VTU Civil 7th Semester Syllabus

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VII SEMESTER

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING – II Subject Code : 10CV71

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 INTRODUCTION: Necessity for sanitation, methods of domestic waste water disposal, types of sewerage systems and their suitability. Dry weather flow, factors affecting dry weather flow, flow variations and their effects on design of sewerage system; computation of design flow, estimation of storm flow, rational method and empirical formulae of design of storm water drain. Time of concentration. 6 Hours

UNIT – 2 DESIGN OF SEWERS: Hydraulic formulae for velocity, effects of flow variations on velocity, self cleansing and non scouring velocities, Design of hydraulic elements for circular sewers flowing full and flowing partially full (No derivations). MATERIALS OF SEWERS: Sewer materials, shapes of sewers, laying of sewers, joints and testing of sewers, ventilation and cleaning of sewers. 6 Hours UNIT – 3 SEWER APPURTENANCES: Catch basins, manholes, flushing tanks, oil and grease traps, Drainage traps. Basic principles of house drainage. Typical layout plan showing house drainage connections, maintenance of house drainage. 6 Hours UNIT – 4 WASTE WATER CHARACTERIZATION: Sampling, significance, techniques and frequency. Physical, Chemical and Biological characteristics, Aerobic and Anaerobic activity, CNS cycles. BOD and COD. Their significance & problems 06 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 DISPOSAL OF EFFLUENTS : Disposal of Effluents by dilution, selfpurification phenomenon. Oxygen sag curve, Zones of purification, Sewage farming, sewage sickness, Effluent Disposal standards for land, surface water & ocean. Numerical Problems on Disposal of Effluents. Streeter Phelps equation. 6 Hours UNIT – 6 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER: Flow diagram of municipal waste water treatment plant. Preliminary & Primary treatment : Screening, grit chambers, skimming tanks, primary sedimentation tanks – Design criteria & Design examples. 6 Hours UNIT – 7 SECONDARY TREATMENT: Suspended growth and fixed film bioprocess. Trickling filter – theory and operation, types and designs. Activated sludge process- Principle and flow diagram, Modifications of ASP, F/M ratio. Design of ASP. 8 Hours UNIT – 8 Anaerobic Sludge digestion, Sludge digestion tanks, Design of Sludge drying beds. Low cost waste treatment method. Septic tank, Oxidation Pond and Oxidation ditches – Design. Reuse and recycle of waste water. 8 Hours REFERENCES

  • 1. Manual on Waste Water Treatment : CPHEEO, Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi.
  • 2. Water and Wastewater Engineering Vol-II :- Fair, Geyer and Okun : John Willey Publishers, New York.
  • 3. Waste Water Treatment, Disposal and Reuse : Metcalf and Eddy inc : Tata McGraw Hill Publications.
  • 4. Water Technology.- Hammer and Hammer
  • 5. Environmental Engineering: Howard S. Peavy, Donald R. Rowe, George Tchnobanoglous McGraw Hill International Edition.

DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES Subject Code : 10CV72

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART-A

UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION: Advantages and Disadvantages of Steel structures, Loads and Load combinations, Design considerations, Limit State Method (LSM) of design, Failure criteria for steel, Codes, Specifications and section classification. 6 Hours UNIT-2 BOLTED CONNECTIONS: Introduction, Behaviour of Bolted joints, Design strength of ordinary Black Bolts, Design strength of High Strength Friction Grip bolts (HSFG), Pin Connections, Simple Connections, Moment resistant connections, Beam to Beam connections, Beam and Column splices, Semi rigid connections 6 Hours UNIT-3 WELDED CONNECTIONS: Introduction, Welding process, Welding electrodes, Advantages of Welding, Types and Properties of Welds, Types of joints, Weld symbols, Weld specifications, Effective areas of welds, Design of welds, Simple joints, Moment resistant connections, Continuous Beam to Column connections, Continuous Beam to Beam connections, Beam Column splices, Tubular connections 6 Hours UNIT-4 Plastic Behaviour of Structural Steel: Introduction, Plastic theory, Plastic hinge concept, Plastic collapse load, conditions of plastic analysis, Theorem of Plastic collapse, Methods of Plastic analysis, Plastic analysis of continuous beams. 7 Hours

PART-B

UNIT-5 Design of Tension Members: Introduction, Types of tension members, Design of strands, Slenderness ratio, Behaviour of tension members, Modes of failure, Factors affecting the strength of tension members, Angles under tension, Other sections, Design of tension member, Lug angles, Splices, Gussets. 6 Hours UNIT-6 Design of Compression Members: Introduction, Failure modes, Behaviour of compression members, Elastic buckling of slender compression members, Sections used for compression members, Effective length of compression members, Design of compression members, Built up compression members. 8 Hours UNIT-7 Design of Column Bases:, Design of simple slab base and gusseted base 6 Hours UNIT-8 Design of Beams: Introduction, Beam types, , Lateral stability of beams, factors affecting lateral stability, Behaviour of simple and built-up beams in bending(without vertical stiffeners), Design strength of laterally supported beams in Bending, Design strength of laterally unsupported beams, Shear strength of steel beams, Maximum deflection, Design of beams and purlins 7 Hours Note: Study of this course should be based on IS: 800-2007 Reference Books

  • 1) Design of Steel Structures, N.Subramanian, Oxford, 2008
  • 2. Limit State Design of Steel Structures. Duggal. TATA Megra Hill 2010
  • 3) Bureau of Indian Standards, IS800-2007, IS875-1987
  • 4) Steel Tables

ESTIMATION & VALUATION Subject Code : 10CV73

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

ESTIMATION: Study of various drawings with estimates, important terms, units of measurement, abstract Methods of taking out quantities and cost – center line method, long and short wall method or crossing method. Preparation of detailed and abstract estimates for the following Civil Engineering works – Buildings – RCC framed structures with flat, sloped RCC roofs with all Building components. 16 Hours

PART – B

ESTIMATE: Different type of estimates, approximate methods of estimating buildings, cost of materials. Estimation of wooden joineries such as doors, windows & ventilators. 5 Hours ESTIMATES: Steel truss (Fink and Howe truss), manhole and septic tanks, RCC Culverts. 6 Hours SPECIFICATIONS: Definition of specifications, objective of writing specifications, essentials in specifications, general and detail specifications of common item of works in buildings. 5 Hours

PART – C

RATE ANALYSIS: Definition and purpose. Working out quantities and rates for the following standard items of works – earth work in different types of soils, cement concrete of different mixes, bricks and stone masonry, flooring, plastering, RCC works, centering and form work for different RCC items, wood and steel works for doors, windows and ventilators. 6 Hours MEASUREMENT OF EARTHWORK FOR ROADS: Methods for computation of earthwork – cross sections – mid section formula or average end area or mean sectional area, trapezoidal & prismoidal formula with and without cross slopes. 6 Hours CONTRACTS: Types of contract – essentials of contract agreement – legal aspects, penal provisions on breach of contract. Definition of the terms – Tender, earnest money deposit, security deposit, tender forms, documents and types. Acceptance of contract documents. Termination of contract, completion certificate, quality control, right of contractor, refund of deposit. Administrative approval – Technical sanction. Nominal muster roll, measurement books – procedure for recording and checking measurements – preparation of bills. Valuation- Definitions of various terms, method of valuation, Freehold & Leasehold properties, Sinking fund, depreciation and method of estimating depreciation, Outgoings. 8 Hours REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Estimating & Costing, B. N. Dutta, Chand Publisher
  • 2. Quantity Surveying- P.L. Basin S. Chand : New Delhi.
  • 3. Estimating & Specification – S.C. Rangwala :: Charotar publishing house, Anand.
  • 4. Text book of Estimating & Costing- G.S. Birde, Dhanpath Rai and sons : New Delhi.
  • 5. A text book on Estimating, Costing and Accounts- D.D. Kohli and R.C. Kohli S. Chand : New Delhi.
  • 6. Contracts and Estimates, B. S. Patil, University Press, 2006.

DESIGN OF PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES Subject Code : 10CV74

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 MATERIALS: High strength concrete and steel, Stress-Strain characteristics and properties. 2 Hours BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PRESTRESSING: Fundamentals, Load balancing concept, Stress concept, centre of Thrust. Pre-tensioning and posttensioning systems, tensioning methods and end anchorages. 4 Hours UNIT – 2 ANALYSIS OF SECTIONS FOR FLEXURE: Stresses in concrete due to pre-stress and loads, stresses in steel due to loads, Cable profiles. 8 Hours UNIT – 3 LOSSES OF PRE-STRESS: Various losses encountered in pre-tensioning and post tensioning methods, determination of jacking force. 6 Hours UNIT – 4 DEFLECTIONS: Deflection of a pre-stressed member – Short term and long term deflections, Elastic deflections under transfer loads and due to different cable profiles. Deflection limits as per IS 1343. Effect of creep on deflection, load verses deflection curve, methods of reducing deflection 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 LIMIT STATE OF COLLAPSE: Flexure -IS Code recommendations – Ultimate flexural strength of sections. 5 Hours UNIT – 6 LIMIT STATE OF COLLAPSE (cont…): Shear – IS Code recommendations, shear resistance of sections, shear reinforcement. Limit state of serviceability – control of deflections and cracking. 7 Hours UNIT – 7 DESIGN OF END BLOCKS: Transmission of prestress in pretensioned members, transmission length, Anchorage stress in post-tensioned members. Bearing stress and bursting tensile force-stresses in end blocks-Methods, I.S. Code, provision for the design of end block reinforcement. 6 Hours UNIT – 8 DESIGN OF BEAMS: Design of pre-tensioned and post-tensioned symmetrical and asymmetrical sections. Permissible stress, design of prestressing force and eccentricity, limiting zone of pre-stressing force cable profile. 8 Hours REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Pre-stressed Concrete- N. Krishna Raju – Tata Mc. Graw Publishers.
  • 2. Pre-stressed Concrete- P. Dayarathnam : Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.
  • 3. Design of pre-stressed concrete structures- T.Y. Lin and Ned H. Burns – John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • 4. Fundamental of pre-stressed concrete- N.C. Sinha & S.K. Roy
  • 5. IS : 1343 : 1980
  • 6. Pre-stressed Concrete- N. Rajgopalan

MATRIX METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Subject Code : 10CV751

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 Introduction to flexibility method, Element flexibility matrix, Principle of contragradience, and Force Transformation Matrix, Member Flexibility matrix, Construction of structure flexibility matrix. Matrix determination of the displacement vector, Determination of member forces. 6 Hours UNIT – 2 Analysis of axially rigid continuous beams by flexibility method using Force Transformation Matrix 6 Hours UNIT – 3 Analysis of rigid plane frames with axially rigid members by flexibility method using Force Transformation Matrix. 6 Hours UNIT – 4 Analysis of trusses by flexibility method Using Force Transformation Matrix. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 Fundamentals of the stiffness method, equivalent joint loads, DisplacementTransformation matrix. Member stiffness matrix, Total or System stiffness matrix, Truss analysis by stiffness method using Displacement Transformation Matrix. 8 Hours UNIT – 6 Continuous Beam and rigid frame analysis with axially rigid members by stiffness method using Displacement Transformation Matrix. 8 Hours UNIT – 7 Introduction to direct stiffness method, Local and global co-ordinate system, Transformation Of variables, Transformation of the member displacement matrix, Transformation of the member Force matrix, Transformation of the  member stiffness matrix, Transformation of the stiffness Matrix of the member of a truss, Transformation of the stiffness matrix of the member of the Rigid frame, Overall stiffness matrix, Boundary conditions, Computation of internal forces. 4 Hours UNIT – 8 Analysis of trusses and continuous beams by direct stiffness method. 8 Hours REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Matrix, finite elements, Computer and Structural analysis- M Mukhopadhyay – Oxford &IBW,1984
  • 2. Matrix Analysis of framed structures- W. Weaver J.M. Gere – CBS publishers and Disributers,1986
  • 3. Computational structural Mechanics- S Rajshekharan. G Sankara Subramanian – PHI, 2001
  • 4. Structural Analysis A Matrix Approach- G.S Pandit & S P Gupta Tata Mc Graw-Hill, 1981
  • 5. Basic structural Analysis- C.S Reddy – Tata Mc Graw-Hill, 1996
  • 6. Structural Analysis- L S Negi and R S Jangid – Tata Mc Graw- Hill, 1997
  • 7. Introduction to Matrix Methods of Structural analysis – H C Martin -International text book Company, 1996

ADVANCED DESIGN OF RC STRUCTURES Subject Code : 10CV752

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 Design of RCC overhead circular and rectangular water tanks with supporting towers. 8 Hours UNIT – 2 Design of silos, bunkers using Janssen’s Theory and Airy’s Theory. 7 Hours UNIT – 3 Design of RCC Chimneys. 6 Hours UNIT – 4 Introduction to shell and folded plate roofs, their forms and structural behaviour. Design of simple cylindrical shell roof by beam theory. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 Yield line analysis of slabs by virtual work. 7 Hours UNIT – 6 Yield line analysis by equilibrium methods. 6 Hours UNIT – 7 Design of Grid Floors Slabs by approximate method. 6 Hours UNIT-8 Design of flat slabs by Direct Designer Method (with and without drops) 6 Hours REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Reinforced Concrete Structures, Vol-II- B C Punmia : Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd, New Delhi.
  • 2. Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete Vol-II- P C Varghese: Prentice Hall of India (P) Ltd, New Delhi.
  • 3. Plain and Reinforced Concrete – Vol-II- Jai Krishna and Jain,: Nem Chand Bros, Roorkee.
  • 4. Analysis of Structures- Vol-II : Vazirani V N & M M Ratwani : Khanna Publishers, New Delhi.
  • 5. Design Construction of Concrete Shell Roofs : Ramaswamy G S : CBS Publishers and Distributors, new Delhi.
  • 6. Advanced Structural Design- Bensen C
  • 7. IS 456 – 2000 IS 3370 – 1967 (Part I, II and IS 1893)
  • 8. Advanced RCC Design- Vol-II,- S. S. Bhavikatti New Age International Publication, New Delhi.

DESIGN OF MASONRY STRUCTURES Subject Code : 10CV753

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 MASONRY UNITS, MATERIALS, TYPES & MASONRY CONSTRUCTION: Brick, stone and block masonry units – strength, modulus of elasticity and water absorption of masonry materials – classification and properties of mortars, selection of mortars. Defects and errors in masonry construction, cracks in masonry, types, reasons for cracking, methods of avoiding cracks. 6 Hours UNIT – 2 STRENGTH AND STABILITY: Strength and Stability of concentrically loaded masonry walls, effect of unit strength, mortar strength, joint thickness, rate of absorption, effect of curing, effect of ageing, workmanship, strength formulae and mechanism of failure for masonry subjected to direct compression. 6 Hours UNIT – 3 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES: Permissible compressive stress, stress reduction and shape reduction factors, increase in permissible stresses for eccentric vertical and lateral loads, permissible tensile and shear stresses. 6 Hours UNIT – 4 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: Effective height of walls and columns, opening in walls, effective length, effective thickness, slenderness ratio, eccentricity, load dispersion, arching action, lintels. 8 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 LOAD CONSIDERATIONS FOR MASONRY: Wall carrying axial load, eccentric load with different eccentricity ratios, walls with openings, free standing wall. 6 Hours UNIT – 6 DESIGN OF MASONRY WALLS: Design of load bearing masonry for building up to 3 storeys using IS : 1905 and SP : 20 procedure. 10 Hours UNIT – 7 REINFORCED MASONRY: Application, flexural and compression elements, shear walls. 5 Hours UNIT – 8 MASONRY WALLS IN COMPOSITE ACTION: Composite wall-beam elements, infilled frames. 5 Hours TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Structural Masonry- Henry, A.W. : Macmillan Education Ltd., 1990.
  • 2. Brick and Reinforced Brick Structures- Dayaratnam P. : Oxford & IBH, 1987.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Design of masonry structures- Sinha B.P. Davies S.R. : E&FN spon 1997
  • 2. IS 1905–1987 “Code of practice for structural use of un-reinforced masonry- (3rd revision) BIS, New Delhi.
  • 3. SP 20 (S&T) – 1991, “Hand book on masonry design and construction (1st revision) BIS, New Delhi.

EARTH & EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES Subject Code : 10CV754

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 EARTH DAMS AND EMBANKMENTS – Different types of earthen dams with sketches and their suitability. Hydraulic fill and rolled fill methods of construction – Causes of failure of earth dam – Design criteria of earth dams – Stability analysis of earthen dams – Seepage control in earthen dams. Role of Filters in Earth Dam Design. 7 Hours UNIT – 2 RETAINING WALLS: Types of retaining walls, failure of retaining walls by sliding, overturning and bearing. Stability analysis and Principles of the design of retaining walls – Gravity retaining walls, Cantilever retaining walls, Counterfort retaining walls (no structural design) – Modes of failure of retaining walls – Drainage from the backfill. 7 Hours UNIT – 3 BULK HEADS: Cantilever sheet pile walls Types of sheet pile walls – Free cantilever sheet pile – cantilever sheet pile in cohesion-less soils – cantilever sheet pile in clay. 6 Hours UNIT – 4 BULK HEADS: Anchored Sheet Pile Walls: Anchored sheet pile with free earth support in cohesion-less and cohesive soil. bulkheads with fixed earth support method – Types, locations and design of anchors. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 BRACED CUTS: Introduction, Lateral earth pressure on sheeting, Different types of sheeting and bracing systems – design of various components of bracings. 7 Hours UNIT- 6 ROCK FILL DAMS: Introduction, Origin and usage of rock fill dams, types of rock fill dams, design of rock fill dams and construction of rock fill dams. 6 Hours UNIT- 7 COFFER DAMS & CELLULAR COFFER DAMS I: Introduction – types of coffer dams – Design of cellular coffer dams on rock by Tennesse Valley Authority (TVA) method – safety against sliding, slipping, overturning, vertical shear and stability against bursting. 7 Hours UNIT- 8 CELLULAR COFFER DAMS II: Design of cellular coffer dam on soil – safety against sliding, slipping, overturning, vertical shear and stability against bursting. 6 Hours TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering : Dr. K.R. Arora : Pub : Standard Publishers & Distributors.
  • 2. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, : S.K. Garg : Pub: Khanna Publishers.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering,: Dr. B.C. Punmia : Pub : Laxmi Publications Ltd.,
  • 2. Foundation Engineering.: Dr. B.J. Kasmalkar
  • 3. Numericals in Geotechnical Engineering : A.V. Narasimha Rao & C. Venkataramaiah :Pub : University Press.
  • 4. Hydraulic Structures: S.K. Garg : Pub : Khanna Publishers.
  • 5. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, : Dr. V.N.S. Murthy : Pub : Sai Tech.
  • 6. Geotechnical Engineering, : Dr. C. Venkataramaiah : Pub : New age publications.
  • 7. Geotechnical Engineering : Purushotam Raj .
  • 8. Theory and Practice of Soil Engineering : Alum Singh .
  • 9. Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, Das, B. M., Cengage Learning, 2009

HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN Subject Code : 10CV755

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 INTRODUCTION: Geometric Control factors like Topography -design speed – design vehicle – Traffic – Capacity – volume – environment and other factors as per IRC and AASHTO standards and specifications- PCU concept – factors controlling PCU for different design purpose 6 Hours UNIT – 2 CROSS SECTIONAL ELEMENTS: Pavement surface characteristics – friction – skid resistance – pavement unevenness – light reflecting characteristics – camber – objectives – types of camber – methods of providing cambers in the field – problems – carriage way – kerb – median – shoulder – foot path – parking lanes – service roads – cycle tracks – Driveways – Right of way – Factors influencing right of way – Design of Road humps as per latest I RC provisions. 10 Hours UNIT – 3 SIGHT DISTANCE: Importants, types, Side distance at uncontrolled intersection, derivation, factors affecting side distance, IRC, AASHTO standards, problems on above. 6 Hours UNIT – 4 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT: Definition, Checking the stability of vehicle, while moving on horizontal curve, Super elevation, Ruling minimum and maximum radius, Assumptions – problems – method of providing super elevation for different curves – Extra widening of pavement on curves – objectives – Mechanical widening – psychological widening – Transition curve – objectives – Ideal requirements – Types of transition curve – Method of evaluating length of transition curve – Setting the transition curve in the field, set back distance on horizontal curve and problems on above 8 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 VERTICAL ALIGNMENT: Gradient – Types of gradient – Design criteria of summit and valley curve – Design of vertical curves based on SSD – OSD – Night visibility considerations – Design standards for hilly roads – problems on the above. 5 Hours UNIT – 6 INTERSECTION DESIGN: Principle – Atgrade and Grade separated junctions – Types – channelization – Features of channelising Island – median opening – Gap in median at junction. 6 Hours UNIT – 7 ROTARY INTERSECTION: Elements – Advantages – Disadvantages – Design guide lines – problem on the above – Grade separated intersection – Three legged inter section – Diamond inter change – Half clover leaf – clover leaf- Advantages- Disadvantages only 6 Hours UNIT – 8 HIGHWAY DRAINAGE: Importance – sub surface drainage –surface drainage – Design of road side drives – Hydrological – Hydraulical considerations and design of filter media, problems on above. 5 Hours TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Principle and practice of Highway Engineering- L R KADIYALI & N B LAL : Khanna publications
  • 2. Highway Engineering – Khanna S K & Justo, Nemchand & Bros.
  • 3. Highway Engineering by Srinivas Kumar.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Highway Engineering- Kadiyali L R : Khanna publications
  • 2. Relavent IRC Publications
  • 3. Transportation Engineering and Planning- Papa Coastas and Prevendors PHI, New Delhi.

OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS Subject Code : 10CV756

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 INTRODUCTION: Difference between pipe flow and open channel flow, classification of flow, energy equation, momentum equation, kinetic energy and momentum factors. 8 Hours UNIT – 2 UNIFORM FLOW: Concepts, uniform flow equations, conveyance and hydraulic exponent for uniform flow, design of channels for uniform flow. 8 Hours UNIT – 3 CRITICAL FLOW: Concept of specific Energy – Classification of flow. Design of channel, Section Factor, Hydraulic exponent for critical flow critical depth as a flow measurement. 6 Hours UNIT – 4 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW: Concepts, GVF equation, its different forms, Basic assumptions, Dynamic equation, Characteristics of flow profile and classification. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 Analysis of flows profiles, Method of singular point and transitional depth, Methods of computation, Practical problems. 6 Hours UNIT – 6 Gradually Varied Flow Computations: Different methods, direct integration method, Bress’s Solution, Chow’s solution, direct method, standard step method. 8 Hours UNIT – 7 Rapidly Varied Flow: Concepts, hydraulic jump in rectangular channels, classification of jumps, characteristics of jump – length location height, application of hydraulic jump stilling basins, shape type-2 and type-4. 6 Hours UNIT – 8 Hydraulic jump in rectangular channels, Sloping channels, Jump in non rectangular channels, application of hydraulic jump as energy desipator 4 Hours TEXTBOOKS:

  • 1. Open Channel Hydraulics : Subramanya : Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Co Ltd, New Delhi
  • 2. Open Channel Flow – Madan Mohan Das, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 2008 Edition.
  • 3. Flow Through Open Channels – Rajesh Srivastava, Oxford Press, New Delhi 2008 Edition.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Open Channel Hydraulics : French : Mc Graw Hill Book Company, New Delhi.
  • 2. Fluid Mechanics : Modi and Seth : Standard Book Home, New Delhi.
  • 3. Open Channel Hydraulics : Henderson : Mr. Millan Publishing Co. Ltd., New York.
  • 4. Open Channel Hydraulic : Ven Te Chow : Mc Graw Hill Book Company, New Delhi.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Subject Code 10CV757

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 INTRODUCTION: Definition, Land Pollution – scope and importance of solid waste management, functional elements of solid waste management. SOURCES: Classification and characteristics – municipal, commercial & industrial. Methods of quantification. 08 Hours UNIT – 2 COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION: Systems of collection, collection equipment, garbage chutes, transfer stations – bailing and compacting, route optimization techniques and problems. 06 Hours UNIT – 3 TREATMENT / PROCESSING TECHNIQUES: Components separation, volume reduction, size reduction, chemical reduction and biological processing problems. 6 Hours UNIT – 4 INCINERATION: Process – 3 T’s, factors affecting incineration process, incinerators – types, prevention of air pollution, pyrolsis, design criteria for incineration. 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 COMPOSTING: Aerobic and anaerobic composting, factors affecting composting, Indore and Bangalore processes, mechanical and semi mechanical composting processes. Vermicomposting. 6 Hours UNIT – 6 SANITARY LAND FILLING: Different types, trench area, Ramp and pit method, site selection, basic steps involved, cell design, prevention of site pollution, leachate & gas collection and control methods, geosynthetic fabrics in sanitary land fills. 8 Hours UNIT – 7 DISPOSAL METHODS: Open dumping – selection of site, ocean disposal, feeding to hogs, incineration, pyrolsis, composting, sanitary land filling, merits and demerits, biomedical wastes and disposal. 6 Hours UNIT – 8 RECYCLE AND REUSE: Material and energy recovery operations, reuse in other industries, plastic wastes, environmental significance and reuse. 5 Hours REFERENCES

  • 1. Integrated Solid Waste Management: Tchobanoglous : M/c Graw Hill.
  • 2. Solid Waste Management in developing countries. Bhide and Sunderashan
  • 3. Hand book on Solid Waste Disposal.: Pavoni J.L.
  • 4. Environmental Engineering.: Peavy and Tchobanoglous
  • 5. Environmental Engineering – Vol II.: S.K. Garg
  • 6. Biomedical waste handling rules – 2000.
  • 7. Solid Waste Engineering by Vesilind.Pa Worrell & Reinhart.D. – 2009, Cengage Learning India Private Limited, New Delhi.

NUMERICAL METHODS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Subject Code : 10CV761

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART -A

UNIT – 1 INTRODUCTION: Historical development of Numerical techniques, role in investigations, research and design in the field of civil engineering 1 Hour DEVELOPMENT OF ALGORITHM/ FLOW CHARTS FOR FOLLOWING METHODS FOR SOLUTION OF LINEAR SIMULTANEOUS EQUATION: a) Gaussian elimination method, b) Gauss-Jordan matrix inversion method, c) Gauss-Siedel method and d) Factorization method 6 Hours UNIT – 2 APPLICATION OF SOLUTION OF LINEAR SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS TO CIVIL ENGINEERING PROBLEMS : Construction planning, slope deflection method applied to beams, frames and truss analysis. 5 Hours UNIT – 3 APPLICATION OF ROOT FINDING TO CIVIL ENGINEERING PROBLEMS: Development of algorithm for a) Bisection method and  b) Newton-Raphson method and its applications for solution of non linear algebraic and transcendental equations from problems in hydraulics, irrigation engineering, structural engineering and environmental engineering. 6 Hours UNIT – 4 APPLICATION OF NUMERICAL INTEGRATION FOR SOLVING SIMPLE BEAM PROBLEMS: Development of algorithm for a) Trapezoidal rule and b) Simpson’s one third rule and its application for computation of area of BMD drawn for statically determinate beams. 6 Hours

PART -B

UNIT – 5 New Marks method for computation of slopes and deflections in statically determinate beams. 6 Hours UNIT – 6 DEVELOPMENT OF ALGORITHM AND APPLICATION OF SOLUTION OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION TO CIVIL ENGINEERING PROBLEMS BY: a) Euler’s method b) Runge Kutta 4th order method 7 Hours UNIT – 7 APPLICATION OF FINITE DIFFERENCE TECHNIQUE IN STRUCTURAL MECHANICS: i. Introduction, expression of derivatives by finite difference: backward differences, forward differences and central differences. ii. Application of finite difference method for analysis of a) statically determinate beams, b) statically indeterminate beams 8 Hours UNIT – 8 Application of Finite difference technique in structural mechanics (Contd..) a) Buckling of columns, b) Beams on elastic foundation. 7 Hours REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Numerical Methods for Engineers- Chapra S.C. & R.P.Canale : McGraw Hill, 1990.
  • 2. Numerical methods in Engineering Problem- N.Krishna Raju, K.U.Muthu : MacMillan Indian Limited, 1990.
  • 3. Numerical methods for Engineers and Scientists- Iqbal H.Khan, Q. Hassan : Galgotia, New Delhi, 1997.
  • 4. Numerical methods in Computer Programs in C++” – Pallab Ghosh : Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2006.
  • 5. Numerical methods for engineers using MATLAB and C – I Edition SCHILLING “ Thomson Publications”

ROCK MECHANICS Subject Code : 10CV762

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 INTRODUCTION: Definition, Importance, History of Rock Mechanics, Distribution of rocks – Archean Rocks, Cuddapah Rocks, Vindhyan Rocks, Palaeozoick Rocks, Mesozoic rocks, Gondwana Rocks, Deccan Traps, Steriographic presentation of Geological data – Representation and plotting line and plane 6 Hours UNIT – 2 LABORATORY TESTS ON ROCK.S Tests for Physical Properties, Compressive strength, Tensile strength, Direct shear, Triaxial Shear, Slake Durability, Schmidt Rebound Hardness, Sound Velocity, Swelling Pressure & Free Swell, Void Index 6 Hours UNIT – 3 STRENGTH, MODULUS AND STRESS STRAIN BEHAVIOUR OF ROCKS Factors influencing rock behaviour, Strength criteria for Isotropic Intact Rocks, Modulus of Isotropic Intact Rocks, Compressive strength and modulus from SPT, Stress Strain models – Elastic model, Elasto plastic model, Visco elastic model 6 Hours UNIT – 4 ENGINEERING CLASSIFICATION OF ROCK AND ROCK MASS – RQD, RMR system, Terzaghi’s rock load classification, Deere Miller, CMRS and RSR System. Classification based on strength and modulus, Clasification based on strength and failure strain, rock discontinuity qualitative description, friction in rocks – Amonton’s law of friction, 8 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 FIELD TESTS ON ROCKS AND ROCK MASS Geophysical methods Seismc Refraction method, Electrical Resistivity method, Deformability tests – Plate Jack Test, Goodman Jack Test, Field shear test – Field Permeability Test – Open end Test, Packers Test. 6 Hours UNIT – 6 STABILITY OF ROCK SLOPES Modes of failure – Rotational, Plane and wedge failures, Plane failure method of Analysis, Wedge method of Analysis, Toppling failure, Protection against slope failure. 6 Hours UNIT – 7 ROCK FOUNDATION Estimation of Bearing Capacity – Intact, Fractured rocks, Stress distribution in rocks, Factor of Safety, Sliding sability of dam foundation, Settlement in rocks, Bearing capacity of piles in rock, Measures for strengthening rock mass – Concrete shear keys, Bored concrete piles, Tensioned cable anchors, concrete block at toe 6 Hours UNIT – 8 MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS Drilling, Blasting and underground open excavation, Mining and other Engineering applications, criteria for design of underground excavations, tubular excavations, pillars and ribs support multiple excavations. Structural defects in Rock masses, their improvement by rock bolting, grouting and other methods. Rock grouting, Rock Reinforcement 8 Hours TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Foundation of Rock masses – Joegar and Cook : 3rd Edition Chapman and Hall, London.
  • 2. Engineering in Rocks for Slopes foundations and Tunnels – Ramamurthy, T., PHI Publishers, 2007
  • 3. Introduction to rock mechanics- Goodman : : Wiley International.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Rock Mechanics and the design of structures in Rock- : John Wiley, New York.
  • 2. Rock Mechanics in Engineering practice- Ziekiewicz. O.C. and Stagg K.G. : John, Wiley, New York.

PAVEMENT MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION Subject Code : 10CV763

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

PAVEMENT MATERIALS UNIT – 1 AGGREGATES: Origin, classification, requirements, properties and tests on road aggregates, concepts of size and gradation – design gradation, maximum aggregate size, aggregate blending by different methods to meet specification. 6 Hours UNIT – 2 BITUMEN AND TAR: Origin, preparation, properties and chemical constitution of bituminous road binders; requirements. 4 Hours UNIT – 3 BITUMINOUS EMULSIONS AND CUTBACKS: Preparation, characteristics, uses and tests. Adhesion of Bituminous Binders to Road Aggregates: Adhesion failure, mechanism of stripping, tests and methods of improving adhesion. 8 Hours UNIT – 4 BITUMINOUS MIXES: Mechanical properties, dense and open textured mixes, flexibility and brittleness, (no Hveem Stabilometer & Hubbar – Field Tests) bituminous mix, design methods using Rothfuch’s Method only and specification, Marshal mixed design criteria- voids in mineral aggregates, voids in total mix, density, flow, stability, percentage voids filled with bitumen. 6 Hours

PART – B

PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION UNIT – 5 EQUIPMENT IN HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION: Various types of equipment for excavation, grading and compaction – their working principle, advantages and limitations. Special equipment for bituminous and cement concrete pavement and stabilized soil road construction. 6 Hours UNIT – 6 SUBGRADE: Earthwork grading and construction of embankments and cuts for roads. Preparation of subgrade, quality control tests. 6 Hours UNIT – 7 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS: Specifications of materials, construction method and field control checks for various types of flexible pavement layers. 8 Hours UNIT – 8 CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS: Specifications and method of cement concrete pavement construction (PQC Importance of providing DLC as sub-base and polythene thin layer between PQC and sub-base); Quality control tests; Construction of various types of joints. 8 Hours TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Highway Engineering- Khanna, S.K., and Justo, C.E.G., : Nem Chand and Bros. Roorkee
  • 2. Construction Equipment and its Management- Sharma, S.C. : Khanna Publishers.
  • 3. Hot Mix Asphalt Materials, Mixture Design and Construction- Freddy L. Roberts, Kandhal, P.S. : University of Texas Austin, Texas. NAPA Education Foundation Lanham, Maryland.

REFERENCES BOOKS:

  • 1. RRL, DSIR, ‘Bituminous Materials in Road Construction’, HMSO Publication.
  • 2. RRL, DSIR, ‘Soil Mechanics for Road Engineers’, HMSO Publication.
  • 3. Relevant IRC codes and MoRT & H specifications.

PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND REMOTE SENSING Subject Code : 10CV764

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Part A

Unit 1: Photogrammetry – Introduction, basic definitions, terrestrial photogrammetry, phototheodolite, horizontal and vertical angles from terrestrial photographs, horizontal position of a point from photographic measurements, elevation of ponts by photographic measurements, determination of focal length. 8Hours Unit 2: Aerial Photogrammetry- advantages, vertical, tilted and oblique photographs, geometry of vertical photographs, scale of vertical photograph over flat and variable terrain, ground coordinates, computation of length of a line, computation of flying height, relief displacement, overlaps, flight planning, computation of required number of photographs for a given area, ground control in photogrammetry 9 Hours Unit 3: Basics of stereoscopy, stereoscopes, uses, parallax. Basic elements in photographic interpretation. Introduction to digital photogrammetry 6 Hours

Part B

Unit 4: Remote sensing: Introduction, Ideal remote sensing system, basic principles of electromagnetic remote sensing, electromagnetic energy, electromagnetic spectrum, interaction with earth’s atmosphere, interaction with earth- surface materials, spectral reflectance of earth surface materials 6Hours Unit 5: Remote sensing platforms and sensors: Introduction, platforms- IRS, Landsat, SPOT, Cartosat, Ikonos, Envisat etc. Sensors-active and passive, MSS, AVHRR, LISS, TM, PAN, WIFS, microwave sensors, sensor resolutions (spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal) 6 Hours Unit 6: Properties of digital image data, data formats, Basics of digital image processing- radiometric and geometric corrections, image enhancements, image transforms based on arithmetic operations, image filtering 6Hours Unit 7: Remote sensing image interpretation, thematic classification (supervised and unsupervised) , maximum likelihood classification, introduction to accuracy assessment of classification 6 Hours Unit 8: Applications of Remote sensing: applications in land use land cover analysis, change detection, water resources, urban planning, environmental and geological applications. 5 Hours Reference Books:

  • 1. Mikhail E., J. Bethel, and J.C. McGlone, Introduction to modern photogrammetry. Wiley, 2001.
  • 2. Wolf P.R, and B.A. Dewitt, Elements of photogrammetry : with applications in GIS. 3rd ed, McGraw-Hill, 2000.
  • 3. Lillesand T.M., and R.W. Kiefer, Remote sensing and image interpretation. 4th ed, John Wiley & Sons, 2000.
  • 4. Jensen J.R., Introductory digital image processing: a remote sensing perspective. 2nd ed Prentice Hall, 1996.
  • 5. Richards J.A., and X. Jia, Remote sensing digital image analysis: an introduction. 3rd ed Springer, 1999.
  • 6. Mather P.M., Computer processing of remotely-sensed images: an introduction. Wiley,1988.

AIR POLLUTION AND CONTROL Subject Code 10 CV765

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 INTRODUCTION: Definition – Classification and Characterization of Air Pollutants, Emission Sources, Behavior and Fate of air Pollutants, Chemical Reactions in the Atmosphere, Photo-chemical Smog, Coal-induced smog, Air Pollution Inventories. 6 Hours UNIT – 2 EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: On Human Health, Animals, Plants and Materials – Major Environmental Air Pollution Episodes – London Smog, Los Angeles Smog & Bhopal Gas Tragedy. 6 Hours UNIT – 3 METEOROLOGY: Introduction – Meteorological Variables, Primary and Secondary Lapse Rate, Inversions, Stability Conditions, Windrose, General Characteristics of Stack Plumes, Meterological Models. 8 Hours UNIT – 4 Factors to be considered in Industrial Plant Location and Planning Noise pollution – sources, measurement units, effects and control 4 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 SAMPLING, ANALYSIS AND CONTROL: Sampling and Measurement of Gaseous and Particulate matter, Stack Sampling, Analysis of Air Pollutants, Smoke and Smoke Measurement, Air Pollution Control Methods – Particulate, Emission Control, Gravitational Settling Chambers, Cyclone Separators, Fabric Filters, Electrostatic Precipitators, Wet Scrubbers, Selection of a Particulate Collecting Equipment, Control of Gaseous Emissions, Adsorption by Liquids, Adsorption by Solids, Combustion Odours and their control. 16 Hours UNIT – 6 AIR POLLUTION DUE TO AUTOMOBILES: Air Pollution due to Gasoline Driven and Diesel Driven Engines, Effects, Direct and Indirect Methods of control. 5 Hours UNIT – 7 BURNING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: 1. Acid Rain 2. Global Warming 3. Ozone Depletion in Stratosphere 4. Indoor Air Pollution 4 Hours UNIT – 8 ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION: Environmental Policy, Environmental Acts, Water, Air and Noise Pollution Standards. 3 Hours REFERENCES

  • 1. Boubel, R.W., Donald, L.F., Turner, D.B., and Stern, A.C., (1994), Fundamentals of Air Pollution –Academic Press.
  • 2. Crawford, M., (1980), Air Pollution Control Theory –TMH Edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
  • 3. Henry. C. Perkins, (1980), Air Pollution –McGraw Hill.
  • 4. Peavy, H.S., Rowe, D.R., and Tchobanoglous, G., (1986), Environmental Engineering –Mc Graw Hill Book Co.
  • 5. Sincero, A.P and Sincero, G.A., (1999), Environmental Engineering – A Design Approach –Prentice Hall of India.
  • 6. Wark, K., Warner, C.F. and Davies, W.T., (1998), Air Pollution- Its Origin and Control –Harper & Row Publishers, New York.

DESIGN AND DRAWING OF BRIDGES Subject Code : 10CV766

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 02 (T) + 3 (D) Exam Hours : 04 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 26 (T) + 39 (D) Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 BRIDGE PRELIMINARIES: Classification of bridges and standard loads, Bridge-definition, components of bridges, various classification, types of bridges, forces to be considered for the design, IRC standards. HYDRAULIC DESIGN: Methods of finding design discharge, natural, artificial and linear water ways, afflux, economic span. SUBSTRUCTURES AND FOUNDATIONS: Types of abutments, piers and wing walls, forces to be considered for the design, Types of foundations and forces to be considered for the design, depth of scour. 6 Hours UNIT – 2 DESIGN AND DRAWING OF RC SLAB CULVERT for IRC class-AA loading, & class A loading. Design of pipe culvert. Empirical design of bank connections. Drawing slab culvert & pipe culvert for given site particulars. 6+12 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 3 DESIGN AND DRAWING OF RC T BEAM BRIDGE with cross beams by Piegaud’s and Courbon’s method for class-AA loading, empirical design of substructures and foundations. 5+12 Hours UNIT – 4 DESIGN OF COMPOSITE BRIDGE: Design of composite bridge for EUDL, Shear connectors-design requirments for shear connectors. Drawing of composite bridge. 5+9 Hours UNIT – 5 Typical Design and detailing of approach slab, Hand rails- Typical design and detailing of slab culverts and girder bridges as per MOT standards 4+6 Hours TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Essentials of Bridge Engineering : Johnson – victor : Oxford IBH Publications, New Delhi.
  • 2. Design of Bridges : Krishna Raju N : Oxford IBH Publications, New Delhi.

REFERENCE BOOK:

  • 1. Design of Bridge Structures : Jagadish T. R. & Jayaram M. A. : Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.

STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS Subject Code : 10CV767

IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 Introduction to structural dynamics, Brief history of vibration and Earthquakes, Major earthquakes, Earthquakes zones, some basic definitions, Vibration of single degree of freedom system, undamped, damped, free vibrations, logarithmic decrement. 6 Hours UNIT – 2 Forced vibrations of single degree freedom systems, response of undamped and damped systems subjected to harmonic loading, rotation unbalance, reciprocating unbalance. 6 Hours UNIT – 3 Duhamel’s integral, response due to general system of loading, dynamic load factor, response spectrum, response of SDOF subjected to harmonic base excitation, vibration isolation. 7 Hours UNIT – 4 Free vibration of multi degree of freedom systems, natural frequencies, normal modes, orthoganality property of normal modes, eigen values. 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 Shear buildings modeled as multi degree of freedom systems, free vibrations, natural frequencies. 6 Hours UNIT – 6 Forced vibration motion of shear builings, modal super position method, response of shear buldings to base motion, harmonic forced excitation. 6 Hours UNIT – 7 Damped motion of shear buildings, equations for damped shear buildings, uncoupled damped equations, conditions for damping uncoupling. 7 Hours UNIT – 8 Dynamic analysis of beams stiffness matrices, lumped mass and consistent mass formulation equations of motion. 7 Hours REFERENCE BOOK:

  • 1. Vibrations, structural dynamics- M. Mukhopadhaya : Oxford IBH
  • 2. Structural Dynamics- Mario Paz : CBS publishers.
  • 3. Structural Dynamics- Anil Chopra : PHI Publishers.
  • 4. Structural Dynamics- Clough & Penzen : TMH.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY Subject Code 10CVL77

IA Marks : 25 No. of Practical Hours/Week : 03 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Practical Hours : 42 Exam Marks : 50

1. Determination of Solids in Sewage: Total Solids, Suspended Solids,Dissolved Solids, Volatile Solids, Fixed Solids, Settleable Solids. 2. Electrical conductivity. Determination of Chlorides and Sulphates. 3. Determination of Alkalinity, Acidity and pH. 4. Determination of Calcium, Magnesium and Total Hardness. 5. Determination of Dissolved Oxygen. Determination of BOD. 6. Determination of COD. 7. Determination of percentage of available chlorine in bleaching powder, Residual Chlorine and Chlorine Demand. 8. Jar Test for Optimum Dosage of Alum, Turbidity determination by Nephelometer. 9. Determination of Iron. Phenanthroline method. 10. Determination of Fluorides SPANDS Method. 11. MPN Determination 12. Determination Nitrates by spectrophotometer. 13. Determination of sodium and potassium by flame photometer. REFERENCES

  • 1. Manual of Water and Wastewater Analysis – NEERI Publication.
  • 2. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater (1995), American Publication – Association, Water Pollution Control Federation, American Water Works Association, Washington DC.
  • 3. IS Standards : 2490-1974, 3360-1974, 3307-1974.
  • 4. Chemistry for Environment Engineering. Sawyer and Mc Carthy,

CONCRETE AND HIGHWAY MATERIALS LABORATORY Subject Code : 10CVL78

IA Marks : 25 No. of Practical Hours/Week : 03 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Practical Hours : 42 Exam Marks : 50

PART – A

CEMENT: Normal Consistency, Setting time, Soundness by Autoclave method, Compression strength test and Air permeability test for fineness, Specific gravity of cement. FRESH CONCRETE: Workability – slump, Compaction factor and Vee Bee tests. HARDENED CONCRETE: Compression strength and Split tensile tests. Test on flexural strength of RCC beams, Permeability of concrete.

PART – B

SOIL: Density of Soil by Sand replacement method, CBR Text. AGGREGATES: Crushing, abrasion, impact and Shape tests (Flaky, Elongation, Angularity number) Specific gravity and water absorption. BITUMINOUS MATERIALS AND MIXES: Specific Gravity, Penetration,Ductility, Softening point, Flash and fire point, Viscosity, proportioning of aggregate mixes by Rothfutch Method, Marshall Stability tests. REFERENCE BOOK:

  • 1. Relevant IS Codes and IRC Codes.
  • 2. Highway Material Testing Laboratory Manual by Khanna S K and Justo, – CEG Nemi Chand & Bros.
  • 3. M. L. Gambhir : Concrete Manual : Dhanpat Rai & sons New – Delhi.

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