VTU Chemical Engineering 8th Semester Syllabus |2010 Scheme

Download Soft Copy Of VTU Chemical Engineering 8th Semester Scheme 2010

Download Soft Copy Of VTU Chemical Engineering 8th Semester Syllabus 2010

PROCESS ENGINEERING ECONOMICS
Subject Code : 10CH81

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Process Design Development: Overall planning of a plant involving chemical processes – Types of designs, feasibility studies, process development, material & energy balance, equipment sizing & selection, process flow sheet and P&I Diagram. Plant location and layout – Case studies of petroleum and Fertilizer industries, Factors affecting plant design. 7 Hours

UNIT 2:
Cost Analysis: Factors involved in project cost estimation, methods employed for the estimation of the capital investment. Estimation of working capital. 6 Hours

UNIT 3:
Time value of money and equivalence. 6 Hours

UNIT 4:
Depreciation And Taxes: Depreciation calculation methods. Equivalence after Taxes. Cost comparison after taxes. 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Profitability: Methods for the evaluation of profitability. 7 Hours

UNIT 6:
Replacement and alternative investments. 7 Hours

UNIT 7:
Financial Statements: Cash flow diagrams. Break-even analysis. 6 Hours.

UNIT 8:
Design Report: Types of reports. Organization of report. 6 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, M.S. Peters and K.D. Timmerhaus, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, 1991.
  • 2. Industrial Organization and Engineering Economics, T.R. Banga and S.C. Sharma, 22nd Edition, Khanna Publishers, 1999.

TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
Subject Code : 10CH82

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Introduction: Momentum Energy and Mass Transport Newton’s law of viscosity (NLV). Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids. Fourier’s law of heat conduction (FLHC). Fick’s law of diffusion (FLD).Effect of temperature and pressure on transport properties of fluids. Numerical problems on the application and use of NLV, FLHC and FLD. 7 Hours

UNIT 2:
Velocity Distribution in Laminar Flow: Different Flow situations, Steady state Shell momentum balances, Boundary conditions applicable to momentum transport problems, Flow over a flat plate, Flow through a circular tube, Flow through Annulus, Flow between parallel plates and a slit. Numerical problems using the equations derived in the above situations. 6 Hours

UNIT 3:
Steady State Shell Energy Balances: General Boundary conditions applicable to energy transport problems of chemical engineering. Heat conduction through compound walls. Overall heat transfer coefficient. 4 Hours
Temperature Distribution in Solids and in Laminar Flow: Different situations of heat transfer: Heat conduction with internal generation by electrical and nuclear energy sources. 2 Hours

UNIT 4:
Temperature Distribution in Solids and in Laminar Flow (contd.): Different situations of heat transfer: Heat conduction with internal generation by viscous energy source. Numerical problems using the equations derived in the above heat transfer situations. Heat conduction in a cooling fin: Forced and free convection heat transfer. 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Concentration Distributions in Laminar Flow: Steady state Shell mass balances. General Boundary conditions applicable to mass transport problems of chemical engineering. Diffusion through stagnant gas and liquid films. Equimolar counter diffusion. Numerical problems. 6 Hours

UNIT 6:
Concentration Distributions in Laminar Flow: Diffusion with homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction. Diffusion into falling film – Forced convection mass transfer. Numerical problems for above. 7 Hours

UNIT 7:
Analogies between Momentum, Heat and Mass Transport: Numerical problems using Reynold’s, Prandtl’s and Chilton & Colburn analogies. 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Equations of Change: Equation of continuity Equation of motion; Navier – Stokes equation. Application of these equations in solving simple steady state problems previously discussed. 7 Hours

Text Book:

  • 1. Transport Phenomena, Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot, Academic Press, 1994. Reference Books:
  • 1. Momentum Heat and Mass Transport, Welty, Wikes and Watson, 4th Edn., John Wiley, 2000.
  • 2. Principles of Unit Operations in Chemical engineering, Foust et al, 2nd Edition, John Wiley, 1990.
  • 3. Transport Phenomena – A Unified Approach, Robert S. Brodley and Henry C. Hershley, Vol.2, Brodkey Publishing, 2003.

ELECTIVE – IV (Group D)
NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Subject Code : 10CH831

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART A

UNIT 1:
Introduction to Physics of the Solid State: Structure, Energy Bands, Localized Particles. Methods of Measuring Properties: Atomic size, crystallography, Particle size determination, Surface structure, Microscopy- Transmission Electron Microscopy, Field Ion Microscopy, Scanning Microscopy; Spectroscopy- Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, Photoemission and Xray Spectroscopy, Magnetic resonance. 7 Hours

UNIT 2:
Properties of Individual Nanoparticles: Metal nanoclusters, Semiconducting nanoparticles, Rare gas and molecular clusters, methods of synthesis- RF Plasma, Chemical Methods, Thermolysis, Pulsed Laser methods. 6 Hours

UNIT 3:
Carbon nanostructures: Carbon molecule, Clusters, Carbon nanotubes, Applications Bulk nanostructured materials: Solid disordered nanostructures, nanostructure crystals. 6 Hours

UNIT 4:
Nanostructured Ferromagnetism: Basics of ferromagnetism, Effect of bulk nanostructuring of magnetic properties, dynamics of nanomagnets.
Optical and vibrational spectroscopy: Infrared frequency range, luminescence, nanostrucures in zeolite cage. 7 Hours

PART B

UNIT 5:
Quantum wells, wires and dots: Preparation of quantum nanostructures, Size & dimensionality effects, Excitons, Single electron tunneling, Applications, superconductivity. 6 Hours

UNIT 6:
Self assembly: Process of self assembly, semiconductor islands, monolayers. Catalysis: Nature of catalysis, Surface area of nanoparticles, porous materials, pillered clays, Colloids. 7 Hours

UNIT 7:
Organic compounds and Polymers: Forming and characterizing polymers, Nanocrystals, Polymers, Spramolecular structures.
Biological materials: Biological building blocks, biological nanostructures. 7 Hours

UNIT 8:
Nanomachines and nanodevices: Microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs), Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMSs) – Fabrication, Devices. Molecular and
Supramolecular Switches. 6 Hours

Text Book:

  • 1. Introduction to Nanotechnology, Charles P. Poole, Jr., Frank J. Owens, John Wiley and Sons, 2009.

Reference Book:

  • 1. Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology, Vol. 1-5, Academic Press, Boston, 2000.

ADVANCED BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING
Subject Code : 10CH832

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Introduction to Genetic Engineering (GE): Aim. Techniques. Achievements and prospects of GE;Translation & Transcription of genetic code. DNA Replication and Mutation and Alteration of cellular DNA. Viruses and Phages. Genetic manipulation: Plasmids. Recombinant DNA Technology. 7 Hours

UNIT 2:
Design and Analysis of Biological Reactors: Review of Ideal bio reactors: Fed-Batch reactor. Sterilization of Reactors. Sterilization of Medium (Batch and continuous). Review of Cell Growth Kinetics: Unstructured Models and Introduction to Structured models of Cell Growth. 6 Hours

UNIT 3:
Transport Phenomena in Bioprocess Systems: Gas liquid mass transfer in Cellular Systems. Determination of O2 transfer rates. Mass transfer of freely rising or falling bodies. Forced Convection Mass Transfer: Overall Kla Estimates, and power requirements for sparged and agitated vessels. Mass transfer across free surfaces. Other factors affecting Kla, Models, Power Consumption and Mass transfer for Non Newtonian fluids. General heat transfer correlations applicable to biological systems. 7 Hours

UNIT 4:
Enzyme Immoblisation: Review of methods. Immobilised enzyme kinetics: Effects of diffusion and reaction on kinetics of immobilized enzymes, Effect of other environmental parameters like pH and temperature. Immobilized Cells: Formulations, Characterization and Applications. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Multiphase Bioreactors: Packed, fluidized and trickle bed reactor. Bubble column reactor (design equations) Fermentation Technology: Animal and Plant Cell Reactor Technology.Medical Applications of bioprocess engineering. 7 Hours

UNIT 6:
Mixed Cultures: Introduction. Major Classes of Interactions: Simple Models, Competition between two species, Prey-Predator system, Lotka-Volterra Model Web Interaction, Population dynamics in models of mass action form. 6 Hours

UNIT 7:
Mixed Culture in Nature: Introduction and industrial utilization. Biological Waste Treatment: An overview. Activated sludge Process. Types of Equipment used. Advanced waste water treatments: Nitrification, Denitrification. Conversion of waste water to useful products. 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Industrial Bioprocess: Anaerobic process: Ethanol, lactic acid, acetone-butanol production. Aerobic Processes: Citric Acid, Baker’s Yeast, Penicillin, High fructose corn syrup production. 7 Hours

Text Book:

  • 1. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, Bailey and Ollis, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, 1976.

Reference Books:

  • 1. Bioprocess Engineering, Shuler M L and Kargi F, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002.
  • 2. Biochemical Engineering, S. Aiba et al, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, London, 1965.
  • 3. Biochemical Reactors, Atkinson , Vol. 2, A Pion Ltd, London. 1975.
  • 4. Microbiology Concept and Application, Pelczar, 5th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2001 Reprint.
  • 5. Bioprocess Engineering, Pauline M. Doran, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2009.
  • 6. Principles of Fermentation Technology, Stanbury and Whitekar, 2nd Edition, Butterworth- Heinemann An Imprint of Elsevier.

NOVEL SEPARATIONS TECHNIQUES
Subject Code : 10CH833

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Adsorptive Separations: Review of fundamentals. Mathematical modeling of column factors. Pressure swing & thermal swing adsorption. Counter current separations. 6 Hours

UNIT 2:
Chromatography: Chromatography fundamentals. Different types. Gradient & affinity chromatography. Design Calculations for chromatographic columns. 7 Hours

UNIT 3:
Membrane Separation Processes: Types, Thermodynamic considerations. Mass transfer considerations. Design of RO &UF. Ion selective membranes. Micro filtration. Electro dialysis. Pervaporation. Gaseous separations. 7 Hours

UNIT 4:
External Field Induced Separations: Electric & magnetic field separations. Centrifugal separations and calculations. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Surfactant Based Separations: Fundamentals. Surfactants at inter phases and in bulk. Liquid membrane permeation. Foam separations. Micellar separations. 7 Hours

UNIT 6:
Super Critical Fluid Extraction: Thermodynamics and physico chemical principles. Process description. Application. Case Study. 7 Hours

UNIT 7:
Mechanical–Physical Separation Process: Introduction, Classification, Filtration in solid liquid separation. Settling & sedimentation in particle fluid separation. 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Other Separations: Separation by thermal diffusion, Electrophoresis, crystallization. 6 Hours

Reference Books:

  • 1. Handbook of Separation Process Technology, R.W.Rousseu, John Wiley & Sons,1987.
  • 2. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Kirk-Othmer, John Wiley & Sons,2001.
  • 3. Rate Controlled Separations, Phillip C Wankat, Kluwer Academic Pub, 1990.
  • 4. Transportation and Separation Process, Gaenkopolis, Printice Hall, 2003.
  • 5. Large Scale Adsorption Chromatography, P C Wankat, CRC Press, 1986.
  • 6. Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration Process Principle, S. Sourirajan & T. Matsura, NRC Publication, Ottawa, 1985.
  • 7. Surfactant Based Separation, T.O. Hatton, Vol 23.
  • 8. Supercritical Fluid Extraction, M A McHugh & V. J. Krukonis, Butterworth, 1987.

COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Subject Code : 10CH834

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Synthesis and Fabrication: of advanced and future materials with emphasis on ceramic, Semiconducting and Super-conducting materials with superior structural, optical and electrical properties. 6 Hours

UNIT 2:
Preparation Techniques: Techniques for preparation of ultra-pure, ultra-fine powders: of oxides, nitrides, carbides etc., with very well defined characteristics and superior properties. 7 Hours

UNIT 3:
Processing Techniques: Techniques such as sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, tapecasting, sol-gel processing for the formation of monolithic ceramics. Composites (ceramic, ceramic metal, as well as metal matrix). SiO2. Glasses from above powders. 6 Hours

UNIT 4:
Processing Techniques Based on Reaction Methods: such as Chemical vapour deposition (CVD), vapour phase epitaxy, plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), chemical vapour infiltration (CVI). Self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) for the preparation of monolithic ceramics, composites, coating, thin films, whiskers and fibres and semi conducting materials such as Si and Gallium Arsenide. 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Synthesis and processing of mixed ceramic oxides with high temperature super conducting properties. 6 Hours

UNIT 6:
Reinforcement, additives, fillers for polymer composite, master batch & compounding. 7 Hours

UNIT 7:
Polymer composite. Fibre reinforced composites. Stress – Strain modulus relationship Nano composites. 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Characteristics & applications in marine, aerospace, building & computer industry. Manufacturing methods, hand layouts, filament winding, pultrusion, SMC, DMC. 7 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. Introduction to Ceramics,W.D. Kingrey, 2nd Edn., John Wiley, 1976.
  • 2. Advanced Composites, Chawla, Kluner, Academic Publisher, 2003.

Reference Books:

  • 1. Introduction to Material Science for Engg., James T. Schockel Ford, 2nd Edition, McMillan Publications.
  • 2. Elements of Material Science and Engineering, L.H. Van Vlack, 4th Edition, 1980.
  • 3. Fibre Reinforced Plastic Deskbook, Nicholas P, Paul N, Chermisinoff, Ann Arbor science publishing Inc, 1978.

ELECTIVE – V (Group E)
PILOT PLANT AND SCALE UP METHODS
Subject Code : 10CH841

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Pilot Plants: Evolution of process system. Need of pilot plants. Concept of prototypes, models, scale ratios, element. 5 Hours

UNIT 2:
Principles Of Similarity: Geometric similarity. Distorted similarity. Static, dynamic, kinematics, thermal and chemical similarity with examples. 6 Hours

UNIT 3:
Dimensional Analysis: (Review of Rayleigh’s, Buckingham Π methods), Differential equation for static systems, flow systems, thermal systems, mass transfer processes, chemical processeshomogeneous and heterogeneous. 7 Hours

UNIT 4:
Regime Concept: Static regime. Dynamic regime. Mixed regime concepts. Criteria to decide the regimes. Equations for scale criteria of static, dynamic processes, Extrapolation. Boundary effects. 8 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Scale up of mixing process, agitated vessel. 5 Hours

UNIT 6:
Scale up of chemical reactor systems-Homogeneous reaction systems. Reactor for fluid phase processes catalysed by solids. Fluid-fluid reactors. 8 Hours

UNIT 7:
Stagewise mass transfer processes. Continuous mass transfer processes. 8 Hours

UNIT 8:
Scale up of momentum and heat transfer systems. Environmental challenges of scale up. 5 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. Scale up of Chemical Processes ,Attilio Bisio, Robert L. Kabel, John Wiley & Sons, 1985
  • 2. Pilot Plants Models and scale up method in Chemical Engineering, Johnstone and Thring, McGraw Hill, 1957.

Reference Book:

  • 1. Pilot Plants and Scale up Studies, Ibrahim and Kuloor.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Subject Code : 10CH842

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Introduction: Definition, characteristics and perspectives of solid waste. Types of solid waste. Physical and chemical characteristics. Variation of composition and characteristics. Municipal, industrial, special and hazardous wastes. 6 Hours

UNIT 2:
General Aspects: Overview of material flow in society. Reduction in raw material usage. Reduction in solid waste generation. Reuse and material recovery. General effects on health and environment. Legislations. 7 Hours

UNIT 3:
Engineered Systems: Typical generation rates. Estimation and factors effecting generation rates. On site handling. Storage and processing. Collection systems and devices. Transfer and transport. 7 Hours

UNIT 4:
Processing Techniques: Mechanical volume reduction. Thermal volume reduction. Component separation. Land filling and land forming. Deep well injection. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Material Recovery: Mechanical size alteration. Electromagnetic separation. Drying and dewatering. Other material recovery systems. Recovery of biological conversion products. Recovery of thermal conversion products. 7 Hours

UNIT 6:
Energy Recovery: Energy recovery systems and efficiency factors. Determination of output and efficiency. Details of energy recovery systems. Combustion incineration and heat recovery. Gasification and pyrolysis. Refuse derived fuels (RDF). 7 Hours

UNIT 7:
Hazardous Wastes: Classification. Origin and reduction at source. Collection and handling. Management issues and planning methods. Environmental Acts. 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Case Studies: Major industries and management methods used in typical industries – Coal fired power stations, textile industry, oil refinery, distillery, sugar industry, and radioactive waste generation units. 6 Hours

Text Books:

  • 1. Integrated Solid Waste Management, George Tchobanoglous et al, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill & Co, 1993.
  • 2. Industrial Solid Waste Management and Land Filling Practice, Dutta et al, Narosa Publishing House, 1999.

Reference Books:

  • 1. Waste Treatment Plants, Sastry C.A. et al, Narosa Publishing House, 1995.
  • 2. Hazardous Waste Management, Lagrega, McGraw Hill, 1994.

SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT OF CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES
Subject Code : 10CH843

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Hazard identification methodologies, risk assessment methods-PHA, HAZOP, MCA, ETA, FTA. 6 Hours

UNIT 2:
Consequence analysis, Probit Analysis. Hazards in work places. Workers’ exposures to hazardous chemicals. Hazards in industries. 7 Hours

UNIT 3:
Guidelines for safeguarding personnel. Safety education and training-Safety managements, fundamentals of safety tenets. 6 Hours

UNIT 4:
Measuring safety performance, motivating safety performance, legal aspects of industrial safety, safety audits. 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Introduction and need for impact assessment. Legislation and pollution control acts and Regulations. Methodologies – collection of data and analysis, cost benefit analysis. 6 Hours

UNIT 6:
Applications of Impact assessment methods in specific developed projects, advantages and disadvantages of different methods. 7 Hours

UNIT 7:
Applicability of specific methods with examples. 6 Hours

UNIT 8:
Clean technology Option: Clean technology and clean up technology, material reuse, waste reduction at source and clean synthesis. 7 Hours

Textbooks:

  • 1. F.P.Lees, Loss prevention in process industries, 2nd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996.
  • 2. EIA, Theory and Practice, Peter Wathern, Unwin Hyman Ltd., 1988.

Reference Book:

  • 1. Environmental Health and Safety Auditing Handbook, Lee Harrision, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, Inc., New York, 1994.

PULP AND PAPER TECHNOLOGY
Subject Code : 10CH844

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Wood Chemistry: Chemical composition- cellulose, hemi cellulose, lignin, wood extractives, raw material. Quality parameters under evaluation. Yield of raw material. 5 Hours

UNIT 2:
Pulping: General principle of pulping. Types of pulping processes: mechanical, chemical, semichemical, sulphate process, Kraft process. Process calculations. Raw material utility requirements. Process flow sheet and description. Washing and bleaching. Common unit operation. Wood treatment, digestion, evaporation, drying with equipments used. 7 Hours

UNIT 3:
Treatment of Pulp: Screening, washing, refining, thickening of pulp. Bleaching- conventional and non-conventional bleaching techniques. 6 Hours

UNIT 4:
Paper Making: Preliminary operations on pulp. Beating and refining of pulp. Non-fibrous materials. Fillers and loading material. Internal sizing. Wet and additive surface treatment. Paper coloring. Surface sizing. 8 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5:
Paper Drying and Finishing: Types of dryers. Calendaring. Reeling and winding. Paper machine drives, cutting, winding and rewinding. Conversion of papers. 6 Hours

UNIT 6:
Paper Quality of Grades: Different grades of paper quality. Parameters and their evaluation. Saturation of paper. Special grade papers. Recycling of waste papers. 8 Hours

UNIT 7:
Supportive Operations: Chemical recovery – water balance, oxidation, evaporation of black liquor, lime recovery. Quality control and safety aspects. 8 Hours

UNIT 8:
Environmental Aspects: Effluent characteristics of pulp and paper industries. Treatment methods. 4 Hours

Text Book:
1. Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Technology, Casey, J.P., 2nd Edition, Inter Science, 1960.

Reference Books:

  • 1. Handbook of Pulp and Paper Technology, Britt K.W., Reinhold Publication Corp., 1964.
  • 2. Pulp and Paper Science and Technology, Libby C.E. Vol 1 to 3, McGraw Hill, 1962.

PROJECT
Subject Code : 10CH85

IA Marks : 100
Exam Hours : 03
Exam Marks : 100

The students in a group will be assigned an experimental, design, a case study or an analytical problem, to be carried out under the supervision of a guide. The project has to be assigned at the beginning of the seventh semester. The project group should complete the preliminary literature survey & plan of project and submit the synopsis at the end of seventh semester. The project work should be carried out and completed at the end of eighth semester.

SEMINAR
Subject Code : 10CH86

IA Marks : 50
No. of Hours/Week : 03

The students are required to give the comprehensive presentation in the form of seminar on the project work carried out in the eighth semester. The seminar shall be evaluated as internal assessment. While evaluating, emphasis shall be given on the presentation and communication skills.

IN-PLANT TRAINING/INDUSTRIAL VISIT
Subject Code : 10CH87

IA Marks : 50

The students are expected to undergo in-plant training in any chemical industry or in a reputed research laboratory with pilot plant facility. This shall be for a minimum period of two weeks during the vacation of sixth or seventh semester. If it is not possible, the students may be permitted to go on industrial visit for a period of two weeks and they should visit a minimum of five major chemical industries. Each student should submit a report separately, at the beginning of the eighth semester, which is evaluated by a committee constituted by the HoD for internal assessment.

Leave a reply