to Crop Improvement by Dennis Liwelly Eds. Kluwer. Academic Publishers.
Plant Cell and Tissue Culture- A Laboratory manual by Reinert J and Yeoman MM, Springer.
Plant Tissue Culture by Sathyanarayana BN, IK Intl. Publishers.

MICROBIAL BT
Sub. Code : 10BT-663

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
Study of Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes, Classification and Identification of Microorganisms, classification and identification of fungi. 02 Hours

UNIT 2:
MICROBIAL PROCESS ENGINEERING
Introduction to microbial process development. Scale – up of microbial processes -Analysis of experimental data. Design & optimization of fermentation media. Kinetics of cell growth. Sterilization of air and media. Modes of cell culture. Bioreactor systems including utilities. Mass transfer in Microbial processes. Instrumentation and control of process parameters.08 Hours

UNIT 3:
MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
Production of protein in bacteria-Cloning techniques, expression of cloned genes in bacteria, Recovery and purification of expressed proteins. Introduction of DNA into yeast cells, yeast cloning vectors, expression of foreign genes in yeast, expression of foreign gene products in secreted form. 04 Hours

UNIT 4:
INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY
Strain improvement and screening of industrially important microorganisms. Industrial production of Vitamins (VitB12 & riboflavin), Antibiotics (β-lactam antibiotics, Aminoglycosides) , organic acids (Citric acid, acetic acid) and Enzymes (amylases, proteases). Impact of Biotechnology on vaccine development; sub unit vaccines, DNA vaccines, recombinant vaccines, peptide vaccines. Bioinsecticides-Bacillus thuringinesis, B.sphaericus, B.popilliae, Baculoviruses. Production of Microbial enzymes, strain, medium, fermentation processes. Large scale application of Microbial enzymes – starch processing, textile designing, detergents, cheese industry, leather industry and wood pulp industry. 12 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
MICROBIAL BY PRODUCTS
Bacterial Polysaccharides – structure & role in nature. Xanthan Gum – structure, production & Biosynthesis polyesters. Microbial transformation of steroids & sterols. Industrial production of ethanol and amino acids (glutamic acid) 06 Hours

UNIT 6:
ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY
Contamination in air, water and soil, Waste water microbiology, Microbiological Degradation of xenobiotics. Biomagnification. 04 Hours

UNIT 7:
BIOREMEDIATION AND BIOLEACHING
Bioremediation: use of bacteria and biodegradation of hydrocarbons, in situ and ex situ Bioremediation, Granular sludge consortia for bioremediation, crude oil degradation by bacteria, Immobilization of microbes for bioremediation, PCB dechlorination, Genetic engineering of microbes for bioremediation. Phytoremediation – plants capable of assimilating heavy metals. Biomethanation: application of microorganisms of biomethanation and cellulose degradation- Methanotrophs and other orgnisnms. Bioleaching: direct and indirect mechanisms, microorganism in mineral recovery, recovery of copper by dump leaching, Sulfur Leaching by Thermophilic microorganisms, Microbial coal solubilization. 10 Hours

UNIT 8:
FOOD MICROBIOLOGY
Microbial spoilage of food and its control; food preservatives; fermented foods; single cell protein (SCP) and single cell oil (SCO); food borne infections and their control. 06 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
Microbial Biotechnology by Alexander N Glazer and Hiroshi Nikaido, W H Freeman & Company Newyork.
Fundamentals of Biotechnology by Edited by Paule Prave, Uwe Faust, Wolfgang Sitting and Dieter A Sukatsch, VCH Publishers.
Principles of fermentation Technology by P.F. Stanbury and A. Whitaker, Pergamon Press.
A textbook of Industrial Microbiology by Wulf Cruegar and Anneliese Cruegar, Panima Publishing Corporation.
Molecular Biotechnology– Principles and Applications of recombinant DNA by Bernard R Glick & Jack J pasternak , ASM Press.
Industrial Microbiology by Prescott and Dunn, CBS Publishers & Distributors.
Industrial Microbiology- An introduction by Michael J Waites, Neil L Morgan, Blackwell science.
Food microbiology by William C Frazier and Westhoff Dennis C, Tata McGraw Hill publication.
Industrial Microbiology by L.E Casida, New Age International.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Microbiology by Bernard Davis & Renato Dulbecco, Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.
Principles of Microbe & Cell Cultivation by SJ Prit, Blackwell Scientific co.
Basic Biotechnology by Colin Ratledge & Bjorn Kristiansen, Cambridge University Press.
Applied Bioremediation and Phytoremediation by A Singh & O P Ward, Springer.

PERL PROGRAMMING
Sub. Code : 10BT-664

Refer Syllabus Book for Complete Info

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
An overview of Perl: Getting started, interpreted vs compiled source code, documentation in perl, statement blocks, ASCII and Unicode, Escape sequences, whitespaces, numerical data type, strings in perl, alternative delimiters, conversion between numbers and strings, Arithmetical operators, bitwise operators, Boolean operators, string operators, string comparison, operator precedence, variables, modifying a variable, autoincrement and autodecrement operators, multiple assignments, scoping, special variables, regular expression variables, input/ output variables, filehandle / format variables, error variables and system variables variable interpolation. 08 Hours

UNIT 2:
LISTS, ARRAYS AND HASHES
Introduction to lists, simple lists, complex lists, accessing list values, list slices, ranges, combining ranges and slices, arrays, assigning arrays, scalar vs list context, adding elements to an array, accessing single and multiple elements from an array, running through arrays, array functions (pop, push, shift, unshift, and sort); Introduction to Hashes, creating a hash, working with hash values, adding, changing and taking values from a hash, accessing multiple values. 06 Hours

UNIT 3:
ARRAY MANIPULATIONS
Introduction, Changing Array Size, Interacting Over an Array by Reference, Extracting Unique Elements from a List, Computing Union, Intersection, or Difference of Unique Lists, Appending One Array to Another, Reversing an Array, Processing Multiple Elements of an Array, Finding All Elements in an Array Matching Certain Criteria, Sorting an Array Numerically. 06 Hours

UNIT 4:
REGULAR EXPRESSION
Introduction to regular expressions, patterns, interpolation, escaping special characters, anchors, character classes, word boundaries, posix and Unicode classes, detecting repeating words, welldefined repetition, back reference variables, match operator, substitution operator and transliteration operator, binding operators, meta-characters, changing delimiters, modifiers, usage of split and join keywords, inline comments and modifiers, grouping and alternation, grouping with back references. 06 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
FILES AND REFERENCES
Introduction to Filehandle, STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR file handles, reading lines, creating filters, line separator, reading paragraphs, reading entire files, writing to files, writing on a file handle, accessing filehandle, writing binary data, selecting a filehandle, buffering, file permissions, opening pipes, piping in, piping out, file tests, reading directories and globbing, introduction to references, lifecycle of a reference, anonymous reference, dereferencing, reference modification, array and hash referencing, reference counting and destruction. 08 Hours

UNIT 6:
SUBROUTINES AND MODULES
Introduction to subroutines, difference between subroutines and modules, defining subroutines, order of declaration, subroutines for calculations, return values, caching, context, subroutine prototypes, scope, global variables, lexical variables, runtime scope, aliases, passing references , arrays, hashes and filehandles to a subroutine, modules, usage of keywords do, require and use, changing @INC, package hierarchies, exporters, standard modules in perl. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
RUNNING AND DEBUGGING PERL
Examining syntax errors, runaway strings, brackets around conditions, missing semicolons, braces, commas and barewords. Diagnostic modules, use warnings, scope of warnings, use strict, strict on variables, references, subroutines, use diagnostics, perl command line switches, usage of –e, -n, -p, -c, -I, -M, -s, -I, @INC, -a, -F and –T switches, Debugging techniques, usage of print, comments, context, scope and precedence in debugging, Defensive programming. 06 Hours

UNIT 8:
BIOPERL
Overview, Bioperl Objects, Brief descriptions (Seq, PrimarySeq, LocatableSeq, RelSegment, LiveSeq, LargeSeq, RichSeq, SeqWithQuality, SeqI), Location objects, Interface objects and implementation objects, Representing large sequences (LargeSeq), Representing changing sequences (LiveSeq), Using Bioperl: Accessing sequence data from local and remote databases, Accessing remote databases (Bio::DB::GenBank, etc), Indexing and accessing local databases Bio::Index::*, bp_index.pl, bp_fetch.pl, Bio::DB::*), Transforming sequence files (SeqIO), Transforming alignment files (AlignIO); 06 Hours

TEXT BOOKS
Beginning Perl by Simon Cozens, Peter Wainwrigth, Wrox press.
Perl cook book by Tom Christiansen and Nathan Torkinton, O’Reilly & Associates, USA, 1998.
Programming Perl by Larry Wall, Tom Christiansen and Jon Orwant. O’Reilly Media.
Learning Perl by Randal L, Schwartz, Tom Phoenix, O’Reilly Media.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Perl by Example by Ellie Quigley, Prentice Hall.
Perl in a Nutshell by O’Reilley O’Reilly Media.
Perl: The programmer Companion by Nigel Chapman, Wiley.
BioPerl by O’Reilly & Associates, O’Reilly Media
Bioperl from Beginning Perl for Bioinformatics by James Tisdall, O’Reilly Media.

TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
Sub. Code : 10BT-665

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND OVERALL BALANCES
Fluid Statics, General molecular transport equations for momentum, heat and mass transfer, Viscosity of fluids, Overall balances: mass balance/continuity equation, energy balance, momentum balance, shell momentum balance and velocity distribution in laminar flow, design equation for laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, compressible flow of gases. 06 Hours

UNIT 2:
MOMENTUM TRANSFER – PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS
Flow past immersed objects, packed and fluidized beds, Non-Newtonian fluids, Differential equations of continuity, momentum transfer (motion), use of these equations, other solution methods for differential equation of motion, boundary layer flow and turbulence, dimensional analysis in momentum transfer. 08 Hours

UNIT 3:
STEADY STATE HEAT TRANFER
Mechanisms of heat transfer, conduction – through solids in series, steady state conduction and shape factors, Forced convection – heat transfer inside pipes, heat transfer outside various geometries, natural convection heat transfer, boiling and condensation, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer (basic and advanced), heat transfer to non-Newtonian fluids, special heat transfer coefficients, dimensional analysis in heat transfer, numerical methods for steady state heat transfer in two dimensions. 06 Hours

UNIT 4:
UNSTEADY STATE HEAT TRANSFER
Derivation of basic equation, simplified case for systems with negligible internal resistance, unsteady state heat transfer in various geometries, finite difference methods, chilling and freezing of food and biological materials, differential equation of energy change, boundary layer flow and turbulence in heat transfer. 06 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
MASS TRANSFER
Mass transfer and diffusion, molecular diffusion in gases, liquids, biological solutions and gels, and solids, numerical methods for steady state molecular diffusion in two dimensions. 06 Hours

UNIT 6:
UNSTEADY STATE AND CONVECTIVE MASS TRANSFER
Unsteady state diffusion, convective mass transfer coefficients, for various geometries, mass transfer to suspensions of small particle, molecular diffusion plus convection and chemical reaction, diffusion of gases in porous solids and capillaries, numerical methods for unsteady state molecular diffusion, dimensional analysis in mass transfer, boundary layer flow and turbulence in heat transfer. 09 Hours

UNIT 7:
SEPARATION PROCESSES-1
Evaporation, Drying, Humidification, Absorption, Distillation. 05 Hours

UNIT 8:
SEPARATION PROCESSES-2
Adsorption, Ion Exchange, Leaching, Crystallization, Membrane processes, Settling, Centrifugation and Size Reduction. 06 Hours

TEXT BOOK
Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles by C. J. Geankoplis, Prentice. Hall.
Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer by Bennett and Myers, Tata Mcgraw Hill.
Introduction to Transport Phenomena by William J. Thomson, PHI.
Transport Phenomena, Bird, Stewart, Lightfoot, JWI
Fundamentals of momentum, heat and mass transfer by Welty, Wicks and Wilson, Wiley India.
Fundamentals of FLUID MECHANICS by SAWHNEY GS, IK Publishers.

REFERENCE BOOKS
Unit Operations of Chemical Engg. by McCabe & Smith, M G H Publications.
Principles of Unit Operations in Chemical Engg. by Geankoplis. Prentice Hall.
Fluid Mechanics by K L Kumar, S.Chand Publishers.
Mechanics of fluids by B.S. Massey, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

BIOPROCESS CONTROL & AUTOMATION LAB
Sub. Code : 10BTL-67

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 03 Exam Hrs. : 03
Exam Marks : 50

  • 1. Characteristics of Transducers (Temperature).
  • 2. Characteristics of Transducers (Pressure).
  • 3. Characteristics of Transducers (Flow).
  • 4. Measurement of OD and DO for microbial cultures
  • 5. Dynamics of First order system (mercury thermometer) for step input and impulse input.
  • 6. Non-interacting system responses to step input
  • 7. Non-interacting system responses to pulse input
  • 8. Interacting System responses to step input
  • 10. Interacting System responses to pulse input
  • 11. Temperature controller – responses to set point / load change
  • 12. pH controller – responses to set point / load change
  • 13. Tuning of Flow controller (ZN and CC methods) and responses of tuned P, PI and PID controllers
  • 14. Tuning of Pressure controller (ZN and CC methods) and responses of tuned P, PI and PID controllers
  • 15. Control of DO (dissolved oxygen level)
  • 16. Control of Agitation (to monitor DO since they are interlinked)

TEXT / REFERENCE BOOKS
Process System analysis and Control by Donald R Coughanowr, McGraw-Hill.
Chemical Process Control by George Stephanopoulos, Prentice-Hall of India.
Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi, Prentice Hall.
Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Pauline M. Doran, Academic Press.
Wolf R. Vieth, Bioprocess Engineering – Kinetics, Mass Transport, Reactors and Gene
Expression. A Wiley – Interscience Publication.

BIOKINETICS & ENZYME TECHNOLOGY LAB
Sub. Code : 10BTL-68

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 03 Exam Hrs. : 03
Exam Marks : 50

  • 1. Batch Growth Kinetics.
  • 2. Mixed Flow Reactor Analysis.
  • 3. Plug Flow Reactor Analysis.
  • 4. Batch Reactor Analysis
  • 5. RTD in PFR
  • 6. RTD in MFR
  • 7. Preparation of standard curve for maltose and assay of amylase activity. Calculation of amylase specific activity
  • 8. Isolation of amylase from saliva/sweet potato. Ammonium sulfate fractionation
  • 9. Isolation of pappain/protease from papaya and assay of pappain/protease using calorimetric method
  • 10. Time course of amylase activity and effect of pH on amylase activity
  • 11. Effect of temperature on amylase activity
  • 12. Effect of substrate concentration on amylase activity (Km & Vmax determination)
  • 13. Effect of inhibitors on enzyme activity
  • 14. Effect of organic solvents on enzyme activity
  • 15. Enzyme Immobilization Techniques and Kinetics.
  • 16. Determination of molecular weight by SDS PAGE

TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKS
Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals by Bailey and Ollis, Mcgraw Hill.
Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi Prentice Hall.
Wolf R. Vieth, Bioprocess Engineering – Kinetics, Mass Transport, Reactors and Gene
Expression. A Wiley – Interscience Publication.
Smith J.M. Chemical Engineering Kinetics, McGraw Hill.
Carbery J A. Chemical and Catalytic Reactor Engineering, McGraw Hill.
Enzymes in Industry: Production and Applications : W. Gerhartz, VCH Publishers, New York.
Enzyme Technology by M.F. Chaplin and C. Bucke, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Enzymes: Dixon and Webb. IRL Press.
Principles of Enzymology for Technological Applications by B Heinemann Ltd, Oxford Press.

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