VTU Chemical Engineering 3rd Semester Syllabus |2010 Scheme

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MOMENTUM TRANSFER
Subject Code : 10CH32

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Fluid Statics and its Applications: Concept of unit operations, Concept of Momentum Transfer, Nature of fluids and pressure
concept, Variation of pressure with height – hydrostatic equilibrium, Barometric equation, Measurement of fluid pressure – manometers. Continuous gravity decanter, Centrifugal decanter. 6 Hours

UNIT 2:
Fluid flow phenomena: Types of fluids – shear stress and velocity gradient relation, Newtonian and non – Newtonian fluids, Viscosity of gases and liquids. Types of flow – laminar and turbulent flow, Reynolds stress, Eddy viscosity. Flow in boundary layers, Reynolds number, Boundary layer separation and wake formation. 6 Hours

UNIT 3:
Basic equations of fluid flow: Average velocity, Mass velocity, Continuity equation, Euler and Bernoulli equations, Modified equations for real fluids with correction factors. Pump work in Bernoulli equation. Angular momentum equation. 6 Hours

UNIT 4:
Flow of incompressible fluids in conduits and thin layer: Laminar flow through circular and non-circular conduits. Hagen Poiseuille equation, Laminar flow of non-newtonian liquids, Turbulent flow in pipes and closed channels, Friction factor chart. Friction from change in velocity or direction. Form friction losses in Bernoulli equation. Flow of fluids in thin layers. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Flow of compressible fluids: Continuity equation, Concept of Mach number, Total energy balance, Velocity of sound, Ideal gas equations. Flow through variable-area conduits. Adiabatic frictional flow. Isothermal frictional flow (elementary treatment only). 6 Hours

UNIT 6:
Flow of fluid past immersed bodies: Drag, Drag coefficient, Pressure drop – Kozeny-Carman equation, Blake-Plummer, Ergun equation, Fluidizaion, Conditions for fluidization, Minimum fluidization velocity, Types of fluidization, 4 Hours
Metering of fluids: Pipes, Fitting and valves, Measurement of liquid and gas flow rates by orifice meter, venturi meter, rotameter and pitot tube. 4 Hours

UNIT 7:
Flow through open channels – weirs and notches. 2 Hours
Transportation of fluids: Elementary concept of target meter, vortex shedding meters, turbine meters, positive displacement meters, magnetic meters, coriolis meters and thermal meters. Performance and characteristics of pumps – positive displacement and centrifugal pumps. Fans, compressor and blowers. 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Dimensional analysis: Dimensional homogeneity, Rayleigh’s and Buckingham’s II – methods. Significance of different dimensionless numbers. Elementary treatment of similitude between model and prototype. 4 Hours
Introduction to unsteady state flow: Time to empty the liquid from a tank. 2 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, McCabe. W.L., et. al. 6th edn., McGraw Hill, New York, 2001.
  • 2. Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Kumar K. I.,3rd Edition, Eurasia Publishing House (p) Ltd., New Delhi,1984.

Reference Books:

  • 1. Chemical Engineering, Vol. 1., Coulson J. II and Richardson. J.F.., 5th edn., Asian Books (p) Ltd., New Delhi, 1998.
  • 2. Introduction to Chemical Engineering, Badger. W.I., and Banchero J.T., Tata McGraw Hill, New York, 1997.

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS – III
Subject Code : 10MAT31

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CHEMICAL PROCESS CALCULATIONS
Subject Code : 10CH33

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Units and dimensions: Fundamental and derived units, Conversion. Dimensional consistency of equations. Dimensionless groups and constants. Conversion of equations. 6 Hours

UNIT 2:
Basic chemical calculations: Concept of mole, mole fraction. Compositions of mixtures of solids, liquids and gases. Concept of normality, molarity, molality, ppm. Use of semi-log, loglog, triangular graphs. Ideal gas law calculations, 6 Hours

UNIT 3:
Vapour pressure concepts, humidity, humidity chart, humidification and dehumidification, calculation of humidity. 7 Hours

UNIT 4:
Material balance without reaction: General material balance equation for steady and unsteady state. Typical steady state material balances in distillation, absorption, extraction, crystallization, drying. 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Steady state material balance for mixing and evaporation. Elementary treatment of material balances involving bypass. Recycle and purging. 6 Hours

UNIT 6:
Steady state material balance with reaction: Principles of stoichiometry, Concept of limiting and excess reactants and inerts, fractional and percentage conversion, fractional yield and percentage yield, selectivity, related problems. 7 Hours

UNIT 7:
Ultimate and proximate analyses of fuels, Calculations involving combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, excess air. 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Energy balance: General steady state energy balance equation, Thermo physics. Thermo chemistry and laws. Heat capacity. Enthalpy, Heat of formation, Heat of reaction, Heat of combustion and Calorific values. Heat of solution. Heat of mixing, Heat of crystallization.Determination of ΔHr at standard and elevated temperatures, flame temperature. 7 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. Stoichiometry (SI Units), Bhatt B.L. and Vora S.M, Third Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Ltd., New Delhi, 1996.
  • 2. Chemical Process Principles Part – I Material and Energy Balances, Hougen O.A., Waston K.M. and Ragatz R.A., 2nd Edition, CBS publishers and distributors, New Delhi, 1995.
  • 3. Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering, Himmelblau D.M., 6th Edition, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1997.

TECHNICAL CHEMISTRY
Subject Code : 10CH34

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Colligative properties: Concept of mole and mole fraction. Colligative properties – Meaning and types, Lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law – statement, limitations. Determination of molecular weight by lowering of vapour pressure, problems. Ostwald’s and Walker’s method, Elevation in boiling point of a solvent – derivation, Experimental determination of molecular weight by ebulliscopic method, problems. Isotonic solutions – abnormal molecular weight. Osmosis and Osmotic pressure – Explanation of the terms, effect of concentration and temperature and simultaneous effect of concentration and temperature on osmotic pressure. Determination of molecular weight – Berkeley and Hartley’s method and problems. 8 Hours

UNIT 2:
Principles of valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory: Introduction to chemical bonding – Formation of ionic bond, covalent bond and co-ordinate bond with examples; Energies of covalent bond formation, Valence bond theory – postulates and explanation, Types of covalent bonds: -σ and -π bonds; Molecular orbital theory – postulates, Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO), conditions for effective combination of atomic orbitals. Molecular orbital configuration of simple molecules (H2 and He2); Similarities and distinctions between valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory; Polar and non polar covalent bonds. 6 Hours

UNIT 3:
Surface chemistry: Introduction, Types of adsorption – Physisorption and chemisorption, adsorption isotherm, isobar, isotere, Langmuir adsorption isotherm, BET isotherm, BET equation for surface area, Langmuir-Hinshelwood, and Langmuir-Rideal mechanisms, kinetic effects of surface heterogeneity, surface inhibition and activation energies, unimolecular and bimolecular surface reactions, reactions between two adsorbed molecules, Transition state theory of surface reactions, Mechanism of chemisorption and rates of chemisorption and desorption. 7 Hours

UNIT 4:
Catalysis: Basic principles, classification of catalytic systems; Homogeneous catalysis: Homogeneous catalysis involving gases, Homogeneous catalysis in the liquid phase with examples including Wilkinson’s catalyst; Heterogeneous catalysis- Explanation with examples including Ziegler-Natta catalyst; Mechanism of acid-base catalysis, Catalytic reactions- Hydrogenation, transfer hydrogenation, hydroformylation, isomerization, Wacker’s processacetic acid from ethylene; Negative catalysis and its mechanism. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Dyes: Colour and constitution – chromophore, and auxochrome theory , modern theory of colour, classification of dyes – by structure and by methods of application. Synthesis of dyes – Methyl orange, Congo red, Malachite green, Indigo and Alizarin. 6 Hours

UNIT 6:
Reaction mechanism: Concept of reactive intermediates- carbanions, carbocations, inductive and resonance effects; Mechanism of nucleophilic substitution (SN1 and SN2) in alkyl halides; Mechanistic concept of elimination reactions (E1 and E2); Mechanism of electrophilic substitution in benzene – Nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel-Crafts alkyl and acylation reactions; Electronic interpretation of orienting influences of substituents in aromatic electrophilic substitution of toluene, chlorobenzene, phenol and nitrobenzene. 7 Hours

UNIT 7:
Insecticides: Definition, classification – i) Internal or Stomach insecticide ii) External or Contact Insecticides iii) Fumigants – Explanation with examples; Organic insecticides –
DDT, Chlordane, Nitrophenol, BHC (Gammexane), Aldrin, Schradan, Parathion, Malathion and Baygon – synthesis and their applications; Rodenticides, Fungicides, and Herbicides – Definition, examples and their applications. 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Oils and fats-Vegetable oils- Examples; Analysis of oils- Saponification value,iodine value and acid value – their determination, Extraction of oils- Solvent extraction, Refining of oils, Hydrogenation – manufacture of Vanaspati. Soaps and detergents – Manufacture of soap by hot process; Types of soaps – Liquid soap, Toilet soaps-opaque and transparent; Mechanism of cleansing action of soap; Synthetic detergents– Ionic detergents-anionic and cationic; Nonionic detergents-Manufacture. 6 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. Organic Chemistry, Morrision B.R. and Boyd L.L., 6th Edition, ELBS, New Delhi, 1999.
  • 2. Physical Chemistry, Puri L.R. and Sharma B.R., 14th Edition, Chand S. and Co., New Delhi, 1998.

Reference Books:

  • 1. Modern Synthetic Reactions, House, H.O., ULBS Publishers, New Delhi.
  • 2. Organic Reactions Mechanism, Sykes Peter, 2nd Edition, ULBS Publishers, New Delhi, 2003.
  • 3. Organic Chemistry, Finar, Vol 1 and 2, ULBS Publishers, New Delhi.
  • 4. Industrial Chemistry, Sharma B.K., 11th Edition, Chand S. and Co. New Delhi, 2001.
  • 5. Organic Chemistry, Tiwari Melhrotra and Vishnoi, 7th edition, Chand S. and Co., New Delhi, 1996.
  • 6. A Text Book of Organic Chemistry, Arun Bahl and Bahl B.S., 15th Edition, S. Chand and Company, New Delhi, 1998.
  • 7. Surface Chemistry: Theory and applications, J.J. Bikerman, 2nd Edition, Academic press, New York, 1972.
  • 8. Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, A.W. Adamson, 3rd Edition, Interscience publishers Inc., New York, 1960.

MECHANICAL OPERATIONS
Subject Code : 10CH35

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Particle technology: Particle shape, particle size, different ways of expression of particle size, shape factor, sphericity, standard screen, screens – ideal and actual screens, differential and cumulative size analysis, specific surface of mixture of particles, Number of particles in a mixture, effectiveness of screen, 5 Hours

UNIT 2:
Industrial screening equipment, Motion of screen, Grizzly, Gyratory screen, Vibrating screen, Trommels, Sub sieve analysis – Air permeability method, Sedimentation and elutriation methods. 5 Hours

UNIT 3:
Size reduction: Introduction – Types of forces used for comminution, Criteria for communition, characteristics of comminuted products, Laws of size reduction, Work Index, Energy utilization, Methods of operating crushers – Free crushing, Choke feeding, Open circuit grinding, Closed circuit grinding, Wet and dry grinding, Equipment for size reduction – Blake jaw crusher, Gyratory crusher, Smooth roll crusher, Toothed roll crusher, Impactor, Attrition mill, Ball mill, Critical speed of ball mill, Ultra fine grinders, Fluid energy mill, Colloid mill, Cutters – Knife cutter. 8 Hours

UNIT 4:
Motion of particles through fluids: Mechanics of particle motion, equation for one dimensional motion of particles through a fluid in gravitational and centrifugal field, Terminal velocity, Drag coefficient, Motion of spherical particles in Stoke’s regime, Newton’s regime and Intermediate region, Criterion for settling regime, Hindered settling, Modification of equation for hindered settling, Sedimentation: Coe and Clevenger theory, Kynch theory, Batch settling test, Application of batch settling test, Determination of thickener area. 8 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Filtration: Introduction, Classification of filtration, Cake filtration, Clarification, Batch and continuous filtration, pressure and vacuum filtration, Constant rate filtration, characteristics of filter media, industrial filters, sand filter, Filter press, leaf filter, Rotary drum filter, Horizontal belt filter, Bag filter, Centrifugal filtration – Suspended batch centrifuge, Filter aids, Application of filter aids. 7 Hours

UNIT 6:
Agitation and mixing: Application of agitation, Agitation equipment, Types of impellers – Propellers, Paddles and Turbines, Flow patterns in agitated vessels, Prevention of swirling, Standard turbine design, Power correlation and power calculation, Mixing of solids, Types of mixers – Change can mixers, Muller mixers, Mixing index, Ribbon blender, Internal screw mixer, Tumbling mixer. 6 Hours

UNIT 7:
Sampling, storing and conveying of solids: Sampling of solids, storage of solids, Open and closed storage, Bulk and bin storage, Conveyors – Belt conveyor, Chain conveyor, Apron conveyor, Bucket conveyor, Bucket elevator, Screw conveyor, Slurry transport, Applications of fluidization, Pneumatic conveying. 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Miscellaneous separation: Magnetic separation, electrostatic separation, Jigging, Heavy media separation, Froth floatation process, Additives used during floatation, Floatation cells, Typical floatation circuits, Size enlargement (only principle and equipment) – Flocculation, Briquetting, Pelletization, Granulation, Settling chambers, Centrifugal separators, Cyclones and Hydro cyclones, Electrostatic Separator, Venturi scrubber. 7 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, McCabe W.L., et.al., V Edn., McGraw Hill International, New york, 2000.
  • 2. Introduction to Chemical Engineering, Badger, W.L. and Banchero J.T, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill International Edition, Singapore, 1999.
  • 3. Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering Vol. 2 Particle Technology and Separation Processes, Coulson J.M. and Richardson J.F., 4th Edition, Asian Books Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 1998.

Reference Books:

  • 1. Unit Operations, Brown. G.G. et.al., 1st Edition, CBS Publishers, New Delhi, 1995.
  • 2. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, Perry R and Green W.D., 1st Edition, McGraw Hill International, New York, 2000.
  • 3. Principles of Unit Operations, Foust A. S. et.al., 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1977.

COMPUTER AIDED CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT DRAWING
Subject Code : 10CH36

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 50

Sectional views: Representation of the sectional planes, Sectional lines and hatching, selection of section planes and types of sectional views. 6 Hours

Proportionate drawing of process equipment: Equipment and piping symbols, Vessel component; Vessel opening, Manholes, Vessel enclosures, Vessel support, Jackets, Shell and tube heat exchanger, Reaction vessel and Evaporator. 12 Hours

Assembly drawing: (i) Joints: Cotter joint with sleeve, cotter joint, Socket and Spigot joint, Flanged pipe joint, Union joint, Stuffing box and Expansion joint (Screw type or Flanged type).
(ii) Valves: Stop valve, Globe valve, Stop cock and Gate valve, Screw down Stop valve, Rams
Bottom safety valve, Non-return valve.
(iii) Pumps: Centrifugal pump, Gear pump. 21 Hours

Note: 1. Assignments to be given to students to practice all the drawings and weightage shall be given to these assignments while awarding IA marks.
2. Examination consists of one question on proportionate drawing (15 marks) and one question on Assembly drawing (35 Marks). Weightage must be given for proportionate sketching drawn on paper.

Software: Solid Edge or Equivalent Software

Text Books:

  • 1. Machine Drawing, Gopal Krishna, 9th Edition, K.R, Subhas Stores, Bangalore 1995.
  • 2. Machine Drawing, Bhatt, N.D., 29th Edition, Charotar Publishing House, Anand, 1995.
  • 3. Process Equipment Design, Joshi, M.V., 3rd Edition, Macmillian India publication”, New Delhi, 2000.

Reference Books:

  • 1. Chemical Process Equipment, Walas, S.M., Butterworth Heinemann Pub. 1999.
  • 2. Applied Process Design, Ludwig E.E., 3rd Edition, Gulf Professional Publising, New Delhi, 1994.

MOMENTUM TRANSFER LAB
Subject Code : 10CHL37

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 50

The experiment should be based on the following topics;
1. Friction in circular pipes
2. Friction in non circular pipes
3. Friction in helical / spiral coils
4. Flow rate measurement using venturi / orifice meters (incompressible fluid)
5. Local velocity measurement using pitot tube
6. Flow over notches
7. Hydraulic coefficients – open orifice
8. Packed bed
9. Fluidized bed
10. Characteristics for centrifugal pump
11. Study of various pipe fittings and their equivalent lengths
12. Compressible fluid flow measurement using venturi / orifice meters
13. Reynolds apparatus
14. Air lift pump
Note: Minimum of 10 experiments are to be conducted.

TECHNICAL CHEMISTRY LAB – I
Subject Code : 10CHL38

IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 50

The experiment should be based on the following topics;
1. Estimation of HCl and CH3COOH in a given acid mixture conductometrically.
2. Determination of sulphate and nitrate in the given sample of water using Nephelometer and spectrophotometer.
3. Determination of chloride content in the given sample of water using N/40 AgNO3 solution and KCl crystals.
4. Determination of partition coefficient of iodine between water and carbon tetrachloride.
5. Study of kinetics of the reaction between K2S2O8 and KI.
6. Determination of percentage of nitrogen in ammonium fertilizers, using 1 N NaOH solution and standard HCl solution.
7. Determination of percentage composition of binary mixture using Ostwald’s viscometer.
8. Effect of salt on the critical solution temperature of phenol-water system.
9. Determination of molecular weight of a non-volatile solute by elevation in boiling point. (Using McCoy’s apparatus).
10. Determination of nickel as nickel dimethylglyoximate gravimetrically (after separating iron) in the given stainless steel solution.
11. Determination of iron as ferric oxide gravimetrically (after separating copper) in the given chalcopyrites ore solution.
12. Determination of zinc in the given brass solution volumetrically (after separating copper).

Note: Minimum of 10 experiments are to be conducted.

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