VTU M.Tech. Electronics 4th Sem Syllabus

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Advances in VLSI Design
Subject Code : 14EVE421

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Review of MOS Circuits: MOS and CMOS static plots, switches, comparison between CMOS and BI – CMOS.
MESFETS: MESFET and MODFET operations, quantitative description of MESFETS.
MIS Structures and MOSFETS: MIS systems in equilibrium, under bias, small signal operation of MESFETS and MOSFETS.


Short Channel Effects and Challenges to CMOS: Short channel effects, scaling theory, processing challenges to further CMOS miniaturization
Beyond CMOS: Evolutionary advances beyond CMOS, carbon Nanotubes, conventional vs. tactile computing, computing, molecular and biological computing Mole electronics-molecular Diode and diode- diode logic. Defect tolerant computing, Super Buffers, Bi-CMOS and Steering Logic: Introduction, RC delay lines, super buffers- An NMOS super buffer, tri state super buffer and pad drivers, CMOS super buffers, Dynamic ratio less inverters, large capacitive loads, pass logic, designing of transistor logic, General
functional blocks -NMOS and CMOS functional blocks.
Special Circuit Layouts and Technology Mapping: Introduction, Talley circuits, NAND-NAND, NOR- NOR, and AOI Logic, NMOS, CMOS Multiplexers, Barrel shifter, Wire routing and module layout.
System Design: CMOS design methods, structured design methods, Strategies encompassing hierarchy, regularity, modularity & locality, CMOS Chip design Options, programmable logic, Programmable inter connect, programmable structure, Gate arrays standard cell approach, Full custom design.

Reference Books:
1. Kevin F Brennan “Introduction to Semi Conductor Device”, Cambridge publications
2. Eugene D Fabricius “Introduction to VLSI Design”, McGraw-Hill International publications
3. D.APucknell “Basic VLSI Design”, PHI Publication
4. Wayne Wolf, “Modern VLSI Design” Pearson Education, SecondEdition , 2002

Advanced Microcontrollers
Subject Code : 14 ELD425

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Note: Microcontrollers have become prevalent in a number of applications such as instrumentation, industrial electronics, automotive
electronics, robotics, etc. Advances in VLSI technology permit the integration of not only the processor but also the analog electronics, memory
and peripherals necessary for system implementation; this allows low-cost system implementation. Some microcontrollers used in industrial
electronics also provide some digital signal processing capability to further reduce the system cost.
Power dissipation is often a consideration in many systems and modern microcontrollers address it through the support of several low-power
modes of operation. The aim of the course is to introduce advanced microcontrollers (16-bit and 32-bit).
Motivation for advanced microcontrollers – Low Power embedded systems, On-chip peripherals, low-power RF capabilities. Examples of applications.
MSP430 – 16-bit Microcontroller family. CPU architecture, Instruction set, Interrupt mechanism, Clock system, Memory subsystem, bus –
architecture. The assembly language and „C‟ programming for MSP-430 microcontrollers. On-chip peripherals. WDT, Comparator, Op-Amp,
Timer, Basic Timer, Real Time Clock (RTC), ADC, DAC, Digital I/O. Using the low-power features of MSP430. Clock system, low-power
modes, Clock request feature, Low-power programming and interrupts.
ARM -32 bit Microcontroller family. Architecture of ARM Cortex M3 – General Purpose Registers, Stack Pointer, Link Register, Program
Counter, Special Register,. Nested Vector Interrupt Controller. Interrupt behavior of ARM Cortex M3. Exceptions Programming. Advanced
Programming Features. Memory Protection. Debug Architecture.
Applications – Wireless Sensor Networking with MSP430 and Low-Power RF circuits; Pulse Width Modulation(PWM) in Power Supplies.

Reference Books:
1. Joseph Yiu “ The Definitive Guide to the ARM Cortex-M3, , Newnes, (Elsevier), 2008.
2. John Davies, “ MSP430 Microcontorller Basics”, Newnes (Elsevier Science), 2008.
3. MSP430 Teaching CD-ROM, Texas Instruments, 2008.
4. Sample Programs for MSP430 downloadable from msp430.com
5. David Patterson and John L. Henessay, “Computer Organization and Design”, (ARM Edition), Morgan Kauffman.

Image and Video Processing
Subject Code : 14ELD422

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Introduction: 2D systems, Mathematical preliminaries – Fourier Transform, Z Transform, Optical & Modulation transfer function, Matrix
theory, Random signals, Discrete Random fields, Spectral density function.(Ref.1,Chap.2)
Image Perception: Light, Luminance, Brightness, Contrast, MTF of the visual system, Visibility function, Monochrome vision models, Fidelitycriteria, Color representation, Chromaticity diagram, Color coordinate systems, Color difference measures, Color vision model, Temporal properties of vision. (Ref.1, Chap.3)
Image Sampling and Quantization: Introduction, 2D sampling theory, Limitations in sampling & reconstruction, Quantization, Optimal
quantizer, Compander, Visual quantization. (Ref.1, Chap.4)
Image Transforms: Introduction, 2D orthogonal & unitary transforms, Properties of unitary transforms, DFT, DCT, DST, Hadamard, Haar, Slant, KLT, SVD transform. (Ref.1, Chap.5)
Image Representation by Stochastic Models: Introduction, one dimensional Causal models, AR models, Non-causal representations, linear
prediction in two dimensions. (Ref.1, Chap.6)
Image Enhancement: Point operations, Histogram modeling, spatial operations, Transform operations, Multi-spectral image enhancement, false
color and Pseudo-color, Color Image enhancement. (Ref.1, Chap.7)
Image Filtering & Restoration: Image observation models, Inverse &Wiener filtering, Fourier Domain filters, Smoothing splines and
interpolation, Least squares filters, generalized inverse, SVD and Iterative methods, Maximum entropy restoration, Bayesian methods,
Coordinate transformation& geometric correction, Blind de-convolution. (Ref.1, Chap.8)
Image Analysis & Computer Vision: Spatial feature extraction, Transform features, Edge detection, Boundary Extraction, Boundary
representation, Region representation, Moment representation, Structure, Shape features, Texture, Scene matching & detection, Image
segmentation, Classification Techniques. (Ref.1, Chap.9)
Image Reconstruction from Projections: Introduction, Radon Transform, Back projection operator, Projection theorem, Inverse Radon
transform, Fourier reconstruction, Fan beam reconstruction, 3D tomography. (Ref.1,Chap.10)
Image Data Compression: Introduction, Pixel coding, Predictive techniques, Transform coding, Inter-frame coding, coding of two tone images,
Image compression standards. (Ref.1, Chap.11)
Video Processing: Fundamental Concepts in Video – Types of video signals, Analog video, Digital video, Color models in video, Video
Compression Techniques – Motion compensation, Search for motion vectors, H.261,H.263, MPEG I, MPEG 2, MPEG 4, MPEG 7 and beyond,
Content based video indexing. (Ref.4)

Reference Books:
1. Anil K. Jain, “Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing,” Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd./Prentice Hall of India, 2004.
2. Z. Li and M.S. Drew, “Fundamentals of Multimedia” Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2004.
3. R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, “Digital Image Processing” 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd/Prentice Hall of India, 2004.
4. M. Tekalp, “Digital Video Processing”, Prentice Hall, USA, 1995.

RF and Microwave Circuit Design
Subject Code : 14ECS423

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Wave Propagation in Networks: Introduction to RF/Microwave Concepts and applications; RF Electronics Concepts; Fundamental Concepts in Wave
Propagation; Circuit Representations of two port RF/MW networks
Passive Circuit Design: The Smith Chart, Application of the Smith Chart in Distributed and lumped element circuit applications, Design of Matching networks.
Basic Considerations in Active Networks: Stability Consideration in Active networks, Gain Considerations in Amplifiers, Noise Considerations in Active Networks.
Active Networks: Linear and Nonlinear Design: RF/MW Amplifiers Small Signal Design, Large Signal Design, RF/MW Oscillator Design, RF/MW
Frequency Conversion Rectifier and Detector Design, Mixer Design, RF/MW Control Circuit Design, RF/MW Integrated circuit design.

Reference Books:
1. Matthew M. Radmanesh, “Radio Frequency and Microwave Electronics Illustrated,” Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2004.
2. Reinhold Ludwig and Pavel Bretchko, “RF Circuit Design: Theory and Applications,” Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2004.

Cryptographic Systems
Subject Code : 14 ELD424

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Overview: Services, Mechanisms and attack models, Model for network security, Symmetric cipher model, Substitution techniques,
Transposition techniques, Rotor machine, Steganography.
Block Ciphers and DES: Block cipher design principles, Block cipher modes of operation. Differential and Linear cryptanalysis 3DES, Rijndael
system, AES, IDEA Fermat’s and Euler’s theorem, Big-O notation, Chinese Remainder Theorem, Fields, Group- isomorphism, Discrete
Logarithm, Pohlig-Hellman algorithm, Pollard’s p-1 factorization, pollard rho factorization algorithm.
Public Key Cryptography and RSA: Principles of public key cryptosystems, RSA algorithm, Integer Factorization and RSA, Miller-Rabin Test,
Massey-Omura, ElGamal crypto systems, Knapsack problem.
Other Public Key Crypto Systems and Key Management: Key management, Diffie-Hellman key exchange, DH with multiple participants,
Elliptic curve arithmetic, Elliptic curve cryptography, Analog of Massey –Omura, Analog of ElGamal crypto systems. Elliptic curve
factorization – pollard’s p-1 method, Lenstra’s elliptic curve factorization algorithm, Hyper elliptic curve cryptography.
Message Authentication and Hash Functions: Authentication requirements, Authentication functions, Message authentication codes, Hash
functions, Security of hash functions and MAC.
Digital Signature and Authentication Protocol: Digital signature, Authentication protocols, Digital signature standard, RSA digital signatures,
ElGamal digital signatures and DSA, ECDSA Zero-knowledge proofs, Secret sharing schemes, Identification schemes.

Reference Books:
1. Neal Koblitz, “A Course in Number Theory and Cryptography”, -2nd Edition, Springer Verlag
2. Jeffrey Hoffstein,JillPipher,Joseph H. Silverman ,”An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography” -Springer 2008
3. Behrouz A .Forouzan, DebdeeepMukhopadhyay, “Cryptography and Network Security”, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill
4. William Stallings, “Cryptography and Network Security”, 4thEdition, Pearson Education PHI.

Advanced Computer Architecture
Subject Code : 14ELD41

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hours /week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hours : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Introduction and Review of Fundamentals of Computer Design: Introduction; Classes computers; Defining computer architecture; Trends in Technology; Trends in power in Integrated Circuits; Trends in cost; Dependability, Measuring, reporting and summarizing Performance;
Quantitative Principles of computer design; Performance and Price-Performance; Fallacies and pitfalls; Case studies.
Some topics in Pipelining, Instruction –Level Parallelism, Its Exploitation and Limits on ILP: Introduction to pipelining, ILP; Crosscutting
issues, fallacies, and pitfalls with respect to pipelining; Basic concepts and challenges of ILP; Case study of Pentium 4, Fallacies and pitfalls.
Introduction to limits in ILP; Performance and efficiency in advanced multiple-issue processors.
Memory Hierarchy Design, Storage Systems: Review of basic concepts; Crosscutting issues in the design of memory hierarchies; Case study of
AMD Opteron memory hierarchy; Fallacies and pitfalls in the design of memory hierarchies. Introduction to Storage Systems; Advanced topics in disk storage.
Definition and examples of real faults and failures ; I/O performance, reliability measures, and benchmarks; Queuing theory; Crosscutting
issues; Designing and evaluating an I/O system – The Internet archive cluster; Case study of NetAA FAS6000 filer; Fallacies and pitfalls.
Hardware and Software for VLIW and EPIC Introduction: Exploiting Instruction-Level Parallelism Statically, Detecting and Enhancing Loop-
Level Parallelism, Scheduling and Structuring Code for Parallelism, Hardware Support for Exposing
Parallelism: Predicated Instructions, Hardware Support for Compiler Speculation, The Intel IA-64 Architecture and Itanium Processor, Concluding Remarks.
Large-Scale Multiprocessors and Scientific Applications Introduction, Interprocessor Communication: The Critical Performance Issue, Characteristics of Scientific Applications, Synchronization: Scaling Up, Performance of Scientific Applications on Shared-Memory
Multiprocessors, Performance Measurement of Parallel Processors with Scientific Applications, Implementing Cache Coherence, The Custom
Cluster Approach: Blue Gene/L, Concluding Remarks.
Computer Arithmetic: Introduction, Basic Techniques of Integer Arithmetic, Floating Point, Floating-Point Multiplication, Floating-Point
Addition, Division and Remainder, More on Floating-Point Arithmetic, Speeding Up Integer Addition, Speeding Up Integer Multiplication and
Division, Fallacies and Pitfalls.

Reference Books:
1. Hennessey and Patterson, “Computer Architecture A Quantitative Approach”, 4th Edition, Elsevier, 2007.
2. Kai Hwang, “Advanced Computer Architecture – Parallelism, Scalability, Programmability”, 2nd Edition

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