VTU EC 7th Semester Syllabus

Download VTU EC Syllabus Soft Copy

VII SEMESTER

COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
Subject Code : 10EC71

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
Layered tasks, OSI Model, Layers in OSI model, TCP?IP Suite, Addressing, Telephone and cable networks for data transmission, Telephone networks, Dial up modem, DSL, Cable TV for data transmission.  7 Hours

UNIT – 2
DATA LINK CONTROL: Framing, Flow and error control, Protocols, Noiseless channels and noisy channels, HDLC. 6 Hours

UNIT – 3
MULTIPLE ACCESSES: Random access, Controlled access, Channelisation. 6 Hours

UNIT – 4
Wired LAN, Ethernet, IEEE standards, Standard Ethernet. Changes in the standards, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, Wireless LAN IEEE 802.11 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
Connecting LANs, Backbone and Virtual LANs, Connecting devices, Back bone Networks, Virtual LANs 7 Hours

UNIT – 6
Network Layer, Logical addressing, Ipv4 addresses, Ipv6 addresses, Ipv4 and Ipv6 Transition from Ipv4 to Ipv6. 6 Hours

UNIT – 7
Delivery, Forwarding, Unicast Routing Protocols, Multicast Routing protocols. 6 Hours

UNIT – 8
Transport layer Process to process Delivery, UDP, TCP, Domain name system, Resolution. 7 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Data Communication and Networking, B Forouzan, 4th Ed, TMH 2006.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Computer Networks, James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross: Pearson education, 2nd Edition, 2003.
  • 2. Introduction to Data communication and Networking, Wayne Tomasi: Pearson education 2007.

OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION
Subject Code : 10EC72

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
OVERVIEW OF OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION: Introduction, Historical development, general system, advantages, disadvantages, and applications of optical fiber communication, optical fiber waveguides, Ray theory, cylindrical fiber (no derivations in article 2.4.4), single mode fiber, cutoff wave length, mode filed diameter. Optical Fibers: fiber materials, photonic crystal, fiber optic cables specialty fibers. 7 Hours

UNIT – 2
TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF OPTICAL FIBERS: Introduction, Attenuation, absorption, scattering losses, bending loss, dispersion, Intra model dispersion, Inter model dispersion. 6 Hours

UNIT – 3
OPTICAL SOURCES AND DETECTORS: Introduction, LED’s, LASER diodes, Photo detectors, Photo detector noise, Response time, double hetero junction structure, Photo diodes, comparison of photo detectors. 6 Hours

UNIT – 4
FIBER COUPLERS AND CONNECTORS: Introduction, fiber alignment and joint loss, single mode fiber joints, fiber splices, fiber connectors and fiber couplers. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
OPTICAL RECEIVER: Introduction, Optical Receiver Operation, receiver sensitivity, quantum limit, eye diagrams, coherent detection, burst mode receiver, operation, Analog receivers. 6 Hours

UNIT – 6
ANALOG AND DIGITAL LINKS: Analog links – Introduction, overview of analog links, CNR, multichannel transmission techniques, RF over fiber, key link parameters, Radio over fiber links, microwave photonics. Digital links – Introduction, point–to–point links, System considerations, link power budget, resistive budget, short wave length band, transmission distance for single mode fibers, Power penalties, nodal noise and chirping. 8 Hours

UNIT – 7
WDM CONCEPTS AND COMPONENTS: WDM concepts, overview of WDM operation principles, WDM standards, Mach-Zehender interferometer, multiplexer, Isolators and circulators, direct thin film filters, active optical components, MEMS technology, variable optical attenuators, tunable optical fibers, dynamic gain equalizers, optical drop multiplexers, polarization controllers, chromatic dispersion compensators, tunable light sources. 7 Hours

UNIT – 8
Optical Amplifiers and Networks – optical amplifiers, basic applications and types, semiconductor optical amplifiers, EDFA. OPTICAL NETWORKS: Introduction, SONET / SDH, Optical Interfaces, SONET/SDH rings, High – speed light – waveguides. 6 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. “Optical Fiber Communication”, Gerd Keiser, 4th Ed., MGH, 2008.
  • 2. “Optical Fiber Communications”, John M. Senior, Pearson Education. 3rd Impression, 2007.

REFERENCE BOOK:

  • 1. Fiber Optic Communication – Joseph C Palais: 4th Edition, Pearson Education.

POWER ELECTRONICS
Subject Code : 10EC73

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
Introduction, Applications of power electronics, Power semiconductor devices, Control characteristics, Types of power electronics circuits, Peripheral effects. 6 Hours

UNIT – 2
POWER TRANSISTOR: Power BJT’s, Switching characteristics, Switching limits, Base derive control, Power MOSFET’s, Switching characteristics, Gate drive, IGBT’s, Isolation of gate and base drives. 6 Hours

UNIT – 3
INTRODUCTION TO THYRISTORS: Principle of operation states anode-cathode characteristics, Two transistor model. Turn-on Methods, Dynamic Turn-on and turn-off characteristics, Gate characteristics, Gate trigger circuits, di / dt and dv / dt protection, Thyristor firing circuits. 7 Hours

UNIT – 4
CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS: Introduction, Principles of phase controlled converter operation, 1φ fully controlled converters, Duel converters, 1 φ semi converters (all converters with R & RL load). 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
Thyristor turn off methods, natural and forced commutation, self commutation, class A and class B types, Complementary commutation, auxiliary commutation, external pulse commutation, AC line commutation, numerical problems. 7 Hours

UNIT – 6
AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS: Introduction, Principles of on and off control, Principles of phase control, Single phase controllers with restive loads and Inductive loads, numerical problems. 6 Hours

UNIT – 7
DC CHOPPERS: Introduction, Principles of step down and step up choppers, Step down chopper with RL loads, Chopper classification, Switch mode regulators – buck, boost and buck – boost regulators. 6 Hours

UNIT – 8
INVERTORS: Introduction, Principles of operation, Performance parameters, 1φ bridge inverter, voltage control of 1φ invertors, current source invertors, Variable DC link inverter. 7 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. “Power Electronics” – M. H. Rashid 3rd edition, PHI / Pearson publisher 2004.
  • 2. “Power Electronics” – M. D. Singh and Kanchandani K.B. TMH publisher, 2nd Ed. 2007.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. “Power Electronics, Essentials and Applications”, L Umanand, John Wiley India Pvt. Ltd, 2009.
  • 2. “Power Electronics” , Daniel W. Hart, McGraw Hill, 2010.
  • 3. “Power Electronics”, V Nattarasu and R.S. Anandamurhty, Pearson/Sanguine Pub. 2006.

EMBEDED SYSTEM DESIGN
Subject Code : 10EC74

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT 1:
Introduction to Embedded System: Introducing Embedded Systems, Philosophy, Embedded Systems, Embedded Design and Development Process. 5 Hours

UNIT 2:
The Hardware Side: An Introduction, The Core Level, Representing Information, Understanding Numbers, Addresses, Instructions, Registers-A First Look, Embedded Systems-An Instruction Set View, Embedded Systems-A Register View, Register View of a Microprocessor The Hardware Side: Storage Elements and Finite-State Machines (2 hour)
The concepts of State and Time, The State Diagram, Finite State Machines- A Theoretical Model. 8 Hours

UNIT 3:
Memories and the Memory Subsystem: Classifying Memory, A General Memory Interface, ROM Overview, Static RAM Overview, Dynamic RAM Overview, Chip Organization, Terminology, A Memory Interface in Detail, SRAM Design, DRAM Design, DRAM Memory Interface, The Memory Map, Memory Subsystem Architecture, Basic Concepts of Caching, Designing a Cache System, Dynamic Memory Allocation. 7 Hours

UNIT 4:
Embedded Systems Design and Development : System Design and Development, Life-cycle Models, Problem Solving-Five Steps to Design, The Design Process, Identifying the Requirements, Formulating the Requirements Specification, The System Design Specification, System Specifications versus System Requirements, Partitioning and Decomposing a System, Functional Design, Architectural Design, Functional Model versus Architectural Model, Prototyping, Other Considerations, Archiving the Project. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT 5 & 6:
Real-Time Kernels and Operating Systems: Tasks and Things, Programs and Processes, The CPU is a resource, Threads – Lightweight and heavyweight, Sharing Resources, Foreground/Background Systems, The operating System, The real time operating system (RTOS), OS architecture, Tasks and Task control blocks, memory management revisited. 12 Hours

UNIT 7 & 8:
Performance Analysis and Optimization: Performance or Efficiency Measures, Complexity Analysis, The methodology, Analyzing code, Instructions in Detail, Time, etc. – A more detailed look, Response Time, Time Loading, Memory Loading, Evaluating Performance, Thoughts on Performance Optimization, Performance Optimization, Tricks of the Trade, Hardware Accelerators, Caches and Performance. 12 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Embedded Systems – A contemporary Design Tool, James K. Peckol, John Weily India Pvt. Ltd, 2008.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Embedded Systems: Architecture and Programming, Raj Kamal, TMH. 2008.
  • 2. Embedded Systems Architecture – A Comprehensive Guide for Engineers and Programmers, Tammy Noergaard, Elsevier Publication, 2005.
  • 3. Programming for Embedded Systems, Dreamtech Software Team, John Wiley India Pvt. Ltd, 2008.

VLSI LAB
Subject Code : 10ECL77

IA Marks : 25
No. of Practical Hrs/Week : 03 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Practical Hrs. : 42 Exam Marks : 50

[Refer Syllabus Copy]

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB
Subject Code : 10ECL78

IA Marks : 25
No. of Practical Hrs/Week: 03 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Practical Hrs. : 42 Exam Marks : 50

[Refer Syllabus Copy]

DSP ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURE
Subject Code : 10EC751

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING: Introduction, A Digital Signal-Processing System, The Sampling Process, Discrete Time Sequences, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Linear Time-Invariant Systems, Digital Filters, Decimation and Interpolation. 6 Hours

UNIT – 2
ARCHITECTURES FOR PROGRAMMABLE DIGITAL SIGNALPROCESSORS: Introduction, Basic Architectural Features, DSP Computational Building Blocks, Bus Architecture and Memory, Data Addressing Capabilities, Address Generation Unit, Programmability and Program Execution, Features for External Interfacing. 7 Hours

UNIT – 3
PROGRAMMABLE DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSORS: Introduction, Commercial Digital Signal-processing Devices, Data Addressing Modes of TMS32OC54xx., Memory Space of TMS32OC54xx Processors, Program Control. 6 Hours

UNIT – 4
Detail Study of TMS320C54X & 54xx Instructions and Programming, On- Chip peripherals, Interrupts of TMS32OC54XX Processors, Pipeline Operation of TMS32OC54xx Processor. 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
IMPLEMENTATION OF BASIC DSP ALGORITHMS: Introduction, The Q-notation, FIR Filters, IIR Filters, Interpolation and Decimation Filters (one example in each case). 7 Hours

UNIT – 6
IMPLEMENTATION OF FFT ALGORITHMS: Introduction, An FFT Algorithm for DFT Computation, Overflow and Scaling, Bit-Reversed Index Generation & Implementation on the TMS32OC54xx. 6 Hours

UNIT – 7
INTERFACING MEMORY AND PARALLEL I/O PERIPHERALS TO DSP DEVICES: Introduction, Memory Space Organization, External Bus Interfacing Signals. Memory Interface, Parallel I/O Interface, Programmed I/O, Interrupts and I / O Direct Memory Access (DMA). 6 Hours

UNIT – 8
INTERFACING AND APPLICATIONS OF DSP PROCESSOR: Introduction, Synchronous Serial Interface, A CODEC Interface Circuit. DSP Based Bio-telemetry Receiver, A Speech Processing System, An Image Processing System. 7 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. “Digital Signal Processing”, Avatar Singh and S. Srinivasan, Thomson Learning, 2004.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Digital Signal Processing: A practical approach, Ifeachor E. C., Jervis B. W Pearson-Education, PHI/ 2002
  • 2. “Digital Signal Processors”, B Venkataramani and M Bhaskar TMH, 2nd, 2010
  • 3. “Architectures for Digital Signal Processing”, Peter Pirsch John Weily, 2008

MICRO AND SMART SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY
Subject Code : 10MS752

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO MICRO AND SMART SYSTEMS:
a) What are smart-material systems? Evolution of smart materials, structures and systems. Components of a smart system. Application areas. Commercial products.
b) What are microsystems? Feynman’s vision. Micromachined transducers. Evolution of micro-manufacturing. Multi-disciplinary aspects. Applications areas. Commercial products. 6 Hours

UNIT – 2
MICRO AND SMART DEVICES AND SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND MATERIALS:
a) Definitions and salient features of sensors, actuators, and systems.
b) Sensors: silicon capacitive accelerometer, piezo-resistive pressure sensor, blood analyzer, conductometric gas sensor, fiber-optic gyroscope and surface-acoustic-wave based wireless strain sensor.
c) Actuators: silicon micro-mirror arrays, piezo-electric based inkjet printhead, electrostatic comb-drive and micromotor, magnetic micro relay, shapememory- alloy based actuator, electro-thermal actuator.
d) Systems: micro gas turbine, portable clinical analyzer, active noise control in a helicopter cabin. 7 Hours

UNIT – 3
MICROMANUFACTURING AND MATERIAL PROCESSING:
a. Silicon wafer processing, lithography, thin-film deposition, etching (wet and dry), wafer-bonding, and metallization.
b. Silicon micromachining: surface, bulk, moulding, bonding based process flows.
c. Thick-film processing:
d. Smart material processing:
e. Processing of other materials: ceramics, polymers and metals
f. Emerging trends. 7 Hours

UNIT – 4
MODELING:
a. Scaling issues.
b. Elastic deformation and stress analysis of beams and plates. Residual stresses and stress gradients. Thermal loading. Heat transfer issues. Basic fluids issues.
c. Electrostatics. Coupled electromechanics. Electromagnetic actuation. Capillary electro-phoresis. Piezoresistive modeling. Piezoelectric modeling. Magnetostrictive actuators. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
COMPUTER-AIDED SIMULATION AND DESIGN: Background to the finite element element method. Coupled-domain simulations using Matlab. Commercial software. 6 Hours

UNIT – 6
ELECTRONICS, CIRCUITS AND CONTROL: Carrier concentrations, semiconductor diodes, transistors, MOSFET amplifiers, operational amplifiers. Basic Op-Amp circuits. Charge-measuring circuits. Examples from microsystems. Transfer function, state-space modeling, stability, PID controllers, and model order reduction. Examples from smart systems and micromachined accelerometer or a thermal cycler. 7 Hours

UNIT – 7
INTEGRATION AND PACKAGING OF MICROELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS: Integration of microelectronics and micro devices at wafer and chip levels. Microelectronic packaging: wire and ball bonding, flip-chip. Lowtemperature- cofired-ceramic (LTCC) multi-chip-module technology. Microsystem packaging examples. 7 Hours

UNIT – 8
CASE STUDIES: BEL pressure sensor, thermal cycler for DNA amplification, and active vibration control of a beam. 6 Hours

UNIT – 9
Mini-projects and class-demonstrations (not for Examination)
a) CAD lab (coupled field simulation of electrostatic-elastic actuation with fluid effect)
b) BEL pressure sensor
c) Thermal-cycler for PCR
d) Active control of a cantilever beam

TEXT BOOKS AND A CD-SUPPLEMENT:

  • 1. MEMS & Microsystems: Design and Manufacture, Tai-Ran Tsu, Tata Mc-Graw-Hill.
  • 2. “Micro and Smart Systems” by Dr. A.K.Aatre, Prof. Ananth Suresh, Prof.K.J.Vinoy, Prof. S. Gopalakrishna,, Prof. K.N.Bhat.,John Wiley Publications.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Animations of working principles, process flows and processing techniques, A CD-supplement with Matlab codes, photographs and movie clips of processing machinery and working devices.
  • 2. Laboratory hardware kits for (i) BEL pressure sensor, (ii) thermal-cycler and (iii) active control of a cantilever beam.
  • 3. Microsystems Design, S. D. Senturia, 2001, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, USA. ISBN 0-7923-7246-8.
  • 4. Analysis and Design Principles of MEMS Devices, Minhang Bao, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, ISBN 0-444-51616-6.
  • 5. Design and Development Methodologies, Smart Material Systems and MEMS: V. Varadan, K. J. Vinoy, S. Gopalakrishnan, Wiley.
  • 6. MEMS- Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik, TMH 2007

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS
Subject Code : 10EC753

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
Introduction, history, structure and function of single neuron, neural net architectures, neural learning, use of neural networks. 6 Hours

UNIT – 2
Supervised learning, single layer networks, perceptions, linear separability, perceptions training algorithm, guarantees of success, modifications. 7 Hours

UNIT – 3
Multiclass networks-I, multilevel discrimination, preliminaries, back propagation, setting parameter values, theoretical results. 7 Hours

UNIT – 4
Accelerating learning process, application, mandaline, adaptive multilayer networks. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
Prediction networks, radial basis functions, polynomial networks, regularization, unsupervised learning, winner take all networks. 6 Hours

UNIT – 6
Learning vector quantizing, counter propagation networks, adaptive resonance theorem, toplogically organized networks, distance based learning, neo-cognition. 7 Hours

UNIT – 7
Associative models, hop field networks, brain state networks, Boltzmann machines, hetero associations. 6 Hours

UNIT – 8
Optimization using hop filed networks, simulated annealing, random search, evolutionary computation. 7 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Elements of Artificial Neural Networks, Kishan Mehrotra, C. K. Mohan, Sanjay Ranka, Penram, 1997.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Artificial Neural Networks, R. Schalkoff, MGH, 1997.
  • 2. Introduction to Artificial Neural Systems, J. Zurada, Jaico, 2003.
  • 3. Neural Networks, Haykins, Pearson Edu., 1999.

CAD FOR VLSI
Subject Code : 10EC754

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1 & 2
INTRODUCTION TO VLSI METHODOLOGIES: VLSI Physical Design Automation – Design and Fabrication of VLSI Devices – Fabrication process and its impact on Physical Design. 12 Hours

UNIT – 3 & 4
A QUICK TOUR OF VLSI DESIGN AUTOMATION TOOLS: Data structures and Basic Algorithms, Algorithmic Graph theory and computational complexity, Tractable and Intractable problems. 14 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 & 6
GENERAL PURPOSE METHODS FOR COMBINATIONAL OPTIMIZATION: partitioning, floor planning and pin assignment, placement, routing. 14 Hours

UNIT – 7&8
SIMULATION-LOGIC SYNTHESIS: Verification-High level synthesis – Compaction. Physical Design Automation of FPGAs, MCMS-VHDLVerilog- Implementation of Simple circuits using VHDL and Verilog. 12 Hours

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. “Algorithms for VLSI Physical Design Automation”, N. A. Shervani, 1999.
  • 2. “Algorithms for VLSI Design Automation”, S. H. Gerez, 1998.
  • 3. Embedded Systems : Architecture, Programming, and Design, Raj Kamal, 2nd Edn. TMH, 2008.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Embedded System Design – A certified Hardware / Software Introduction, Frank Vahid, John Wikey & Sons, 2002.
  • 2. An embedded Software Primer by David E Simon, Pearson Edition 1999.

APPLIED EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN
Subject Code : 10EC755

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO THE EMBEDDED SYSTEMS: An embedded System, Processor embedded into a system (A). Embedded Hardware Units and devices in a system, Embedded software in a system, Examples of embedded systems, Embedded system-on-chip (SoC) and use of VLSI circuits design technology (A), Complex systems design and processors, Design process in embedded system, Formalism of system design, Design process and design examples, Classification of embedded systems, Skills
required for an embedded system designer. 5 Hours

UNIT – 2
8051 AND ADVANCED PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE: 8051 Architecture, Real world interfacing, Introduction to advanced architecture Processor and memory architecture, Instruction level parallelism, Performance metrics Memory types and addresses, Processor selection, Memory selection. 5 Hours

UNIT – 3
DEVICES AND COMMUNICATION BUSES FOR DEVICES NETWORK: Devices and Communication buses for Networks, Serial communication devices Parallel port devices, Sophisticated interfacing features in device ports, Wireless communication devices, Timer and counting devices, Watchdog timers, Real time clocks Parallel bus device
protocols – parallel communication network using the ISA, PCI, PCI-X and advanced buses, Wireless and mobile system protocols.. 6 Hours

UNIT – 4
DEVICE DRIVERS AND INTERRUPTS SERVICING MECHANISM: Port or device access without interrupt servicing mechanism, Interrupt service routine, thread and device driver concept, Interrupt sources, Interrupt servicing (handling) mechanism Multiple interrupts, Context and the periods for context-switching, interrupt latency and Deadline Classification of processors interrupt service mechanism from context saving angle Direct memory access, Device driver programming, Parallel port device drivers in a
system Serial port device drivers in a system, Timer devices and devices interrupts. 8 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS AND EMBEDDED PROGRAMMING IN C, C++ AND JAVA: Software programming in assembly language (ALP) and in high level language ‘C’, ‘C’ programming elements: header and source files and preprocessor directives, program elements : macros and functions, Program elements : data types, data structures, modifiers, statements, loops and pointers, Objected oriented programming, Embedded programming in Java, Optimisation of Memory needs. 5 Hours

UNIT – 6
PROGRAM MODELING CONCEPTS IN SINGLE AND MULTIPROCESSOR SYSTEMS SOFTWARE – DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: Program models, Data flow graph models, State machine programming models for event controlled programs, Modeling of multiprocessor systems, UML modeling. 5 Hours

UNIT – 7
REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS – 1: INTER PROCESS COMMUNICATION AND SYNCHRONISATION OF PROCESSES, TASK AND THREADS: Multiple processes in an application, Multiple threads in an applications, Task Tasks and states, Tasks and data, Clear cut distinction between Functions, ISRs and Tasks by their Characteristics,
Concept of semaphores, Shared data, Inter process communications Signals, Semaphores, Message queues, Mailboxes, Pipes, Sockets, Remote procedure calls (RPCs)..  8 Hours

UNIT – 8
REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS: Operating system service, Process management, Timer functions, Event functions, Memory management, Device, file and IO subsystems management Interrupt routines in RTOS environment and handling of interrupt source calls by RTOS Introduction to Real time Operating System, Basic design using a Real Time Operating System, RTOS Task Scheduling Models, Latency, Response Times, Deadline  as Performance Metric, OS security issues, IEEE Standard POSIX 1003.1 b
Functions for Standardisation of RTOS an Inter Process Communication Functions, Types of Real Time Operating Systems RTOSμC/OS-II, RTOS Vx Works. 10 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Embedded System Architecture & Programming by Raj Kamal, TMH, 2008 (latest edition).
  • 2. An embedded Software Primer by David E Simon, Pearson Edition 1999.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Introduction to Embedded System Design – A certified Hardware / Software by Bank Vahid, John Wikey & Sons, 2002.
  • 2. An embedded Software Primer by David E Simon, Pearson Edition 1999.

Lab Work: (Part of the theory class)
1. Write C prog to initialize the I/O ports and interface the following:
a. LED / LCD Display
b. Stepper Motor
c. Elevator
DIGITAL CMOS CIRCUITS: Overview, Design and performance analysis of CMSO inverter, Logic Gate Circuits, Pass-transistor logic, Dynamic Logic Circuits, SPICE examples.

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Microelectronic Circuits, Adel Sedra and K.C. Smith, 5th Edition, Oxford University Press, International Veersion, 2009.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Fundamentals of Microelectronics, Behzad Razavi, John Wiley India Pvt. Ltd., 2008.
  • 2. Microelectronics – Analysis and Design, Sundaram Natarajan, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2007.

SPEECH PROCESSING
Subject Code : 10EC756

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
PRODUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS: Introduction, mechanism of speech production. Acoustic phonetics: vowels, diphthongs, semivowels, nasals, fricatives, stops and affricates. 6 Hours

UNIT – 2
TIME-DOMAIN METHODS FOR SPEECH PROCESSING: time dependent processing of speech, short-time energy and average magnitude, short-time average zero crossing rate. 6 Hours

UNIT – 3
Speech vs. silence detection, pitch period estimation using parallel processing approach, short-time autocorrelation function. 7 Hours

UNIT – 4
Brief Applications of temporal processing of speech signals in synthesis, enhancement, hearing applications and clear speech. 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
FREQUENCY DOMAIN METHODS FOR SPEECH PROCESSING: Introduction, definitions and properties: Fourier transforms interpretation and linear filter interpretation, sampling rates in time and frequency. 7 Hours

UNIT – 6
Filter bank summation and overlap add methods for short-time synthesis of speech, sinusoidal and harmonic plus noise method of analysis/synthesis. 6 Hours

UNIT – 7
HOMOMORPHIC SPEECH PROCESSING: Introduction, homomorphic system for convolution, the complex cepstrum of speech, homomorphic vocoder. 6 Hours

UNIT – 8
APPLICATIONS OF SPEECH PROCESSING: Brief applications of speech processing in voice response systems hearing aid design and recognition systems. 7 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Digital Processing of Speech Signals, L. R. Rabiner and R. W. Schafer, Pearson Education Asia, 2004.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Discrete Time Speech Signal Processing, T. F. Quatieri, Pearson Education Asia, 2004.
  • 2. Speech and Audio Signal Processing: Processing and Perception of Speech and Music, B. Gold and N. Morgan, John Wiley India Pvt. Ltd, 2004.

ELECTIVE-III (GROUP-C)
PROGRAMMING IN C++

Subject Code : 10EC761 IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
C++, AN OVERVIEW: Getting started, the C++ program, Preprocessor Directives, The Built-In Array Data Type, Dynamic Memory Allocation and Pointers, An Object – based Design, An Object-Oriented Design, An Exception – based Design, An array. 7 Hours

UNIT – 2
THE BASIC LANGUAGE: Literal Constant, Variables, Pointer Type, String Types, const Qualifier, Reference Types, the bool type, Enumeration types, Array types. The vector container type. 6 Hours

UNIT – 3
OPERATORS: Arithmetic Operators, Equality, Relational and Logical operators, Assignment operators, Increment and Decrement operator, The conditional Operator, Bitwise operator, bitset operations. Statements: if, switch, for Loop, while, break, goto, continue statements. 7 Hours

UNIT – 4
FUNCTIONS: Prototype, Argument passing, Recursion and linear function. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
EXCEPTION HANDLING: Throwing an Exception, Catching an exception, Exception Specification and Exceptions and Design Issues. 7 Hours

UNIT – 6
CLASSES: Definition, Class Objects, Class Initailization, Class constructior,The class destructor, Class Object Arrays and Vectors. 7 Hours

UNIT – 7
Overload Operators, Operators ++ and –, Operators new and delete. 6 Hours

UNIT – 8
Multiple Inheritances, public, private & protected inheritance, Class scope under Inheritance. 6 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. C++ Primer, S. B. Lippman & J. Lajoie, 3rd Edition, Addison Wesley, 2000.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. C++ Program Design: An Introduction to Programming and Object- Oriented Design. Cohoon and Davidson, 3rd Edn. TMH publication. 2004.
  • 2. Object Oriented Programming using C++, R. Lafore, Galgotia Publications, 2004.

REAL-TIME SYSTEMS
Subject Code : 10EC762

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO REAL-TIME SYSTEMS: Historical background, RTS Definition, Classification of Real-time Systems, Time constraints, Classification of Programs. 6 Hours

UNIT – 2
CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER CONTROL: Introduction, Sequence Control, Loop control, Supervisory control, Centralised computer control, Distributed system, Human-computer interface, Benefits of computer control systems. 6 Hours

UNIT – 3
COMPUTER HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS FOR RTS: Introduction, General purpose computer, Single chip microcontroller, Specialized processors, Process-related Interfaces, Data transfer techniques, Communications, Standard Interface. 7 Hours

UNIT – 4
LANGUAGES FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS: Introduction, Syntax layout and readability, Declaration and Initialization of Variables and Constants, Modularity and Variables, Compilation, Data types, Control Structure, Exception Handling, Low-level facilities, Co routines, Interrupts and Device handling, Concurrency, Real-time support, Overview of real-time languages. 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5 & 6
OPERATING SYSTEMS: Introduction, Real-time multi-tasking OS, Scheduling strategies, Priority Structures, Task management, Scheduler and real-time clock interrupt handles, Memory Management, Code sharing, Resource control, Task co-operation and communication, Mutual exclusion, Data transfer, Liveness, Minimum OS kernel, Examples. 14 Hours

UNIT – 7
DESIGN OF RTSS – GENERAL INTRODUCTION: Introduction, Specification documentation, Preliminary design, Single-program approach, Foreground/background, Multi-tasking approach, Mutual exclusion, Monitors. 6 Hours

UNIT – 8
RTS DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES: Introduction, Yourdon Methodology, Requirement definition for Drying Oven, Ward and Mellor Method, Hately and Pirbhai Method. 6 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Real – Time Computer Control- An Introduction, Stuart Bennet, 2nd Edn. Pearson Education. 2005.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis, Phillip. A. Laplante, second edition, PHI, 2005.
  • 2. Real-Time Systems Development, Rob Williams, Elsevier. 2006.
  • 3. Embedded Systems, Raj Kamal, Tata Mc Graw Hill, India, 2005.

IMAGE PROCESSING
Subject Code : 10EC763

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
DIGITAL IMAGE FUNDAMENTALS: What is Digital Image Processing. fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing, Components of an Image processing system, elements of Visual Perception. 6 Hours

UNIT – 2
Image Sensing and Acquisition, Image Sampling and Quantization, Some Basic Relationships between Pixels, Linear and Nonlinear Operations. 6 Hours

UNIT – 3
IMAGE TRANSFORMS: Two-dimensional orthogonal & unitary transforms, properties of unitary transforms, two dimensional discrete Fourier transform. 7 Hours

UNIT – 4
Discrete cosine transform, sine transform, Hadamard transform, Haar transform, Slant transform, KL transform. 7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
IMAGE ENHANCEMENT: Image Enhancement in Spatial domain, Some Basic Gray Level Trans -formations, Histogram Processing, Enhancement Using Arithmetic/Logic Operations. 7 Hours

UNIT – 6
Basics of Spatial Filtering Image enhancement in the Frequency Domain filters, Smoothing Frequency Domain filters, Sharpening Frequency Domain filters, homomorphic filtering. 6 Hours

UNIT – 7
Model of image degradation/restoration process, noise models, Restoration in the Presence of Noise, Only-Spatial Filtering Periodic Noise Reduction by Frequency Domain Filtering, Linear Position-Invariant Degradations, inverse filtering, minimum mean square error (Weiner) Filtering, 7 Hours

UNIT – 8
Color Fundamentals. Color Models, Pseudo color Image Processing., processing basics of full color image processing 6 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. “Digital Image Processing”, Rafael C.Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods, etl , TMH , 2nd Edition 2010.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. “Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing”, Anil K. Jain, Pearson Education, 2001.
  • 2. “Digital Image Processing and Analysis”, B. Chanda and D. Dutta Majumdar, PHI, 2003.

RADIO FREQUENCY INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Subject Code : 10EC764

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
OVERVIEW OF WIRELESS PRINCIPLES: A brief history of wireless systems, Noncellular wireless applications, Shannon, Modulations & Alphabet Soup, Propagation. 3 Hours
PASSIVE RLC NETWORKS: Introduction, Parallel RLC Tank, Series RLC Networks, Other RLC networks, RLC Networks as impedance Transformers. 4 Hours

UNIT – 2
CHARACTERISTICS OF PASSIVE IC COMPONENTS: Introduction, Interconnect at radio frequencies: Skin effect, resisters, Capacitors, Inductors, Transformers, Interconnect options at high frequency. 6 Hours

UNIT – 3
A REVIEW OF MOS DEVICE PHYSICS: Introduction, A little history, FETs, MOSFET physics, The long – channels approximation, operation in weak inversion (sub threshold), MOS device physics in the short – channel regime, Other effects. 3 Hours
DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS: Introduction, Link between lumped and distributed regimes driving-point impedance of iterated structures, Transmission lines in more detail, Behavior of Finite – length transmission lines, summary of transmission line equations, artificial lines. 4 Hours

UNIT – 4
THE SMITH CHART AND S-PARAMETERS: Introduction, The smith chart, S-parameters, Band Width Estimation Techniques, Introduction, The method of open – circuit time constant, The method of short circuit time constant, Risetime, Delay and bandwidth. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
HIGH FREQUENCY AMPLIFIER DESIGN: Introduction, Zeros as bandwidth Enhancers, The shunt –series amplifier, Bandwidth Enhancement with fT Doublers, Tuned amplifiers, Neutralization and unilateralization, Cascaded amplifiers, AM – PM conversion. 7 Hours

UNIT – 6
VOLTAGE REFERENCES AND BIASING: Introduction, Review of diode behavior, Diodes and bipolar transistors in CMOS technology, Supply –independent bias circuits, Bandgap voltage reference, Constant gm bias. Noise: Introduction, Thermal noise, Shot noise, Flicker noise, Popcorn noise, Classical two- port noise theory, Examples of noise calculations, A handy rule of thumb, Typical noise performance. 6 Hours

UNIT – 7
LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER DESIGN: Introduction, Derivation of intrinsic MOSFET two-port noise parameters, LNA topologies: Power match versus noise match, Power-constrained noise optimization, Design examples, linearity and large signal performance, Spurious – free Dynamic range. Mixers: Introduction, Mixer fundamental, Nonlinear systems as linear mixers. 7 Hours

UNIT – 8
Multiplier – based mixers, Sub sampling mixers, Diode ring mixers, RF power amplifiers, Introduction, general considerations, Class A, AB, B and C power amplifier, Class D amplifiers, Class E amplifiers Class F amplifiers, Modulation of power amplifiers, summary of PA characteristics, RF PA design examples, additional design considerations, Design summery. 7 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. The design of CMOS radio-frequency integrated circuit, Thomas H. Lee, 2nd edition Cambridge, 2004.

REFERENCE BOOK:

  • 1. Design of Analog CMOS integrated circuit, Behzad Razavi, Tata Mc Graw Hill, 2005.

WEVELET TRANSFORMS
Subject Code : 10EC765

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM: Introduction, C-T wavelets, Definition of CWT, The CWT as a correlation. Constant Q-Factor Filtering Interpolation and time frequency resolution, the CWT as an operator, inverse CWT. 6 Hours

UNIT – 2
INTRODUCTION TO DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM AND ORTHOGONAL WAVELET DECOMPOSITION: Introduction. Approximation of vectors in nested linear vector spaces, (i) example of approximating vectors in nested subspaces of a finite dimensional liner vector space, (ii) Example of approximating vectors in nested subspaces of an
infinite dimensional linear vector space. Example MRA. (i) Bases for the approximations subspaces and Harr scaling function, (ii) Bases for detail subspaces and Haar wavelet. 7 Hours

UNIT – 3
MRA, ORTHO NORMAL WAVELETS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO FILTER BANKS: Introduction, Formal definition of an MRA. Construction of a general orthonormal MRA, (i) scaling function and subspaces, (ii) Implication of dilation equation and orthogonality, a wavelet basis for MRA. (i) Two scale relations for (t), (ii) Basis for the detail
subspace (iii) Direct sum decomposition, Digital filtering interpolation (i) Decomposition filters, (ii) reconstruction, the signal. 7 Hours

UNIT – 4
EXAMPLES OF WAVELETS: Examples of orthogonal basis generating wavelets, (i) Daubechies D4 scaling function and wavelet. (ii) band limited wavelets, Interpreting orthonormal MRAs for Discrete time MRA, (iii) Basis functions for DTWT. 6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
ALTERNATIVE WAVELET REPRESENTATIONS: Introduction, Biorthogonal wavelet bases, Filtering relationship for bi-orthogonal filters, Examples of bi-orthogonal scaling functions and wavelets. 2-D wavelets. 6 Hours

UNIT – 6
Non – separable multidimensional wavelets, wavelet packets. Wavelets Transform and Data Compression: Introduction, transform coding, DTWT for image compression (i) Image compression using DTWT and run-length encoding. 7 Hours

UNIT – 7
(i) Embedded tree image coding (ii) compression with JPEG audio compression (iii) Audio masking, (iv) Wavelet based audio coding. 6 Hours

UNIT – 8
CONSTRUCTION OF SIMPLE WAVELETS: Construction of simple wavelets like Harr and DB1. Other Applications of Wavelet Transforms: Introduction, wavelet de-noising, speckle removal, edge detection and object isolation, Image fusions, Object detection by wavelet transforms of projections. 7 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Wavelet transforms- Introduction to theory and applications, Raghuveer M.Rao and Ajit S. Bapardikar, Person Education, 2000.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Wavelet transforms, Prasad and Iyengar, John Wiley India Pvt. Ltd, 2007.
  • 2. Wave-let and filter banks, Gilbert Strang and Nguyen Wellesley Cambridge press, 1996.
  • 3. Insight into WAVELETS from theory to practice, K.P. Soman and K.L. Ramchandran, Eastern Economy Edition, 2008.

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF DATA NETWORKS
Subject Code : 10EC766

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1&2
DELAY MODELS IN DATA NETWORKS: Queuing Models, M/M/1, M/M/m, M/M/, M/M/m/m and other Markov System, M/G/1 System, Networks of Transmission Lines, Time Reversibility, Networks of Queues. 12 Hours

UNIT – 3&4
MULTI-ACCESS COMMUNICATION: Slotted Multi-access and the Aloha System, Splitting Algorithms, Carrier Sensing, Multi-access Reservations, Packet Radio Networks. 12 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5&6
ROUTING IN DATA NETWORKS: Introduction, Network Algorithms and Shortest Path Routing, Broadcasting Routing Information: Coping with Link Failures, Flow models, Optimal Routing, and Topological Design, Characterization of Optimal Routing, Feasible Direction Methods for Optimal Routing, Projection Methods for Optimum Routing, Routing in the Codex Network. 14 Hours

UNIT – 7&8
FLOW CONTROL: Introduction, Window Flow Control, Rate Control Schemes, Overview of Flow Control in Practice, Rate Adjustment Algorithms. 14 Hours

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. “Data Networks” Dimitri Bertsekas and Robert Gallager, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall of India, 2003.
  • 2. “High-Speed Networks and Internets” William Stallings, Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd, 2004.
  • 3. “High Performance Communication Networks” J. Walrand and P. Varaya, 2nd edition, Harcourt India Pvt. Ltd. & Morgan Kaufman, 2000.

Leave a reply