VTU Chemical Engineering 4th Semester Syllabus

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS – IV
Sub Code : 10MAT41

IA Marks : 25
Hrs/ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

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MATERIAL SCIENCE
Subject Code : 10CH42

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Introduction: Introduction to material science, classification of engineering materials, Level of structure, Structure property relationships in materials. 2 Hours
Crystal Geometry And Structure Determination Geometry of crystals-the Bravais lattices, Crystal directions and planes-the miller indices, Structure determination-X-Ray diffraction- Bragg law, The powder method, Scanning electron microscope. 4 Hours

UNIT 2:
Atomic Structure, Chemical Bonding And Structure Of Solids: Structure of atom, Periodic table, Ionization potential, Electron affinity and electro-negativity, Primary and secondary bonds, Variation of bonding character and properties, Covalent solids, Metals and alloys, Ionic solids, Structure of silica and silicates, Polymers. 6 Hours

UNIT 3:
Crystal Imperfections: Point imperfections, Line imperfections-edge and screw dislocations, Surface imperfections. 5 Hours

UNIT 4:
Phase Diagram and Phase Transformations: Phase rule, Single component systems, Binary phase diagrams, Lever rule, Typical phase diagrams for Magnesia-Alumina, Copper-Zinc, Iron – Carbon systems, Nucleation and growth, solidification, Allotropic transformation, Cooling curve for pure iron, Iron-carbon equilibrium diagram, Isothermal transformations (TTT Curves), Eutectic, Eutectoid, Peritectic, Peritectoid reactions. 8 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Deformation of Materials and Fracture: Elastic deformation, Plastic deformation, Creep, Visco-elastic deformation, Different types of fracture. 7 Hours

UNIT 6:
Heat Treatment: Annealing Normalizing, Hardening, Martempering, Austempering, Hardenability, Quenching, Tempering, Carburising, Cyaniding, Nitriding, Flame hardening.
6 Hours

UNIT 7:
Corrosion and its Prevention: Direct corrosion, Electro-chemical corrosion, Galvanic cells, High temperature corrosion, Passivity, Factor influencing corrosion rate, Control and prevention of corrosion-modification of corrosive environment, Inhibitors, Cathodic protection, Protective coatings, glass lining, lead lining, FRP lining. 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Typical Engineering Materials: Ferrous metals, Non ferrous metals and alloys – Aluminium and its alloys, Copper and its alloys, Lead and its alloys, Tin, Zinc and its alloys, Alloys for high temperature service, Ceramic materials – Structure of ceramics, Polymorphism, Mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of ceramic phase. 8 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. Materials Science and Engineering – A First Course, Raghavan V, 3rd Edn., Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1996.
  • 2. Material Science and Processes, Hajra Choudhury S.K., 2nd Edition, Indian Book Distributing Co., 1982.

Reference Books:

  • 1. Elements of Material Science, Van Valck H.L., 2nd Edn., Addision – Wesly Publishing Company, New York, 1964.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
Subject Code : 10CH43

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Basic Concepts: System, surrounding and Processes, Closed and Open systems, State and Properties, Intensive and Extensive Properties, State and Path functions, Equilibrium state and Phase rule, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Heat reservoir and Heat engines, Reversible and Irreversible processes. First Law of Thermodynamics: General statement of First law of thermodynamics, First law of cyclic process and non – flow processes, Heat capacity. Derivation for closed system & steady state flow process-flow calorimeter & heat capacity. 6 Hours

UNIT 2:
P-V-T Behaviour: P-V-T behaviour of pure fluids, Equations of state and ideal gas law, Processes involving ideal gas law: Constant volume, constant pressure, constant temperature, adiabatic and polytropic processes. Equations of state for real gases: Vander Waals equation, Redlich – Kwong equation, Peng – Robinson equation, Virial equation. Compressibility charts: Principles of corresponding states, Generalized compressibility charts: Principles of corresponding states, Generalized compressibility charts. Thermodynamics diagrams. 6 Hours

UNIT 3:
Second law of thermodynamics: General statements of the Second law, concept of Entropy, The Carnot Principle, Calculation of entropy changes, Clausius Inequality, Entropy and Irreversibility, Third law of thermodynamics. 6 Hours

UNIT 4:
Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Fluids: Reference Properties, Energy Properties, Derived Properties, Work function, Gibbs free energy, Relationships among thermodynamic properties: Exact differential equations, Fundamental property relations, Maxwell’s equations, Clapeyron equations, Entropy heat capacity relations, Modified equations for Internal energy and enthalpy, Effect of temperature on internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy, Relationships between CP and CV, Gibbs- Helmholtz equation. 8 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Properties of Solutions: Partial molar properties, Chemical potential, Fugacity in solutions, Henry’s law and dilute solutions, Activity in solutions, Property changes of mixing, excess properties. (Qualitative treatment) Activity & activity coefficient. 7 Hours

UNIT 6:
Phase Equilibria: Criteria of phase equilibria, Criterion of stability, Duhem’s theorem, Vapour – Liquid Equilibria, VLE in ideal solutions, Non-Ideal solutions, VLE at low pressures, VLE at high pressures, Consistency test for VLE data, Calculation of Activity coefficients using Gibbs – Duhem equation, Liquid-Liquid equilibrium diagrams. 6 Hours

UNIT 7:
VLE Correlations Equations: Van Laar, Margules, and Willson equations. 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Chemical Reaction Equilibria: Reaction Stoichiometry, Criteria of chemical reaction equilibrium, Equilibrium constant and standard free energy change, Effect of temperature, pressure on equilibrium constants and other factors affecting equilibrium conversion, Liquid phase reactions, Heterogeneous reaction equilibria, phase rule for reacting system. 7 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, Smith J.M. and Vanness H.C., Fifth edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 1996.
  • 2. Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, Rao, Y.V.C., New Age International Publication, Nagpur, 2000.
  • 3. Textbook of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, Narayanan, K.V., 8th Edition, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2001.

PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER
Subject Code : 10CH44

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Introduction: Various modes of heat transfer Viz. Conduction, Convection and Radiation. Conduction: Fouriers law, Steady state unidirectional heat flow through single and multiple layer slabs, Cylinders and spheres for constant and variable thermal conductivity. 8 Hours

UNIT 2:
Insulation: Properties of insulation materials, Types of insulation, Critical and Optimum thickness of insulation. 4 Hours
Extended Surfaces: Fins – Types of fins, Derivation of fin efficiency for longitudinal fins, Fin effectiveness. 2 Hours

UNIT 3:
Elementary treatment of unsteady state heat conduction. 2 Hours
Convection: Individual and overall heat transfer coefficient, LMTD, LMTD correction factor. 4 Hours

UNIT 4:
Dimensionless numbers, – Dimensional analysis, Empirical correlation for forced and natural convection. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Analogy between momentum and heat transfer – Reynolds, Coulburn and Prandtl analogies. Heat Transfer with Phase Change: Boiling phenomena, Nucleate and film boiling, Condensation – Film and Drop wise condensation, Nusselts equations. 5 Hours

UNIT 6:
Heat Transfer Equipment: Double pipe heat exchangers, Shell and tube heat exchangers – Types of shell and tube heat exchangers, Construction details, Condenser – types of condensers. 6 Hours

UNIT 7:
Design of Heat Transfer Equipment: Elementary design of double pipe heat exchanger, shell and tube heat exchanger and condensers. 4 Hours
Evaporators: Types of evaporators, performance of tubular evaporator – Evaporator capacity, Evaporator economy, Multiple effect evaporator. 5 Hours

UNIT 8:
Radiation: Properties and definitions, Absorptivity, Reflectivity, Emissive power and intensity of radiation, Black body radiation, Gray body radiation, Stefen – Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law, Kirchoffs law, View factors, Radiation between surfaces- different shapes, Radiation involving gases and vapours, Radiation shields. 6 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. Process Heat Transfer, Kern D.Q., Mc Graw Hill., 18th Reprint, 2008.
  • 2. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, McCabe, W.L., et.al, 5th Edn, McGraw Hill, New York 2000.
  • 3. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, Coulsion J.M. and Richardson J.F., Vol. 1, 5th Edn, Chemical Engineering Pergamon and ELBS, McGraw Hill, New York 2000.

Reference Book:

  • 1. Heat Transfer, Rao., Y.V.C., 1st Edn., University Press (India) Ltd., New Delhi, 2000.

COMPUTATIONAL METHODS
Subject Code : 10CH45

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Algorithms and C Programs – Simultaneous linear algebraic equation: Jacobi and Guass- Seidel, Jordan iterative methods (material balances etc). Non-linear algebraic equation: Newton Raphson Method, Modified Newton Raphson, Method of False Position (Molar Volume of non-ideal gases, Settling velocity, heat loss from pipes, vapor pressure estimation etc). 7 Hours

UNIT 2:
Interpolation: Newton-Gregory Forward and Backward Interpolation, Lagrange’s Interpolation formula, Newton divided difference interpolation formula. (Estimation of thermo-physical properties). 6 Hours

UNIT 3:
Numerical Integration: Gaussian Quadrature, Trapezoidal Rule and Simpson’s 1/3 rule and 3/8 rule. 6 Hours
(Solutions of Rayleigh’s equation, average heat capacity equation, batch/PFR design equation)

UNIT 4:
Ordinary differential equations: Euler and Modified Euler method, Runge-Kutta method of Fourth order, (rate equations Solution of Boundary Value problems, Finite difference method. (Temperature calculations at nodes on flat slab and pipes etc). 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Curve fitting by the method of Least Squares linear.(Heat capacity vs temperature, f vs Nre, Arrhenius equation, settling velocity vs Diameter of particle etc). 6 Hours

UNIT 6:
P – X,Y and T – X,Y evaluation for binary mixtures: Calculation of Bubble Pressure and Bubble Point. Dew Pressure and Dew point for Ideal Binary and multi-component system. Flash Vaporization for multi-component system. (Algorithm and C Program). 7 Hours

UNIT 7:
Solution of Design Equations: Adiabatic Batch Reactor, PFR, CSTR. Adiabatic Flame Temperature (Algorithm and C Program). 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Design : Double pipe Heat Exchanger (Area, Length and Pressure drop). Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger (Area, Number of tubes, Pressure drop) (Algorithm and C Program). 7 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. Computer Oriented Numerical Methods, V. Rajaraman, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall of India, 1981.
  • 2. Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineering, Mickley, Sherwood, and Reed, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 1990.

Reference Books:

  • 1. Numerical methods of Engineering and Science, B.S.Grewal, Khanna Publishers
  • 2. Advanced Modern Engineering Mathematics, Glyn James, PearsonEducation,3rd Edition.
  • 3. Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queing and Computer Applications, Trivedi K.S., Prentice Hall of India.

INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS
Subject Code : 10CH46

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

[Please Refer Syllabus Book for Detailed & Correct Info]

PART – A

UNIT 1:
General Introduction To Spectroscopy: Types of spectroscopy, representation of a spectrum, nature and interaction of electromagnetic radiation, energies corresponding to various kinds of radiations, atomic and molecular transitions, selection rules, spectral width, factors influencing positions and intensity of spectral lines. 3 Hours
Electronic Spectroscopy: Quantitative aspects of absorption measurements – Beer Lambert’s law- definition, derivation and its limitations, terminology associated with electronic spectroscopy-(Molar absorptivity, bathochromic effect, hypsochromic effect) types of absorption bands and theoretical interpretation, effect of solvent and structure on  max-. polar and non polar solvents, various electronic transitions, effect of solvent on the energy of n * and   * transitions, Woodward – Fieser rules for calculating max of   * transitions, Instrumentation- Source, monochromator- entrance and exit slits, mirror, dispersion, detector. Qualitative and Quantitative analysis, structure determination- based on bonding, electron transitions and group frequencies. 4 Hours

UNIT 2:
Infrared Spectroscopy: Introduction – Regions of infrared region spectrum, Requirement of IR absorption (selection rule) – correct wavelength of radiation and change in electric dipole moment of a molecule. Theory of IR absorption. Types of vibrations – Stretching vibrations – symmetrical stretching and antisymmetrical stretching and Bending vibrations – scissoring, rocking, wagging and twisting vibrations. Fundamental modes of vibrations – Linear and non linear molecules. Factors affecting the group frequencies – coupled interactions, electronic effects and hydrogen bonding. Instrumentation – IR radiation source, monochromator, and detectors. FTIR Instrument and its advantages, sample handling techniques – solution, nujol mull and KBr pellet.. Characteristic group infrared absorption for organic molecules. Applications of IR to structural elucidation of simple organic molecules. 7 Hours

UNIT 3:
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: The nuclear spin, Larmor precession, the NMR isotopes, energy levels for a nucleus with spin quantum number I = ½ , 3/2 and 5/2, theory of population of nuclear spin levels, spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation, chemical shift – definition, causes, measurement and advantages of TMS as a reference compound, factors affecting chemical effect, shielding and deshielding mechanisms, correlation of chemical shifts with chemical environment – aliphatic, alkenic, alkynic, aldehydic, ketonic, aromatic, alcoholic, phenolic, carboxylic, amino protons, spin – spin coupling, spin – spin splitting, intensity ratio of multiplet- Pascal’s triangle method, chemical exchange, effect of deuteration, classification of spin systems (AX, AMX, AB, ABC), first order spectra, low and high resolution spectra, determination of peak areas, coupling constants-short and long range couplings, introduction to 13C spectra of simple molecules. 7 Hours

UNIT 4:
Mass Spectrometry: Introduction, basic principles, instrumentation, methods of generating positively charged ions – electron impact, chemical ionization, field desorption, and fast atom bombardment techniques, mass analysers – types, resolving power, molecular ion peak, base peak, metastable peak and isotopic peak, modes of fragmentation, factors affecting fragmentation, mass spectral fragmentation of organic compounds – aromatic compounds,  alcohols, carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids, esters, McLafferty rearrangement, determination of molecular weight and molecular formula, nitrogen and ring rule. 5 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Flame Photometry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: Introduction, principle, flamesionization and dissociation in flames, types of flames used in AAS and flame spectra, variation of emission intensity with flame, metallic spectra in flame, flame ground, role of temperature on absorption emission and fluorescence Comparative study of flame emission spectroscopy (FES) and Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Instrumentation- line sources, source modulation in AAS. Application – Qualitative and Quantitative determination of alkali and alkaline earth metals. 8 Hours

UNIT 6:
Polarography: Principles of polarographic measurements, polarograms, Description and working of dropping mercury electrode. Current and concentrations relationship. Supporting electrolyte. Limiting current, half wave potential. Factors affecting half wave potential. Migration current, Residual current and diffusion current. Measurements of wave heights, Evaluation of quantitative results- Wave height-concentration method, internal standard (pilot) method and standard addition method. Modes of operation. Rapid scan polarography,differential pulse polarography, sinusoidal a.c. polarography. Applications of polarography-Identification and determination of concentration of analyte. 6 Hours

UNIT 7:
Introduction to Chromatrography: Classification – Theory – distribution coefficient, rate of travel, retention time, adjusted retention time, retention volume, adjusted retention volume, net retention volume, specific retention volume, column capacity, separation number, peak capacity, shapes of chromatic peak, column efficiency, resolution, optimization of column performance, Numerical problems. 3 Hours
Thin Layer Chromatography: Stationary phase, mobile phase, sample application, development techniques – evaluation and documentation, advantages and disadvantages, sintered layers used in TLC. 3 Hours

UNIT 8:
Gas Chromatography: Principle, carrier gas, stationery phase, instrumentation, sample injection, column detectors (TCD, FID, ECD, atomic emi+ssion detector), effect of temperature on retention, qualitative and quantitative analysis, pyrolysis GC, GC-MS, complementary and related techniques. 3 Hours
High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Principle, instrumentation, column, sample injection, detectors (absorbance, refractive index, electrochemical), mobile phase selection, ion pair chromatography, HPLC-MS chromatography with chiral phases. 3 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Spectrometric Identification of organic compounds, R.M. Silverstein and W.P. Webster, 6th Edition, Wiley & Sons, 1999.
  • 2. Instrumental Methods of Analysis, H.H.Willard, L.L. Merritt and J.A. Dean and F. A. Settle, CBS Publishers, 7th Edition, 1988.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Instrumental methods of Chemical Analysis, G.W. Ewing, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988.
  • 2. Principles of Instrumental Analysis, Skoog, D.A, S.J. Holler, T.A. Nilman, 5th Edn., Saunders college publishing, London, 1998.
  • 3. Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis, Chatwal Anand, 3rd Edition ,Himalaya Publishing House,1986.
  • 4. Principles of Electroanalytical Methods, T. Riley and C. Tomilinsom, John Wiley and Sons, 2008.
  • 5. Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis, K. Sharma, Goel Publishing House Meerut 2000.
  • 6. Vogel’s Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic analysis, Jaffery, Gill, Basset. J et al 5th Edn., 1998 ELBS.

MECHANICAL OPERATIONS LABORATORY
Subject Code : 10CHL47

IA Marks : 25
No. of Practical Hours/Week : 03 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Hours : 39 Exam Marks : 50

The experiment should be based on the following topics;

  • 1. Air elutriation
  • 2. Air permeability
  • 3. Ball mill
  • 4. Batch sedimentation
  • 5. Beaker decantation
  • 6. Cyclone separator
  • 7. Drop weight crusher
  • 8. Froth floatation
  • 9. Grindability index
  • 10. Gyratory crusher
  • 11. ICI sedimentation
  • 12. Jaw crusher
  • 13. Leaf filter
  • 14. Plate and frame filter press
  • 15. Rod mill
  • 16. Screen effectiveness
  • 17. Sieve analysis

Note: Minimum of 10 experiments are to be conducted.

TECHNICAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY – II
Subject Code : 10CHL48

IA Marks : 25
No. of Practical Hours/Week : 03 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Hours : 39 Exam Marks : 50

The experiment should be based on the following topics;

  • 1. Preparation of acetanilide by acetylation of aniline using acetic anhydride.
  • 2. Preparation of p-bromoacetanilide by bromination of acetanilide.
  • 3. Preparation of o-phenylenediamine by the reduction of o-nitroaniline.
  • 4. Preparation of benzoic acid by the oxidation of benzaldehyde.
  • 5. Preparation of benzene diazonium chloride by diazotisation of aniline and preparation of p-hydroxy azobenzene by coupling with phenol.
  • 6. Estimation of alcohol by acetylation.
  • 7. Estimation of amino group by acetylation.
  • 8. Estimation of phenol by bromination.
  • 9. Estimation of carboxylic acid by iodometric titration.
  • 10. Estimation of esters by hydrolysis.
  • 11. Analysis of oil – determination of acid value and saponification value.
  • 12. Analysis of milk – determination of lactose in the given sample of milk.

Note: Minimum of 10 experiments are to be conducted.

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