VTU Bio-Technology 7th Semester Syllabus

Download VTU Bio-Technology Scheme 2010 Soft Copy

Download VTU Bio-Technology Syllabus Soft Copy

VTU Bio-Technology 7th Semester Syllabus

ECONOMICS & PLANT DESIGN
Sub. Code : 10BT-71

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
PROCESS DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
Design project procedure, design information from the literature and other sources of information, flow diagrams, preliminary design, comparison of different processes, firm process design, equipment design and specialization, scale up in design, safety factors specifications, materials of construction. 06 Hours

UNIT 2:
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Marketability of the product, availability of technology, raw materials, human resources, land and utilities, site characteristics, plant location, plant layout, plant operation and control, utilities, structural design, storage, materials handling, materials and fabrication selection, optimum design and design strategy. Waste disposal, govt. regulations and other legal restrictions, community factors. safety and hazard control measures. 08 Hours

UNIT 3:
CAPITAL INVESTMENTS
Fixed capital investments including land, building, equipment and utilities, installation costs, (including equipment, instrumentation, piping, electrical installation and other utilities), working capital investments. 06 Hours

UNIT 4:
MANUFACTURING COSTS AND PLANT OVERHEADS
Manufacturing Costs: Direct Production costs (including raw materials, human resources, maintenance and repair, operating supplies, power and other utilities, royalities, etc.), fixed charges(including depreciation, taxes, insurance, rental costs etc.). Plant Overheads: Administration, safety and other auxiliary services, payroll overheads, warehouse and storage facilities etc. Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
COST ANALYSIS AND TIME VALUE OF MONEY
Cost Analysis: Factors involved in project cost estimation, methods employed for the estimation of the capital investment. Estimation of working capital. Time value of money and equivalence. Conceptual numericals. 08 Hours

UNIT 6:
DEPRECIATION AND TAXES
Depreciation calculation methods. Equivalence after Taxes. Cost comparison after taxes. Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
Methods for the evaluation of profitability. Return on original investment, interest rate of return, accounting for uncertainty and variations and future developments. Replacement and Alternative Investments. Opportunity costs. Conceptual numericals. 08 Hours

UNIT 8:
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND REPORTS
Financial statements. Cash flow diagrams. Break-even analysis. Design Report: Types of reports. Organization of report. Conceptual numericals. 04 Hours

TEXT BOOKS

  • Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Peters and Timmerhaus, McGraw Hill.
  • Process Plant Design by Frank Peter Helmus, Wiley-VCH.
  • Process Plant Design by J.R Backhurst by and J. H Harker, Heieman Educational Books.

REFERENCE BOOKS

  • Rudd and Watson, Strategy of Process Engineering, Wiley.
  • Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi Prentice Hall.
  • Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Pauline M. Doran, Academic Press.
  • Chemical Engineering Vol. VI – An introduction to Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson J.M. and Richardson, J.F Pergamon Press.
  • Process Equipment Design by Joshi M.V, MacMillan India Ltd.
  • Plant Process Simulation by B V Babu, Oxford University Press.

UPSTREAM PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
Sub. Code : 10BT-72

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES
Plant Cell Culture: Introduction, Requirements, Techniques, Media Constituents, Media Selection. Cellular Totipotency, Practical Applications of Cellular totipotency. Organogenesisfactors affecting organogenesis. Cyto-differentiation. Somatic Embryogenesis, Factors Affecting Somatic embryogenesis – Induction, development and Maturation of Somatic embryos, Large scale Production of somatic Embryos, Synthetic Seeds. 08 Hours

UNIT 2:
HAPLOIDS AND TRIPLOID PRODUCTION
Androgenesis and gynogeneis – Techniques for production of haploids, diploidization, production of double haploids, Applications. Triploids production – Endosperm culture and
Applications. 04 Hours

UNIT 3:
IN VITRO SECONDARY METABOLITE PRODUCTION
Secondary metabolite production-strategies for optimizing product yield,culture conditions, selection of high yielding lines, elicitation, immobilization of cultures, hairy root culture and biotransformation. Factors affecting secondary metabolites, industrial application of secondary metabolites. 06 Hours

UNIT4:
ANIMAL CELL CULTURE TECHNIQUES
Media for culturing animal cells and tissues; Natural and synthetic media. Preparation, sterilization and storage of Media. introduction to culture wares Short-term lymphocyte culture, Fibroblast cultures from chick embryo. Development and maintenance of cell lines. In vitro culture of oocytes/embryos. Cell/embryo cryopreservation. Stem cell isolation and culture. 08 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
ANTIBODY TECHNOLOGY
Hybridoma technology for monoclonal antibody production. Applications of custom made monoclonal antibodies. Bioreactors considerations for animal cell cultures – Production of Monoclonal antibodies and therapeutic proteins. 06 Hours

UNIT 6:
MICROBIAL CELL CULTURE TECHNIQUES
Sterilization, media preparation and Culture maintenance. Isolation of pure-colonies. Bacterial titre estimation. Growth curve. Culture characterization. Auxotroph culture isolation.
Biochemical characterization. Antibiotic sensitivity. Bacterial recombination, replica plating technique. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY
Introduction: Types of fermentation – submerged and solid state fermentation. Modes of fermentation – Batch, continuous and fed-batch. Microbial growth kinetics. Development (from shake flask to 2L scale for 1st time) and Optimization of fermentation process – physiological and genetic strategies. Production of primary and secondary metabolites. Strategies to optimize product yield. Instrumentation and control. Preservation of microbial products. Production of antibiotics. Enumeration and screening of novel microbial secondary metabolites, strain improvement. Microbiology of brewing (Distilled and non distilled beverages with examples). 08 Hours

UNIT 8:
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
Nutrient cycling, Use of microbes in industrial waste treatment. Microbial leaching. Utilizing genetically engineered organism for bioprocessing – Strategies and applications. 06 Hours

TEXT BOOKS , REFERENCE BOOKS

Refer Syllabus Book

DOWNSTREAM PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
Sub. Code : 10BT-73

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
Role and importance of downstream processing in biotechnological processes. Problems and requirements of byproduct purification. Economics of downstream processing in Biotechnology. Cost cutting strategies, Characteristics of biological mixtures, Process design criteria for various classes of byproducts (high volume, low value products and low volume, high value products), Physico-chemical basis of different bio-separation processes. 04 Hours

UNIT 2:
PRIMARY SEPARATION TECHNIQUES
Cell disruption methods for intracellular products, removal of insolubles, biomass (and particulate debris) separation techniques; flocculation and sedimentation, Centrifugation (ultra and differential) and filtration methods. 07 Hours

UNIT 3:
PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES
Principle and Applications of Electrophoresis – their types, Types of staining, Iso-electric focusing, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay). 05 Hours

UNIT 4:
PRODUCT SEPARATION TECHNIQUES – CLASSICAL
Distillation, Liquid – liquid extraction, Absorption and Adsorption, Evaporation. 10 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES
Membrane – based separations theory; Design and configuration of membrane separation equipment; Solute polarization and cake formation in membrane ultra filtration – causes, consequences and control techniques; Applications: Use of membrane diffusion as a tool for separating and characterizing naturally occurring polymers; enzyme processing using ultra filtration membranes; separation by solvent membranes; reverse osmosis. 06 Hours

UNIT 6:
ENRICHMENT OPERATIONS
Precipitation methods with salts, organic solvents, and polymers, extractive separations. Aqueous two-phase extraction, supercritical extraction; In situ product removal / integrated bioprocessing. 04 Hours

UNIT 7:
PRODUT RECOVERY – Traditional and Adsorptive separation
Chromatographic separation processes, Electrophoretic separations, hybrid separation technologies, Dialysis; Crystallization. Partition chromatography – Single dimensional (Both Ascending and Descending) and two dimensional chromatography – Thin layer chromatography, Gas liquid Chromatography, Adsorption column chromatography. Ion Exchange Chromatography: Cation Exchange and Anion Exchange chromatography. Gel Filtration Chromatography, Hydrophobic interaction chromatography, Affinity Chromatography, High Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) – analytical and preparative. 10 Hours

UNIT 8:
LAB TO INDUSTRIAL SCALE
Considerations for scale up – All related unit operations. Concepts of Linear flow rate, volumetric flow rate, residence time in chromatographic column during scale up. Quality and regulatory aspects – (QC/QA and GLP and GMP requirements). 06 Hours

TEXT BOOKS, REFERENCE BOOKS

Refer Syllabus Book

FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY

Sub. Code : 10BT-74

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
FOOD SCIENCE
Introduction, constituents of food, colloidal systems in food, stability of colloidal systems, Carbohydrates, Starches, Proteins , Fats in food, sugars in food, Minerals, Aroma compounds and flavors in food, Browning reactions, anti-nutritional factors in foods, Rancidity of foodfactors affecting to rancidity, preventive measures. 06 Hours

UNIT 2:
FOOD NUTRITION
History, Regulation of food intake, Nutritional aspects of Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins. Water and electrolyte balance, Role of dietary factors in nutrition, Metabolism in starvation and malnutrition, Diet and nutrition in India, Food faddism and faulty food habits. 06 Hours

UNIT 3:
MICROORGANISMS IN FOOD AND DETECTION
Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influences the growth of microorganism in food, primary sources of microorganisms found in foods, Synopsis of common food-borne bacteria, genera of molds, genera of yeasts, Microbial detection in food: Culture, Microscopic & sampling methods, Conventional SPC, Membrane filters, microscope colony Counts, Agar droplets, Dry films, Most probable nos. (MPN), Dye-reduction, roll tube, microscopic count (DMC). 06 Hours

UNIT 4:
MICROBIAL SPOILAGE OF FOOD AND FOOD BORNE DISEASES
Microbial spoilage of vegetables, Fruits, fresh and processed meats, Poultry, seafood, Dairy products and miscellaneous foods. Food borne infection and intoxication.Brief discussions on Food borne gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Vibrio, Yersinia and Campylobacter. 08 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
PRESERVATION OF FOOD
Principles underlying preservation of food. Food preservation using chemical preservatives, irradiation, high temperature, low temperature and dehydration. 04 Hours

UNIT 6:
FOOD FERMENTATION
Fermented foods – Production of Bread, Cheese and Sauerkraut. Fermentation of wines, distilled liquor, vinegar, Fermented Dairy products. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
FOOD INDUSTRY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD
Characteristics of food industry. Food manufacturing and processing, objectives of food processing, effect of food processing on food constituents, methods of evaluation of food, proximate analysis of food constituents, Nutritional value, labeling of constituents, (Soya foods, organic foods, dietary foods, (for individuals, for specific groups),nutritional food supplements, Food packaging, edible films, Factors influencing food product development, marketing and promotional strategies. Applications of Biotechnology in food industry-Nutraceuticals, flavonoids, antioxidants, vitamins, enzymes in food industry, economic aspects, enzyme generation of flavor and aroma com pounds. 10 Hours

UNIT 8:
FOOD TECHNOLOGY
Properties of foods and processing theory, Process control, Raw material processing, Thermal properties of frozen foods, Prediction of freezing rates, Food freezing equipments: Air blast freezers, plate freezers and immersion freezers. Food dehydration: estimation of drying time, constant rate period and falling rate period. Equipments: fixed tray dehydration, cabinet drying, tunnel drying. Equipments related to pulping, fruit juice extraction, dehulling and distillation, Food safety (HACCP and FSO systems), good manufacturing practice and quality assurance. 06 Hours

TEXT BOOKS, REFERENCES BOOKS

Refer Syllabus Book

ELECTIVE B
AQUA CULTURE & MARINE BT
Sub. Code : 10BT-751

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT
Major physical and chemical factors (light, temperature, gases, nutrients). Aquatic biota: phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, periphyton, macrophytes, fish and other animals.
Production & Nutrient dynamics in lakes, rivers, estuaries and wetlands. Eutrophication and water pollution: monitoring and control conservation and management of lakes, rivers and wetlands. Importance of coastal aquaculture – design and construction of aqua farms, Criteria for selecting cultivable species. Culture systems – extensive, semi intensive and intensive culture practices. 07 Hours

UNIT 2:
AQUA CULTURE
Classification and Characteristics of Arthropoda. Crustacean characteristic key to Myanmar’s Economically Important species of Prawns and Shrimps, General biology, embryology, morphology, anatomy and organ systems of – (a) Shrimp and Prawn, (b) Finfish, (c) Marine and freshwater fish. Preparation, culture and utilization of live food organisms, phytoplankton zooplankton cultures, Biology of brine shrimp Artemia, quality evaluation of Cyst, hatching and utilization, culture and cyst production. 08 Hours

UNIT 3:
AQUACULTURE ENGINEERING
Principles and criteria for site selection; multi-design, layout plan for prawn, shrimp and fish hatchery; design, lay-out plan and pond construction for grow- out production, design and construction of feed mill and installation of machineries. 04 Hours

UNIT 4:
TECHNIQUES
Chromosome manipulation in aquaculture – hybridization, ploidy induction, gynogenesis, androgenesis and sex reversal in commercially important fishes. Application of microbial
biotechnology in culture ponds, bioaugmentation, bioremediation, nutrient cycling, and biofertilization. Probiotics – Immunostimulants. Tools for disease diagnosis in cultivable organisms – Enzyme immuno assays – Dot immunobinding assay – Western blotting – Latex agglutination test – Monoclonal antibodies – DNA based diagnosis. Cryopreservation techniques. 07 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
MARINE ENVIRONMENT
Biological Oceanography: The division of the marine environment – benthing, pelagic, batuyal, littoral. Ocean waters as biological environment. Distribution and population of plants and animals. Marine ecology and fisheries potential. Effects of pollution on marine life. Geological and geophysical Oceanography: Geophysical and geological processes. Ocean basin rocks and sediments. Beach and beach processes, littoral sediment transports. Coastal erosion-causes and protection. Resources of the ocean-renewable and non-renewable. 05 Hours

UNIT 6:
MARINE MICROBIOLOGY
Biology of micro-organisms used in genetic engineering (Escherichia coil, Rhizobium sp., Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phage lambda, Nostoc, Spirulina, Aspergillus, Pencillium and Streptomyces). Methods of studying the marine micro-organismscollection, enumeration, isolation, culture & identification based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Preservation of marine microbes, culture collection centres (ATCC, IMTECH, etc.). Microbial nutrition and nitrogen fixation. Seafood microbiology – fish & human pathogens. Indicator of Pollution – faecai coliforms – Prevention & control. 08 Hours

UNIT 7:
MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY
Physical, Chemical and Biological aspects of marine life. Air – Sea interaction – Green house gases (CO2 and Methane). Marine pollution-major pollutants (heavymetal, pesticide, oil, thermal, radioactive, plastics, litter and microbial). Biological indicators and accumulators: Protein as biomarkers, Biosensors and biochips. Biodegradation and Bioremediation. Separation, purification and bioremoval of pollutants. Biofouling – Biofilm formation Antifouling and Anti boring treatments. Corrosion Process and control of marine structures. Biosafety – special characteristics of marine environment that bear on biosafety. Ethical and moral issues – food health, and environmental safety concerns. 08 Hours

UNIT 8:
MARINE PHARMACOLOGY
Terms and definitions. Medicinal compounds from marine flora and fauna – marine toxins – antiviral, antimicrobial. Extraction of crude drugs, screening, isolation, purification and
structural characterization of bioactive compounds. Formulation of drugs and Drug designing: Pharmacological evaluation – routes of drug administration – absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. 05 Hours

TEXT BOOKS, REFERENCE BOOKS
Refer Syllabus Book

DAIRY BT
Sub. Code : 10BT-752

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT 1:
DAIRY INDUSTRY
Overview of dairy industry, Characteristics of dairy Industry. Manufacturing & processing of dairy products, effect of processing on constituents and methods of evaluation of dairy products. 02 hours

UNIT 2:
DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY
Microbial quality of milk produced under organized versus unorganized milk sector in India and comparison with developed countries; Morphological and biochemical characteristics of important groups of milk microbes and their classification i.e. psychrotrophs, mesophiles, thermodurics, and thermophiles. Impact of various stages like milking, chilling, storage and transportation on microbial quality of milk with special reference to psychrotrophic organisms; Direct and indirect rapid technique for assessment of microbial quality of milk. Milk as a vehicle of pathogens; Food infection, intoxication and toxic infection caused by milk borne pathogens. Microbiological changes in bulk refrigerated raw milk; Mastitis milk: organisms causing mastitis, detection of somatic cell count (SCC). Role of microorganisms in spoilage of milk; souring, curdling, bitty cream, proteolysis, lipolysis; abnormal flavors and discoloration. Significance of antimicrobial substances naturally present in milk. 10 hours

UNIT 3:
DAIRY BIOTECHNOLOGY
Genetic engineering of bacteria and animals intended for dairy-based products: DNA cloning. protoplast fusion & cell culture methods for trait improvement with instances cited. Enzymes in dairy industry & production by whole cell immobilization. Biotechnology of dairy effluent treatment. Ethical issues relating to genetic modification of dairy microbes & milk-yielding animals. 04 hours

UNIT 4:
DAIRY ENGINEERING
Sanitization: Materials and sanitary features of the dairy equipment. Sanitary pipes and fittings, standard glass piping, plastic tubing, fittings and gaskets, installation, care and maintenance of pipes & fittings. Description and maintenance of can washers, bottle washers. Homogenization: Classification, single stage and two stage homogenizer pumps, power requirements, care and maintenance of homogenizers, aseptic homogenizers. Pasteurization: Batch, flash and continuous (HTST) pasteurizers, Flow diversion valve,
Pasteurizer control, Care and maintenance of pasteurizers. Filling Operation: Principles and working of different types of bottle filters and capping machine, pouch filling machine (Pre-pack and aseptic filling bulk handling system, care and maintenance. 10 hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
DAIRY PROCESS ENGINEERING
Evaporation: Basic principles of evaporators, Different types of evaporators used in dairy industry, Calculation of heat transfer area and water requirement of condensers, Care and maintenance of evaporators. Drying: Introduction to principle of drying, Equilibrium moisture constant, bound and unbound moisture, Rate of drying- constant and falling rate, Effect of Shrinkage, Classification of dryersspray and drum dryers, spray drying, etc., air heating systems, Atomization and feeding systems. Fluidization: Mechanisms of fluidization characteristics of gas-fluidization systems, application of fluidization in drying. Membrane Processing: Ultra filtration, Reverse Osmosis and electro dialysis in dairy processing, membrane construction & maintenance for electro-dialysis & ultra-filtration, effect of milk constituents on operation. 08 hours

UNIT 6:
DAIRY PLANT DESIGN AND LAYOUT
Introduction of Dairy Plant design and layout. Type of dairies, perishable nature of milk, reception flexibility. Classification of dairy plants, selection of site for location. General points of considerations for designing dairy plant, floor plant types of layouts, service accommodation, single or multilevel design. Arrangement of different sections in dairy, Arrangement of equipment, milk piping, material handling in dairies. Drains and drain layout for small and large dairies. Ventilation, fly control, mold prevention, illumination in dairy plants. 06 hours

UNIT 7:
QUALITY AND SAFETY MONITORING IN DAIRY INDUSTRY
Current awareness on quality and safety of dairy foods; consumer awareness and their demands for safe foods; role of Codex Alimentations Commission (CAC) in harmonization of international standards; quality (ISO 9001:2000) and food safety (HACCP) system and their application during milk production and processing. National and international food regulatory standards; BIS, PFA, ICMSF, IDF etc., their role in the formulation of standards for controlling the quality and safety of dairy foods. Good Hygiene Practices (GHP). Quality of water and environmental hygiene in dairy plant; treatment and disposal of waste water and effluents. 08 hours

UNIT 8:
BY PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGY
Status, availability and utilization of dairy by-products in India and abroad, associated economic and pollution problems. Physico chemical characteristics of whey, butter milk and ghee residue; by-products from skim milk such as Casein; Whey processing & utilization of products generated from whey. 04 hours

TEXT BOOKS

  • Diary Science & Technology Handbook, Edited by Hui, Y.H, Wiley Publishers
  • Diary Microbiology Handbook, Edited by Robinson, R.K., Wiley Publishers

REFERENCE BOOKS

Refer Syllabus Book

FORENSIC SCIENCE
Sub. Code : 10BT-753

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
Introduction, Definition and Scope, History and Development of Forensic science, Legal procedures and use of court. 04 Hours

UNIT 2:
CRIME LAB
Organization of a crime Laboratory services of the crime laboratory, Basic services provided by full service crime laboratories, Physical Science unit, Biological unit, Firearms unit, Document Examination unit. Functions and duties performs by each unit and lab. 06 Hours

UNIT 3:
FORENSIC ANALYSIS AND IMAGING
Analysis of Physical evidence, Expert unit men, specially trained evidence collection technician, Analytical technician. Digital cameras and forensic imaging, Uses of digital imaging, Maintaining chain of control with digital images, digital videos, scanners, presenting pictures in courtroom, Detecting compression and forgeries and Maintaining Records 08 Hours

UNIT 4:
FORENSIC BIOLOGY
Forensic Pathology : Rigor mortis, Lovor mortis, Algor mortis. Forensic Anthropology, Forensic Entomology, Forensic Psychiatry, Forensic Odontology, Foresnsic Engineering, DNA Analysis, Dactyloscopy, Fingerprints : Classification and patterns. 08 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
FORENSIC SEROLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
Characterization of blood stains, stain patterns of blood, preservation of blood evidence, characterization of semen, role of toxicologist, toxicology of alcohol, techniques used in
toxicology, role of toxicological findings and drug recognition experts. 07 Hours

UNIT 6:
APPLIED FORENSIC STATISTICS
Probability population and sampler, weight of evidence and the Bayesian likelihood ratio, Transfer evidence application of statistics to particular areas of forensic science, Knowledge base systems, Quality base of system. 07 Hours

UNIT 7:
COMPUTERS IN FORENSICS
General concepts and tools, Arithmetic and logical operation, Developing an algorithm to solve problem, Modularization, Function and procedures, Arrays, File processing , Reports and control breaks, Processing the date. 06 Hours

UNIT 8:
ETHICS IN FORENSICS
The importance of professional ethics to science practitioners, Development of a code of conduct and code of ethics for forensic science, Application of codes and ethics, How ethical requirement, impact the daily work of a forensic scientist, ethical dilemmas and their resolution. 06 Hours

TEXT BOOK,  REFERENCE BOOK
Refer Syllabus Book

DATA STRUCTURES WITH C
Sub. Code : 10BT-754

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT 1:
Pointers: Concepts, Pointer variables, Accessing variables through pointers, Pointer declaration and definition, Initialization of pointer variables, Pointers and functions, Pointer to pointers, Compatibility, L-value and R-value, Arrays and pointers, Pointer arithmetic and arrays, Passing an array to a function, Understanding complex declarations, Memory allocation functions, Array of pointers. 07 Hours

UNIT 2:
Strings: String concepts, C strings, String I/O functions, Array of strings, String manipulation function, Memory formatting. 02 Hours
Derived types -Enumerated, Structure, and Union: The type definition, Enumerated types, Structure, Accessing structures, Complex structures, Array of structures, Structures and functions, Unions 03 Hours
Binary Files: Classification of Files, Using Binary Files, Standard Library Functions for Files. 02 Hours

UNIT 3:
The Stack: Definition and Examples, Representing Stacks in C, An Example – Infix, Postfix, and Prefix 06 Hours

UNIT 4:
Recursion: Recursive Definition and Processes, Recursion in C, Writing Recursive Programs, Simulating Recursion, Efficiency of Recursion. 04 Hours
Queues: The Queue and its Sequential Representation 02 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Lists: Linked Lists, Lists in C, An Example – Simulation using Linked Lists. 07 Hours

UNIT 6:
Lists contd.: Other List Structures 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
Trees: Binary Trees, Binary Tree Representations. 06 Hours

UNIT 8:
Trees contd.: Representing Lists as Binary Trees, Trees and their applications 07 Hours

TEXT BOOKS, REFERENCE BOOKS

Refer Syllabus book

BIOREACTOR DESIGN CONCEPTS
Sub. Code : 10BT-755

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
FUNDAMENTALS OF REACTOR DESIGN
Kinetics: Definitions of rate, Microbial growth and product formation kinetics, Thermal death kinetics of microorganisms, Heterogeneous reaction kinetics, Enzyme kinetics, Multiple reactions – series, parallel and mixed. Basic Design Equations/ Mole Balances: Batch, Fed Batch and Repetitive Batch Reactors, Continuous: Stirred tank and tubular flow reactors (including recycle) size comparison of reactors. 10 Hours

UNIT 2:
BIOREACTOR REQUIREMENTS
Fermentation Process – General requirements; Basic design and construction of fermenters and its ancillaries; Material of construction, Vessel geometry, Bearing assemblies, Motor drives, Aseptic seals; Flow measuring devices, Valves, Agitator and Sparger Design, Sensors. Factors affecting choice, optimum yield and conversion, selectivity and reactivity, Bioprocess and bioreactor design considerations for plant and animal cell cultures. Medium requirements for fermentation processes – examples of simple and complex media; Design and usage of commercial media for industrial fermentations; Effect of media on reactor design. 06 Hours

UNIT 3:
NON-ISOTHERMAL REACTORS AND HEAT TRANSFER EFFECTS
Stoichiometry of Cell growth and Product formation – Elemental balances, available- electron balances, degrees of reduction; yield coefficients of biomass and product formation; maintenance of coefficients; oxygen consumption and heat evolution in aerobic cultures. Conceptual numericals. Non-isothermal homogeneous reactor systems. Adiabatic reactors, batch and continuous reactors, optimum temperature progression. Batch and continuous heat – sterilization of Liquid media; Filter sterilization of liquids. Conceptual numericals. 04 Hours

UNIT 4:
MASS TRANSFER EFFECTS
External mass transfer limitations, correlations for stirred tank, packed bed and fluidized bed reactors. Internal mass transfer limitations, correlations for stirred tank, packed bed and fluidized bed reactors. Combined effect of heat and mass transfer effects Mass transfer in heterogeneous biochemical reaction systems; Oxygen transfer in submerged fermentation processes; Oxygen uptake rates and determination of oxygen transfer coefficients (kLa); role of aeration and agitation in oxygen transfer. Heat transfer processes in biological systems. Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
NON-IDEAL REACTORS
Non-ideal reactors, residence time, distribution studies, pulse and step input response of reactors, RTD’s for CSTR and PFR, calculations of conversions for I and II order reactions, tanks in series and dispersion models. 06 Hours

UNIT 6:
DESIGN OF PACKED BED REACTORS
1D model of packed bed, 2D model of packed bed, Design of Immobilized enzyme packed bed reactor. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
DESIGN OF FERMENTORS
Process and mechanical design of fermenters, volume, sparger, agitator – type, size and motor power, heat transfer calculations for coil and jacket, sterilization system. 08 Hours

UNIT 8:
NOVEL BIOREACTORS DESIGN
Fluidized bed reactors, Slurry Reactors, Air lift & Loop reactors, Packed bed and Hollow fiber membrane bioreactors, Bioreactors for waste treatment processes; Scale-up of bioreactors, SSF bioreactors. Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours

TEXT BOOKS, REFERENCE BOOKS
Refer Syllabus Book

ELECTIVE C
BIOCHIPS & MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY
Sub. Code : 10BT-761

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
Basics of Biochips and Microarray technology, Historical Development. 02 Hours

UNIT 2:
CONSTRUCTION
Flow chart for construction of an micro array, Preparation of the sample, Microarray labels, Preparation of the Micro array, Microarray robotics, Hybridization (Microarray
scanners/headers), related instrumentation. 08 Hours

UNIT 3:
TYPESOF MICROARRAYS
DNA microarrays, oligonucleotide, CDNA and genomic micrarrays, tissue chip, RNA chip, Protein chip, Glyco chips, Integrated biochip system, Megaclone technology for fluid
microarrays, SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy]-based microarrays. 08 Hours

UNIT 4:
DATA ANALYSIS
Automation of microarray and biosensor technologies, Biochip versus gel-based methods. Evaluation of conventional microarray technology, Electrical detection method for microarray, types of Micro array data, Bioinformatics tools for microarray data analysis. 08 Hours

PART B

UNIT5:
BIOCHIPS IN HEALTH CARE
Molecular Diagnostics, Pharmacogenomics, application of microarray technology in drug discovery development and drug delivery. Biochips as neural prostheses. Use of Microarray in genetic disease monitoring. 08 Hours

UNIT 6:
OTHER APPLICATIONS
Use of microarrays in population genetic and epidemiology, use of microarrays on forensics, DNA chip technology for water quality management, Bioagent chip, Applicatin of microarray in the agro industry limitation of biochip technology. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
COMMERCIAL ASPECTS OF BIOCHIP TECHNOLOGY
Markets for biochip technologies, Commercial support for the development of biochips, Government support for biochip development, Business strategies, Patent issues. 06 Hours

UNIT8:
DNA COMPUTING
Introduction, Junctions, other shapes, Biochips and large-scale structures, Discussion of Robinson and Kallenbach, Methods for designing DNA shapes, DNA cube, Computing with DNA, Electrical analogies for biological circuits, Challenges, Future Trends. 06 Hours
TEXT BOOKS, REFERENCE BOOKS
Refer Syllabus Book

BIOMATERIALS
Sub. Code : 10BT-762

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
Introduction, Historical developments, construction materials, impact of biomaterials, strength of biological tissues, performance of implants, tissue response to implants, interfacial phenomena, safety and efficacy testing. Structure and Properties of Materials: Atomic and molecular bonds, crystal structure of solids, phase changes, crystal imperfections, non-crystalline solids, surface properties, mechanical properties of materials, thermal treatments, surface improvements, sterilization. 08 Hours

UNIT 2:
METALS & CERAMICS
Introduction, Stainless steels, Cobalt-Chromium alloys, Titanium based alloys, Nitinol, other metals, metallic Corrosion, biological tolerance of implant metals, Carbons, Alumina, Yttria stabilized zirconia, surface reactive ceramics, resorbable ceramics, composites, analysis of ceramic surfaces 06 Hours

UNIT 3:
SYNTHETIC POLYMERS
Polymers in biomedical use, polyethylene and polypropylene, perfluorinated polymers, acrylic polymers, hydrogels, polyurethanes, polyamides, biodegradable synthetic polymers, silicone rubber, plasma polymerization, micro-organisms in polymeric implants, polymer sterilization. 06 Hours

UNIT 4:
BIOCOMPATIBILITY
Definition, Wound healing process-bone healing, tendon healing. Material response: Function and Degradation of materials in vivo. Host response: Tissue response to biomaterials , Effects of wear particles. Testing of implants: Methods of test for biological performance- In vitro implant tests, In vivo implant test methods. Qualification of implant materials. 06 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
BIOPOLYMERS
Polymers as biomaterials, microstructure, mechanical properties – effects of environment on elastic moduli, yield strength and fracture strengths, sterilization and disinfections of polymeric materials. Biocompatibility of polymers, polymers as biomaterials, heparin and heparin-like polysaccharides, proteoglycans, structure and biological activities of native sulfated glycosaminoglycans, chemically modified glycosaminoglycans, heparin like substances from  nonglycosaminoglycan polysaccharides and microbial glycosaminoglycan, surface immobilized heparins. 08 Hours

UNIT 6:
MEDICAL DEVICES
Polyurethane elastomers, applications of polymers in medicine and surgery. Skin graft polymers, biodegradable polymers in drug delivery and drug carrier systems. Properties of implant materials, metals and alloys, polymers, ceramics and composites, qualification of implant materials, goal of clinical trials, design and conclusion of clinical trials. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
CARDIOVASCULAR BIOMATERIALS
Tissue properties of blood vessels, Treatments of atherosclerosis; Biomechanical design issues pertaining to stents, balloon angioplasty, and pacemakers. Soft Tissue Reconstruction; Natural and Synthetic. Wound healing. Tissue ingrowths: Stability; Biofixation, Foreign Body response, Soft implants. Case Studies. Tissue Engineering: Current issues and Future Directions. 06 Hours

UNIT 8:
REGULATORY ISSUES
Review of Cell and Tissue Structure and their Functions. Functional Requirements of Biomaterials and Tissue Replacements. Synthetic Biomaterials: Metals, Polymers, Ceramics, Gels, Hybrids, Sterilization Technology. Foreign Body Response, Biocompatibility and Wound Healing. 06 Hours

TEXT BOOKS, REFERENCE BOOKS
Refer Syllabus Book

HEALTH DIAGNOSTICS
Sub. Code : 10BT-763

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
Introduction to Health diagnostics, Importance and applications. Biochemical disorders, Immune disorders, Infectious diseases, Parasitic diseases, Genetic disorders chromosomal disorders, single cell disorders and complex traits. Chromosomal disorders : autosomal; sex chromosomal; karyotype analysis. 04 Hours

UNIT 2:
DNA BASED DIAGNOSTICS
DNA based diagnostics: PCR based diagnostics (Fragile X chromosome detection and SRY in sex chromosomal anomalies), PCR-SSCP (Sickle cell anemia, Thalassemia), Ligation Chain Reaction, Southern blot diagnostics (Triple nucleotide expansions in Fragile X chromosome and SCA), PAGE (band detection of enzyme variants), DNA Sequencing (DNA Sequencing of representative clones to detect mutations), SNP analysis, Array based diagnostics, Genetic Profiling, G Banding- Detection of autosomal and sex chromosomal disorders (translocation, deletion, Down’s Syndrome, Klenefelter’s Syndrome, Turner’s Syndrome), In situ hybridization- FISH (detection of translocations and inversions – chromosome 9-22 translocation, X-Y translocations), Comparative Genomic Hybridization, Cancer cytogenetics, Spectral Karyotyping. Dynamic mutaions: Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative disorders. 15 Hours

UNIT 3:
BIOCHEMICAL DIAGNOSTICS
Inborn errors of metabolism, haemoglobinopathies, mucopolysaccharidoses, lipidoses, lipid profiles, HDL, LDL, Glycogen storage disorders, amyloidosis. 03 Hours

UNIT 4:
CELL BASED DIAGNOSTICS:
Antibody markers, CD Markers, FACS, HLA typing, Bioassays. 04 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
IMMUNODIAGNOSTICS
Introduction, Antigen-Antibody Reactions, Conjugation Techniques, Antibody Production, Enzymes and Signal Amplification Systems, Separation and Solid-Phase Systems, Case studies related to bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. Diagnosis of infectious diseases, respiratory diseases (influenza, etc.) Viral diseases-HIV etc., bacterial diseases, enteric diseases, parasitic diseases and mycobacterium diseases. Phage display, immunoarrays, FACs. 10 Hours

UNIT 6:
IMAGING DIAGNOSTICS
Imaging Techniques – Basic Concepts, Invasive and Non-Invasive techniques; ECG, EEG, Radiography, Nuclear Medicine, SPECT, PET, CT, MRI, Ultrasound Imaging, Photoacoustic imaging, Digital Mammography, Endoscopy; Planning and Organization of Imaging Services in Hospital, PACS, Staffing, Records, Policies, Safety measures and Radiation Protection.10 Hours

UNIT 6:
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Immunoassay Classification and Commercial Technologies, Assay Development, Evaluation, and Validation, Reagent Formulations and Shelf Life Evaluation, Data Analysis, Documentation, Registration, and Diagnostics Start-Ups. 03 Hours

UNIT 8:
BIOSENSORS
Concepts and applications, Biosensors for personal diabetes management, Noninvasive Biosensors in Clinical Analysis, Introduction to Biochips and their application in Health. 03 Hours

TEXT / REFERENCE BOOKS:
Refer Syllabus Book

FUNDAMENTALS OF OS & DBMS
Sub. Code : 10BT-764

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION
What is O.S, Von-Neumann architechture, Supercomputers, Mainframe systems, Desktop system, Multiprocessor systems, Distributor systems, Clustered systems, Real time systems, Hand held systems, Future migration, Computing environment, System components, OS services, System calls, System programs, system structure, OS design and implementation, microkernels, virtual machines. 06 Hours

UNIT 2:
PROCESS MANAGEMENT
Process concept, process state, process control block, process scheduling, snail diagrams, schedulers, creation and removal of a process, interprocess communication, models for IPC, independent and cooperating processes, threads, overview, multithreading, applications, critical selection problem, Semaphores, deadlocks and starvation. 06 Hours

UNIT 3:
STORAGE MANAGEMENT
Memory management, dynamic loading and linking, overlays, logical vs physical address space, memory management unit, swapping, contigous allocation, fragmentation, paging, page table, segmentation, virtual memory, demand paging, thrashing file system, interface-file concept, directory implementation . 06 Hours

UNIT 4:
LINUX AND WIN NT
Linux: Design principles, Kernel modules, process management, scheduling, memory management systems, input and output, inter-process communication.
WinNT: Design principles, system components, environmental subsystems, file system, networking and programming interface. 08 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
DESIGN OF DBMS
Introduction to DBMS, terminology, Systems Development Life Cycle, terms of reference, feasibility report, data flow diagrams, addition of data sources, identification of individual
processes, inputs and outputs, system boundaries, Entity-Relationship modeling, examples, database creation using MS Access, designing tables using Access, Data Integrity,
Normalization, relationships between tables, comparing E-R design with Normalization design, Inclusion of new requirements from feasibility report, documentation, amending primary keys and database tables, Practical examples. 08 Hours

UNIT 6:
DATA DICTIONARY AND QUERY DESIGN
Data dictionary, criteria, compiling a list of field names, entry sequence for the table data, entering, sorting and filtering of data in a table, introduction to queries, identifying field names, selection criteria and sort order in a query, calculations in queries, modifying a query, creating a query using design view and wizard in MS Access. 08 Hours

UNIT 7:
REPORTING, TESTING AND DOCUMENTATION
Introduction to reporting, dataflow diagram based reporting and table based reporting, form creation using wizard, entering and searching records in a form, modifying forms and reports, Introduction to testing, types (unit testing, system testing, integration testing, interface testing, performance testing and user testing), test data, executing and error reporting, introduction to documentation, areas of documentation. 06 Hours

UNIT 8:
SETTING UP THE DATA AND HOUSEKEEPING
Approaches to set up data (parallel, bigbang, phased and pilot implementation), working data, data entry methods to the database (systems screen, external source), introduction to housekeeping, regular backups, archiving old data, maintaining security in a database. 04 Hours

TEXT / REFERENCE BOOKS
Refer Syllabus Book

CAD & MATLAB
Sub. Code : 10BT-765

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03
Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

UNIT 1:
FLUID FLOW SYSTEMS
CAD of fluid flow system: Flow of Newtonian fluids in pipes. Pressure drop in compressible flow. Flow of non-Newtonian fluids in pipes. Pipe network calculations. Two phase flow system. 06 Hours

UNIT 2:
HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEMS
CAD of heat transfer equipment: Shell and tube exchangers without phase change. Condensers, Reboilers. Furnaces. 06 Hours

UNIT 3:
MASS TRANSFER SYSTEMS
CAD of mass transfer equipment: Distillation, gas absorption and liquid extraction.06 Hours

UNIT 4:
REACTOR SYSTEMS
CAD of chemical Reactors: Chemical reaction equilibrium analysis of rate data, ideal reactor models. Non-ideality in chemical reaction. Performance analysis using residence time distribution. Temperature effects in homogeneous reactors. Heterogeneous systems. Fluidized bed reactors. 08 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
MATLAB
Introduction to Matlab Environment, basics, matlab sessions, creating an array of numbers, printing simple plots, creating, saving and executing a script file, function file, working with files and directories. 06 Hours

UNIT 6:
INTERACTIVE COMPUTING
Matrices and vectors, indexing, matrix manipulation, creating vectors, arithmetic, relational, and logical operations, elementary mathematical functions, matrix functions, character strings, vectorization, inline functions, anonymous functions, built-in functions and online help, saving and loading data, plotting simple graphs. 06 Hours

UNIT 7:
PROGRAMMING IN MATLAB
Script files, function files, executing a function, subfunctions, compiled functions, profiler, global variables, loops, branches and control flow, interactive input, recursion, multidimensional matrices, structures, cells, publishing reports. 06 Hours

UNIT 8:
APPLICATIONS
Solving a linear system, Gaussian elimination, finding eigenvectors and eigenvalues, matrix factorizations, polynomial curvefitting, least squares curvefitting, nonlinear fits, interpolation, data analysis and statistics, numerical integration, a first order linear ODE, specifying tolerance, the ODE suite, roots of polynomials, 2D plotting, options, overlay plots, 3D plotting, rotate view, mesh and surface plots, vector field, subplots for multiple graphs, saving and printing graphs. 08 Hours

TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKS
Refer Syllabus Book

UPSTREAM BIOPROCESSING LABORATORY
Sub. Code : 10BTL-77

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 03 Exam Hrs. : 03
Exam Marks : 50

1. Preparation of media for plant tissue culture
2. Callus Induction Techniques – Carrot/Beet root/ or any other material
3. Development of suspension culture from callus
4. Induction of Secondary metabolite – Anthocyanin/catheranthin
5. Estimation of Lycopene from tomato fruits
6. Estimation of Anthocyanin from leaf /callus tissue
7. Estimation of DNA (by DPA method)
8. Protein estimation by Lowry’s method / Bradford’s method.
9. Development of inocula; lag time effect
10. Shake flask studies; Comparison of biomass yield in defined & complex media
11. Production and estimation of citric acid from Aspergillus niger
12. Preparation of the fermenter
13. Production of Ethanol in fermenter – Study of growth, product formation kinetics, end substrate utilization

TEXT / REFERENCE BOOKS
Refer Syllabus Book

DOWNSTREAM BIOPROCESSING LABORATORY
Sub. Code : 10BTL-78

I.A Marks : 25
Hours/week : 03 Exam Hrs. : 03
Exam Marks : 50

1. Cell disruption techniques.
2. Solid-liquid separation methods: Filtration.
3. Solid-liquid separation methods: Sedimentation.
4. Solid-liquid separation methods: Centrifugation.
5. Product enrichment operations: Precipitation – (NH4)2 SO4 fractionation of a protein.
6. Product enrichment operations: Two – phase aqueous extraction.
7. Product drying techniques.
8. Staining Techniques (Coomassie Blue & Silver).
8. Separation of Amino acids / Carbohydrates by TLC.
9. Characterization of protein by Western blotting
10. Estimation of % of ethanol from fermented broth.
11. Estimation of Citric acid from fermented broth.
12. Separation of proteins by molecular sieving / Ion exchange chromatography.
13. Analysis of biomolecules by HPLC / GC (using standard spectra).
14. Native PAGE versus SDS PAGE (using BSA).

TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKS
Refer Syllabus Book

Leave a reply