VTU Instrumentation Technology 6th Semester Syllabus

Download VTU Instrumentation Technology Syllabus 2010

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VI SEMESTER

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
Subject Code : 10IT61

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNITS – 1 & 2
AMPLITUDE MODULATION: Time-Domain Description, Frequency domain description, Generation of AM waves, Detection of AM waves, AM/DSB, Time-Domain Description, Frequency domain description Generation of DSBSC waves, Coherent Detection of DSBSC Modulated waves. Costas loop, Quadrature Carrier multiplexing, AM-SSB/SC
generation, Frequency-Domain Description, Frequency discrimination method for generation an SSB Modulated wave, time domain description, phase discrimination method for generating an SSB modulated wave, Demodulation of SSB waves, Comparison of amplitude modulation techniques, frequency translation, FDM.
12 Hours

UNIT – 3
ANGLE MODULATION: Basic Concepts, Frequency Modulation, Spectrum Analysis Of sinusoidal FM wave, NBFM, WBFM, Constant Average power, Transmission bandwidth of FM waves, Generation of FM waves, Direct FM, demodulation of FM waves, frequency discriminator, ZCD, phase locked loop (1st order) of AM and FM
7 Hours

UNIT – 4
NOISE IN ANALOG MODULATION SYSTEMS: Signal-to-noise ratios, AM receiver model, Signal-to -noise ratios for coherent reception, DSBSC receiver, SSB receiver, noise in AM receivers using envelope detection, threshold effect, FM receiver model, noise in FM reception, FM threshold effect, pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM systems
7 Hours

PART – B

UNITS 5 & 6
PULSE MODULATION: Sampling theorem for low-pass and band-pass signal, statement and proof, PAM, Channel bandwidth for a PAM signal, natural sampling, flat-top sampling, signal recovery though holding, quantization of signals, quantization error, PCM, electrical representations of binary digits, PCM systems, DPCM, delta Modulation, Adaptive delta modulation.
12 Hours

UNITS – 7 & 8
DIGITAL MODULATION: Introduction, Binary Shift Keying, BFSK, spectrum, receiver for BFSK, geometrical representation of orthogonal BFSK, DPSK, QPSK, Type D flip-flop, QPSK transmitter, non-offsetQPSK, QPSK receiver, signal – space representation, line codes, TDM.
14 Hours

TEXTBOOKS:

  • 1. Analog and Digital communication- Simon Haykin, John Willey.
  • 2. Principles of communication systems-Taub and Schilling, Tata McGraw Hill.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Electronic Communication Systems- 2nd Edition, Blake, Thomson publishers.
  • 2. Electronics Communication: Modulation & Transmission- 2nd edition, PHI.
  • 3. Electronic Communication Systems-George Kennedy.

ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEMS
Subject Code : 10IT62

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
REVIEW OF VECTOR MATRIX ANALYSIS. DISCRETE TIME CONTROL SYSTEMS, Z-TRANSFORM METHOD: Introduction to discrete systems, pulse transfer function, stability analysis in the Z-plane.
7 Hours

UNITS – 2 & 3
STATE SPACE ANALYSIS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS: State space representation of systems, solving the time invariant state equations, transfer matrix, linear time invariant systems, state space representation of discrete time systems and solving discrete time state equation.
12 Hours

UNIT – 4
POLE PLACEMENT: Controllability, Observability for continuous time systems, pole placement design and state observers.
7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
OPTIMAL AND ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS: optimal control system based on quadratic performance index, adaptive control system.
6 Hours

UNIT – 6
DESCRIBING FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS: Introduction to nonlinear systems, describing function analysis of nonlinear control systems, stability of nonlinear control system.
7 Hours

UNITS – 7 & 8
COMPENSATION TECHNIQUES: Lead, lag, lead lag network and compensator design using Bode/Root locus techniques.
13 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Modern Control Engineering-K. Ogata, Prentice 3rd Edition, Hall of India publication.
2. Discrete time Control Systems-K.Ogata, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall of India publication.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Digital control and state variable methods-Madan Gopal, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall of India.
2. Modern Control Engineering-Roy Choudhury, Prentice Hall of India.

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING
Subject Code : 10IT63

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
FUNDAMENTALS: Introduction, Fundamental steps in digital image processing (DIP), components of DIP system, A simple image formation model, Image sampling and quantization, Basic relationship between pixels, Color image processing fundamentals and models.
6 Hours

UNIT – 2
IMAGE TRANSFORMS: Basic theory, Fourier transforms, Hadamard transform, Discrete cosines transform, Applications of discrete image transforms.
6 Hours

UNIT – 3
IMAGE ENHANCEMENT IN SPATIAL DOMAIN: Background, Point processing – Image negatives, Log transformations, Power law transformations, Contrast stretching, Gray level slicing, Bit plane slicing, Histogram processing – Histogram equalization, Histogram matching (specification), Local enhancement, Arithmetic/Logic operations – Image
subtraction, Image averaging, Basics of spatial filtering, Smoothing spatial filters – Smoothing linear filters, order statistics filters, Sharpening spatial filters – Foundation, Laplacian and gradient.
7 Hours

UNIT – 4
IMAGE ENHANCEMENT IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN: Background, Basic properties of the frequency domain, Basic filtering in the frequency domain, Basic filters and their properties, Smoothing frequency domain filters – Ideal low-pass filters, Butterworth low-pass filters, Gaussian lowpass filters, Sharpening frequency domain filters – Ideal high-pass filters, Butterworth high-pass filters, Gaussian high-pass filters, Homo morphic filtering.
7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
IMAGE RESTORATION: Image degradation and restoration models, noise models, restoration using spatial filtering – mean filter, geometric mean filter, harmonic mean filter, median filter, max & min filters, midpoint filter.
6 Hours

UNIT – 6
NOISE FILTERING BY FREQUENCY DOMAIN FILTERING – band reject filter, band pass filter, notch filter, inverse filtering, minimum mean square error (Wiener) filtering.
6 Hours

UNIT – 7
IMAGE COMPRESSION: Fundamentals, variable length coding, LZW coding, bit plane coding, constant area coding, run length coding, lossless predictive coding, lossy predictive coding, transform coding, image compression standards :basic, JPEG.
7 Hours

UNIT – 8
IMAGE SEGMENTATION: Introduction, thresholding: threshold detection methods, optimal thresholding, multi-spectral thresholding, edgebased segmentation: edge image thresholding, border tracing, Hough transform, region-based segmentation: region merging, region splitting, splitting & merging. Matching: matching criteria.
7 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Digital Image Processing – Rafael C. Gonzalez & Richard E. Woods, Second Edition. Pearson Education Inc.
  • 2. Digital Image Processing, analysis and computer Vision- First edition, Milan Sonka, Cenage Learning, 2008.

REFERENCE BOOK:

  • 1. Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing- Anil K. Jain, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall of India.
  • 2. Digital image processing, First edition, S.Jayaraman, S.Esakkirajan, J.Veerakumar, TMH-2008.

PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM
Subject Code : 10IT64

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNITS – 1
INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS CONTROL: process control block diagram, control system evolution. Final control: introduction to final control operation, signal conversions, actuators, control elements. Alarm and annunicators, contol drawing: P & ID symbols and diagrams, flow sheet symbols, inter logic symbols, graphic symbols.
7 Hours

UNIT – 2
CONTROLLER PRINCIPLES: Introduction, process characteristics, control system parameters, discontinuous control modes, continuous control modes, and composite control modes.
7 Hours

UNIT – 3
ANALOG CONTROLLERS: Introduction, general features, electronic controllers, pneumatic controllers, designs considerations.
6 Hours

UNIT – 4
DISCRETE-STATE PROCESS CONTROL: Introduction, definition and characteristics of discrete state process control. Control-loop characteristics: Introduction, control system configuration, multivariable control systems, control system quality, stability, and process loop tuning.
6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
DIGITAL–TO-ANALOG CONVERTERS: V-F, and F-V converters, performance specifications, D-A conversion techniques (R-2R & binary weighted) multiplying DAC applications.
7 Hours

UNIT – 6
A-D conversion techniques (flash, successive approximation, single slope, dual slope), over sampling converters.
6 Hours

UNIT – 7
Introduction-block diagram of a virtual instrument-physical quantities and analog interfaces-hardware and software-user interface-advantages over conventional instruments-architecture of a virtual instruments and its relation to the operating system.
6 Hours

UNIT – 8
Overview of software-labview-graphical user interface-controls and indicators-labels and texts-data types-format-data flow programming-editingdebugging and running a virtual instrument-graphical programming palettes and tools-front panel objects-functions and libraries. 7 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Process Control Instrumentation Technology-C D Johnson.
  • 2. Design with operational amplifiers and analog integrated circuits-3rd Edition, SERGIO FRANCO, Tata McGraw Hill
  • 3. Virtual instrumentation, LABVIEW, Sanjay Guptha, TMH New Delhi 2003

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Instrument Engineers Handbook-(Vol 1 & 2)-B G Liptak,Chilton Book Company
  • 2. Chemical process control an introduction to theory and practice-Stephanopoulos
  • 3. A Users Handbook of D/A and A/D converters-.E.R.HNATEK, Wiley publications
  • 4. Computer Aided Process Control- S K Singh, Prentice Hall of India.
  • 5. Process control: Concepts, dynamics &Application-S.K. Singh, PHI.

ANALYTICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL INSTRUMENTATION
Subject Code : 10IT65

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

Unit – 1
Visible ultraviolet spectrophotometers: Electromagnetic radiation, Beer Lambert law, absorption instruments, colorimeters, spectrophotometers, infrared spectroscopy theory, instrument and its types.
6 Hours

Unit – 2
Flame photometers: Principle of flame photometers constructional details of flame photometers, accessories of flame photometers, interference in flame photometry and determinations.
7 Hours

Unit – 3
Fluorimeters & phosphorimeters: Principle of fluotrscence, measurement of fluotrscence, spectro fluotrscence, microprocessor based spectro fluotrscence, Measurement of Phosphorescence.
6 Hours

Unit – 4
Mass spectrometer & NMR spectrometer: Basic concept, types of mass spectrometer, components of mass spectrometer, resolution and applications. Principle of NMR, constructional details, sensitivity enhancement for analytical NMR spectroscopy. Use of computers with NMR spectrometers.
7 Hours

PART B

Unit – 5
Automated bio-chemical analysis systems: Basic concept, system details, system components, typical multiple analysis system, flow injection analysis
6 Hours

Unit – 6
Chromatography: Gas chromatograph- basic concepts, parts of gas chromatograph. Method of peak areas, liquid chromatography- basic concepts, types if liquid chromatography, the liquid chromatograph.
7 Hours

Unit – 7
Electrophoresis and densitometers: Basic Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis techniques, paper Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis apparatus, spectrodensitometer, microprocessor based densitometer, microelectrophoresis.
7 Hours

Unit – 8
Blood gas analyzer: Principle of pH measurement, electrode of pH measurement, Blood pH measurement, measurement of Blood pCO2, measurement of Blood pO2, complete Blood gas analyzer, commercially available Blood gas analyzers.
6 Hours

Text Book

  • 1. Hand book of analytical Instruments by R. S. Khandpur, TMH Publications 1st Ed 1989, New Delhi

Reference Book

  • 1. Instrumental methods of analysis by H. H. Willard, L. L. Merritt & J. A. Dean, CBS Publications 7th Ed 1988
  • 2. Principles of Instrumental analysis by S. J. Holler & T. A. Nilman Saunders college Publications 5st Ed 1998

ELECTIVE-I (GROUP A)
COMPUTER NETWORKS
Subject Code : 10IT661

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION: Uses of Computer Networks, Network Hardware, Network Software, Reference Models, Example Networks, Network Standardization
6 Hours

UNIT – 2
THE PHYSICAL LAYER: The Theoretical Basis for Data Communication, Guided Transmission Media, Wireless Transmission, Communication Satellites, The Public Switched Telephone Network, The Mobile Telephone System, Cable Television.
7 Hours

UNIT – 3
THE DATA LINK LAYER: Data Link Layer Design Issues, Error Detection and Correction, Elementary Data Link Protocols, Sliding Window Protocols, Protocol Verification, Data Link Protocols.
6 Hours

UNIT – 4
THE MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL SUB LAYER: The Channel Allocation Problem, Multiple Access Protocols, Ethernet, Wireless LANS, Broadband Wireless, Bluetooth, Data Link Layer Switching.
7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
THE NETWORK LAYER: Network Layer Design Issues, Routing Algorithms, Congestion Control Algorithms, and Quality of Service.
6 Hours

UNIT – 6
INTERNET WORKING, THE NETWORK LAYER IN THE INTERNET, THE TRANSPORT LAYER: The Transport Service.
7 Hours

UNIT – 7
A Simple Transport Protocol, the Internet Transport Protocols (TCP and UDP), Performance Issues.
7 Hours

UNIT – 8
THE APPLICATION LAYER: Domain Name System (DNS), electronic mail, worldwide web, multimedia.
6 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Computer Networks : Andrews S. Tanenbaum, 4th Edition, Pearson Education.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. ATM Protocol concepts- HONDEL AND FLUBER, Addison Wesley.
  • 2. Data and computer networks- W STALLINGS 5th Edition, Prentice Hall of India 1998.

PIC MICROCONTROLLER
Subject Code : 10IT662

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLERS: Architecture, RISC and CISC processors. Harvard and Von Neumann architecture. PIC16F877 Architecture.
6 Hours

UNIT – 2
PIC16F877Instructions Set, addressing modes, Assembly language Programs.
7 Hours

UNIT – 3
Memory organization, ports, Interrupts.
6 Hours

UNIT – 4
PIC16F877 PERIPHERALS: Timers, CCP modules, ADC modules, configuration word and programming.
7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
SERIAL COMMUNICATION MODULES: UART, I2C, PSP, EEPROM, Reset, Oscillator modes, configuration word and programming
7 Hours

UNIT – 6
INTERFACING: Interfacing of keys, Display – LEDs, 7-segment LED (multiplexed display) & LCDs, (Programs in assembly and C).
6 Hours

UNIT – 7
DAC and ADC, generation of PWM with PIC microcontroller. (Programs in assembly and C)
6 Hours

UNIT – 8
APPLICATIONS OF MICROCONTROLLERS. EX : RPM meter, event counter, temperature controller. (Programs in assembly and C). Development Tools: Simulators, debuggers, cross compilers, in-circuit Emulators for the microcontrollers.
7 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

  • 1. Design with PIC microcontrollers- J.B.PEATMAN, PH Engg, 1998.
  • 2. Fundamentals of Microcontrollers and Applications in Embedded systems, Ramesh Gaonkar, Penram International Publishing Pvt. Ltd. 2007.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. PICs in practice-F P VOLPE & S VOLPE, Elector Electronics.
  • 2. Embedded control handbook- MICROCHIP (Vol 1& 2).
  • 3. PIC micro mid-range MCU family reference manual- MICROCHIP
  • 4. Microcontrollers; Architecture implementation and programming- HINTZ, McGraw-Hill

APPLIED NUMERICAL METHODS
Subject Code : 10IT663

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

Part – A

UNIT – 1
NUMERICAL COMPUTATION: Motivation and objectives / Number Representation/ Machine Precision/ / Round off Error /Truncation Error / Random Number Generation.
6 Hours

UNITS – 2 & 3
LINEAR ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS: Motivation and objectives / Gauss- Jordan Elimination/ Gaussian Elimination/LU Decomposition/ IIIConditioned systems/ Iterative Methods.
13 Hours

UNIT – 4
EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS: Motivation and objectives/ The Characteristic polynomial/ Power methods/ Jacobs’s method/ householder transformation/ QR method/ Danilevskys Method/ Polynomial Roots.
7 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
CURVE FITTING: Motivation and objectives/ Interpolation/ Newtons Difference Formula/ Cubic Splines/ Least square/ Two- Dimensional Interpolation.
7 Hours

UNIT – 6 & 7
ROOT FINDING: Motivation and objectives/ Bracketing methods/ contraction mapping method/ secant Method/ Mullers Method/ Newton’s Method/ polynomial roots/ Nonlinear systems of equations.
12 Hours

UNIT – 8
OPTIMIZATION: motivation and objectives/ Local and Global minima/ Line searches/ steepest Descent method/ Conjugate- Gradient Method/ quasi- Newton Methods/ Penalty Functions / Simulated Annealing
7 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Applied Numerical Methods for Engineers using MATLAB and C-ROBERT J.SCHILING & SANDRA HARRIS, Thomson Publishing, Singapore / Bangalore, 2002.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Applied Numerical Analysis- GERALD AND WHETELY, Pearson Education, New Delhi, 2002.
  • 2. Numerical Receipies in C- WILLIM PRESS ET.AL, Cambridge publishers, New Delhi.
  • 3. Numerical Methods for Scientists & Engineers- Sankara Rao, 3rd edition, PHI.

OPERATING SYSTEMS
Subject Code : 10IT664

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52 Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEMS AND CLASSIFICATION: What is an operating system, Mainframe systems, Desktop systems, multiprocessor system, Distributed system, Clustered system, Real time system, Handled system, Feature migration, computing environments. Operating system structures: System components, OS Services, System calls, System programs, System structure, Virtual machines.
7 Hours

UNIT – 2
PROCESS, INTER PROCESS COMMUNICATION, THREADS & CPU SCHEDULING: Process concept, Process scheduling, Operation on processes, Co-operating processes, Inter process communication. Threads – overview, Multithreading models, Threading issues, P threads, Java threads. CPU scheduling – Basic concepts, Scheduling criteria, Scheduling algorithms, multiple processors scheduling, real time scheduling.
7 Hours

UNIT – 3
PROCESS SYNCHRONIZATION AND HANDLING DEADLOCKS: The critical section problem, Synchronization hardware, Semaphores, Classical problems of synchronization, critical regions, monitors.
6 Hours

UNIT – 4
DEADLOCK – System model, Deadlock characterization, Methods for handling deadlocks – deadlock prevention, deadlock avoidance, deadlock detection and recovery from deadlock.
6 Hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
STORAGE MANAGEMENT: Main memory management – Background, Swapping, Contiguous, allocation, Paging, Segmentation, Segmentation with paging Virtual memory – Background, Demand paging, Process creation, Page replacement algorithms, Allocation of frames, Thrashing
7 Hours

UNIT – 6
FILE SYSTEM INTERFACE – File concept, Access methods, Directory structure, File system mounting, File system implementation, Directory implementation, Allocation methods, free space management. Mass storage structures – Disk structure, Disk scheduling methods, Disk management, Swap space management.
7 Hours

UNITS – 7 & 8
PROTECTION AND SECURITY: Goals of protection, domain of protection, access matrix, implementation of access matrix, Revocation ofaccess rights, The security problem, Authentication, Program threats, System threats, Security systems and facilities, Intrusion detection, introduction to cryptography, basics of Linux operating system.
12 Hours

TEXT BOOK:

  • 1. Operating System Concepts-by Abraham silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin, Greg Gagne, 6th edition, John wiley & sons 2003.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • 1. Operating system concepts and design- Milan Milankovic 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill 1992.
  • 2. Operating systems- Harvey M Deital Addison Wesley 1990
  • 3. Operating Systems concepts based approach, D.M Dhamdhere, Tata Mc Graw Hill 2002.

CONTROL SYSTEM & DATA CONVERTERS LAB
Subject Code : 10ITL67

IA Marks : 25
No. of Practical Hrs./ Week : 03 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Practical Hrs. : 42 Exam Marks : 50

  • 1. Sample and Hold circuits using discrete components and IC.
  • 2. Analog multiplexer & programmable gain amplifier using analog mux.
  • 3. 4 Bit Binary weighted & R-2R DAC (using Discrete components)
  • 4. 3 bit flash ADC.
  • 5. 8 Bit DAC using IC (DAC 0800)
  • 6. 8 Bit ADC using IC (Successive approximation method)
  • 7. To determine the step response of 1st order system using RC circuit and to measure ‘t’ for different values of R & C.
  • 8. To determine the step response of 2nd order system using RLC circuit and to determine rise time, peak time, overshoot, settling time for over damped, under damped and critically damped conditions. Verification using theoretically calculated values.
  • 9. To determine the response of lead, lag & lead-lag circuits.
  • 10. To design relay driving circuits using photo devices (LDR & Optocouplers).
  • 11. To determine the response of P, PI and PID controller for step input.
  • 12. Using MATLAB/LAB VIEW software, plot the Bode-plot, Nyquist diagram & Root locus with and without compensation for a given transfer function & specifications. Verification using theoretical values.

INSTRUMENTATION LAB
Subject Code : 10ITL68

IA Marks : 25
No. of Practical Hrs./ Week : 03 Exam Hours : 03
Total No. of Practical Hrs. : 42 Exam Marks : 50

  • 1. Characteristics of potentiometric transducer.
  • 2. Characteristics of LVDT.
  • 3. Characteristics of capacitive transducer: variable area type, variable distance type
  • 4. Characteristics of thermistor, RTD, AD590, thermocouple.
  • 5. Characteristics of LDR, Photo Diode & phototransistor: Variable illumination, variable distance.
  • 6. Wheatstone bridge -measurement of bridge sensitivity.
  • 7. Measurement of low resistance using Kelvin double bridge.
  • 8. Measurement of self- inductance using Maxwell bridge and Anderson’s bridge.
  • 9. Measurement of unknown capacitance using Desauty’s bridge and Schering’s bridge.
  • 10. Calibration of voltmeter and ammeter using DC potentiometer.
  • 11. Characteristics of pressure transducer
  • 12. Characteristics of load cell & cantilever using strain gauge (quarter, half and full bridge)

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