VTU M.Tech. Structural Engineering 1st Semester Syllabus

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AI & EXPERT SYSTEM IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING
Subject Code : 14CSE154

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

The objectives of this course is to make students to learn principles of Software design process, To Compare the procedure – oriented programming and object oriented programming . To characterize the high Expert systems.

Course Outcomes: On completion of this course, students are able to
· Achieve Knowledge of design and development of problem solving skills.
· Understand the principles of Object Oriented Programming
· Design and develop analytical skills.
· Summerize the Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems
· Understands the concept of Knowledge representation.

1. Software Engineering: Introduction of software engineering – Application areas – Software design process – various design – representation techniques.Top – down design, Bottom – up design – modular programming – structural programming – Conversion of non structured programs – Software testing – Software reliability and availability.

2. Object Oriented Programming: Comparison between procedure – oriented programming and object oriented programming, Advantages of OOP objects, Classes, Data encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism etc. Application of OOP in Analysis and design of RC, PSC and steel structural elements.

3. Artificial Intelligence: Artificial Intelligence, Introduction, AI – Application fields, defining the problems – state space representation – problem characteristics – production system – production system characteristics.

4. Knowledge representation – Formal logic – predicate logic – logic programming – forward v/s backward reasoning – matching control knowledge. Search and control: Concepts – uniformed blind search: depth first search: depth first search – breadth first search – bi – directional search – informed search – heuristic graph search – generate and test – hill climbing – best first search AND Orgraph search. Non formal knowledge representation – semantic networks – frames – scripts – productions systems.
Programming in LISP.

5. Expert Systems: Their superiority over conventional software – components of an expert system – expert system life cycle – expert system developments process – nature of expert knowledge – techniques of soliciting and encoding expert knowledge.
Inference: Forward chaining- backward chaining – rule value approach.

6. Uncertainty – symbolic reasoning under uncertainty: logic for non – monotonic reasoning. Statistical reasoning: Probability and Bayes theorem – certainty factor and rule based system – Bayesian network – Dempster – Shafer theory. Fuzzy reasoning.
Features of rule based, netwoks based and frame based expert system – examples of expert systems in Construction Management and Structural Engg., Expert system shells. Neural Networks, An introduction – their possible applications in Civil Engg.,

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. M.L.Shooman, “Software Engineering”- McGraw Hill.
2. Richard Fairly, “Software Engineering Concepts”- McGraw Hill.
3. Timothy Budd, “An Introduction to Object Oriented Programming in Turbo C++”- Addison – Wesley Publications.
4. Rober Lafore, “Object Oriented Programming in Turbo C++”- Gelgotia Publishers.
5. Balaguruswamy, “Object Oriented Programming with C++”- TMH Publishing Company Ltd.
6. Patterson D W, “Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems”-Prentice Hall, New Jersy.
7. Rich, E and Knight K. “Artificial Intelligence”- TMH, New Delhi.
8. Rolston, D.W “Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems”- McGraw Hill, New York.
9. Nilson, N.J., “Principals of Artificial Intelligence”- Narosa, New Delhi.
10. Adeli, H., “Expert Systems in Constructions and Structural Engg”- Chapman & Hall, New York.
11. Elaine Rick and Keuin Knight, “Artificial intelligence”- Tata McGraw Hill Edition.
12. H.Adeli, “Expert system in structural design and construction”- Chapman and Hall, 1988.
13. Kostem, “Expert systems in Civil Engineering”- ASCE, 1987.
14. C.S.Krishnamoorthy and S Rajeev Computer Aided Design Narosa Publishing House.

ADVANCED DESIGN OF RCC STRUCTURES
Subject Code : 14CSE12

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Objectives:
The objectives of this course is to make students to learn principles of Structural Design, To design different types of structures and to detail the structures. To evaluate performance of the structures.

Course Outcomes: On completion of this course, students are able to
· Achieve Knowledge of design and development of problem solving skills.
· Understand the principles of Structural Design
· Design and develop analytical skills.
· Summarize the principles of Structural Design and detailing
· Understands the structural performance.

1. Yield line method of design of slabs. Design of flat slabs.
2. Design of grid floors.
3. Design of continuous beams with redistribution of moments
4. Design of Chimneys, Design of silos and bunkers.
5. Art of detailing earthquake resistant structures. Expansion and contraction joints

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. A Park and Paulay, “Reinforced Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete”
2. Lin TY and Burns N H, “Reinforced Concrete Design”.
3. Kong KF and Evans T H “Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures
4. P.C.Varghese, “Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design”, Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 2005.
5. Dr.B.C.Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain and Arun Kumar Jain, “Comprehensive RCC Design”

MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES
Subject Code : 14CSE13

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Objectives:
The objectives of this course is to make students to learn principles of Analysis of Stress and Strain, To predict the stressstrain behaviour of continuum . To evaluate the stress and strain parameters and their inter relations of the continuum.

Course Outcomes: On completion of this course, students are able to
· Achieve Knowledge of design and development of problem solving skills.
· Understand the principles of stress-strain behaviour of continuum
· Design and develop analytical skills.
· Describe the continuum in 2 and 3- dimensions
· Understand the concepts of elasticity and plasticity.

1. Theory of Elasticity: Introduction: Definition of stress and strain and strain at a point, components of stress and strain at appoint of Cartesian and polar co-ordinates. Constitutive relations, equilibrium equations, compatibility equations and boundary conditions in 2-D and 3-D cases.

2. Transformation of stress and strain at a point, Principal stresses and principal strains, invariants of stress and strain, hydrostatic and deviatric stress, spherical and deviatoric strains, max. shear strain.

3. Plane stress and plane strain: Airy’s stress function approach to 2-D problems of elasticity, simple problems of bending of beams. Solution of axi-symmetric problems, stress concentration due to the presence of a circular hole in plates.

4. Elementary problems of elasticity in three dimensions, stretching of a prismatical bar by its own weight, twist of circular shafts, torsion of non-circular sections, membrane analogy, Propagation of waves in solid media. Applications of finite difference equations in elasticity.

5. Theory of Plasticity: Stress – strain diagram in simple tension, perfectly elastic, Rigid – Perfectly plastic, Linear work – hardening, Elastic Perfectly plastic, Elastic Linear work hardening materials, Failure theories, yield conditions, stress – space representation of yield criteria through Westergard stress space, Tresca and Von-Mises criteria of yielding.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Timoshenko & Goodier, “Theory of Elasticity”, McGraw Hill
2. Srinath L.S., Advanced Mechanics of Solids, 10th print, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing company, New Delhi, 1994
3. Sadhu Singh, “Theory of Elasticity”, Khanna Publishers
4. Verma P.D.S, “Theory of Elasticity”, Vikas Publishing Pvt. Ltd
5. Chenn W.P and Hendry D.J, “Plasticity for Structural Engineers”, Springer Verlag
6. Valliappan C, “Continuum Mechanics Fundamentals”, Oxford IBH Publishing Co. Ltd.
7. Sadhu Singh, “Applied Stress Analysis”, Khanna Publishers
8. Xi Lu, “Theory of Elasticity”, John Wiley.

STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
Subject Code : 14CSE14

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Objectives:
The objectives of this course is to make students to learn principles of Structural Dynamics, To implement these principles through different methods and to apply the same for free and forced vibration of structures. To evaluate the dynamic characteristics of the structures.

Course Outcomes: On completion of this course, students are able to
· Achieve Knowledge of design and development of problem solving skills.
· Understand the principles of Structural Dynamics
· Design and develop analytical skills.
· Summarize the Solution techniques for dynamics of Multi-degree freedom systems
· Understand the concepts of damping in structures.

1. Introduction: Introduction to Dynamic problems in Civil Engineering, Concept of degrees of freedom, D’Alembert’s principle, principle of virtual displacement and energy principles Dynamics of Single-degree-of-freedom systems: Mathematical models of Single-degree-of-freedom systems system, Free vibration response of damped and undamped systems. Methods of evaluation of damping.

2. Response of Single-degree-of-freedom systems to harmonic loading (rotation unbalance, reciprocating unbalance) including support motion, vibration isolation, transmissibility, Numerical methods applied to Single-degree-of-freedom systems – Duhamel integral, principle of vibration-measuring instruments – seismometer and accelerometer.

3. Dynamics of Multi-degree freedom systems: Mathematical models of multi-degree-of-freedom systems, Shear building concept, free vibration of undamped multi-degree-of-freedom systems – Natural frequencies and mode shapes – orthogonality property of modes.

4. Response of Shear buildings for harmonic loading without damping using normal mode approach. Response of Shear buildings for forced vibration for harmonic loading with damping using normal mode approach, condition of damping uncoupling.

5. Approximate methods: Rayleigh’s method Dunkarley’s method, Stodola’s method. Dynamics of Continuous systems: Free longitudinal vibration of bars, flexural vibration of beams with different end conditions,. Stiffness matrix, mass matrix (lumped and consistent); equations of motion for the discretised beam in matrix form.

Books for Reference:
1. Dynamics of Structures – Theory and Application to Earthquake Engineering”- 2nd ed., Anil K. Chopra, Pearson Education.
2. Earthquake Resistant Design of Building Structures, Vinod Hosur, WILEY (india)
3. Vibrations, structural dynamics- M. Mukhopadhaya : Oxford IBH
4. Structural Dynamics- Mario Paz : CBS publishers.
5. Structural Dynamics- Clough & Penzien : TMH
6. Vibration Problems in Engineering Timoshenko, S, Van-Nostrand Co.

DESIGN OF INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES
Subject Code : 14CSE151

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Objectives:
The objectives of this course is to make students to learn principles of Design of industrial building , To design different components of industrial structures and to detail the structures. To evaluate the performance of the Pre- engineered buildings.

Course Outcomes: On completion of this course, students are able to
· Achieve Knowledge of design and development of problem solving skills.
· Understand the industrial building and the components.
· Design and develop analytical skills.
· Summarize the principles of Structural Design and detailing
· Understands the concept of Pre- engineered buildings.

1. Analysis of industrial building for Gravity and Wind load. Analysis and design of framing components namely, girders, trusses, gable frames
2. Analysis and design of gantry column (stepped column / column with bracket), purlins, girts, bracings including all connections.
3. Analysis of transmission line towers for wind load and design of towers including all connections.
4. Forms of light guage sections, Effective width computation of unstiffened, stiffened, multiple stiffened compression elements of cold formed light guage sections. Concept of local buckling of thin elements. Limiting width to thickness ratio. Post buckling strength.
5. Concept of Pre- engineered buildings, Design of compression and tension members of cold formed light guage sections, Design of flexural members (Laterally restrained / laterally unrestrained).

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Bureau of Indian Standards, IS800-2007, IS875-1987, IS-801-1975. Steel Tables, SP 6 (1) – 1984
2. N Subramanian- “Design of Steel Structure” oxford University Press
3. B.C. Punmia, A.K. Jain “Design of Steel Structures”, Laxmi Publications, New Delhi.
4. . Ramchandra and Virendra Gehlot “ Design of Steel Structures “ Vol 1 and Vol.2, Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur
5. Duggal “Limit State Design of Steel Structures” TMH

ELECTIVE – I
SPECIAL CONCRETE
Subject Code : 14CSE152

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

The objectives of this course is to make students to learn principles of Concrete mix design, To differentiate between different types of concrrete . To characterize the high Performance concrete.

Course Outcomes: On completion of this course, students are able to
· Achieve Knowledge of design and development of problem solving skills.
· Understand the principles of Concrete mix design
· Design and develop analytical skills.
· Summerize the Light Weight concrete, Fibre reinforced concrete and High Performance concrete:
· Understand the concepts of high Performance concrete.

1. Components of modern concrete and developments in the process and constituent materials : Role of constituents, Development in cements and cement replacement materials, pozzolona, fly ash, silica fume, rice husk ash, recycled aggregates, chemical admixtures. Mix proportioning of Concrete: Principles and methods.

2. Light Weight concrete: Introduction, classification, properties, strength and durability, mix proportioning and problems. High density concrete: Radiation shielding ability of concrete, materials for high density concrete, mix proportioning, properties in fresh and hardened state, placement methods.

3. Ferro cement: Ferrocement materials, mechanical properties, cracking of ferrocement, strength and behaviour in tension, compression and flexure, Design of ferrocement in tension, ferrocement constructions, durability, and applications.

4. Fibre reinforced concrete: Fibre materials, mix proportioning, distribution and orientation, interfacial bond, properties in fresh state, strength and behavior in tension, compression and flexure of steel fibre reinforced concrete, mechanical properties, crack arrest and toughening mechanism, applications.

5. High Performance concrete: constituents, mix proportioning, properties in fresh and hardened states, applications and limitations. Ready Mixed Concrete, Self Compacting Concrete, Reactive powder concrete, bacterial concrete.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Neville A.M, “Properties of Concrete” Pearson Education Asis, 2000
2. P. Kumar Mehta, Paul J.N.Monterio, CONCRETE, “Microstructure, Properties and Materials”- Tata McGraw Hill
3. A.R.Santhakumar, (2007) “Concrete Technology”-Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2007
4. Gambhir “Concrete Technology” TMH.
5. Short A and Kinniburgh.W, “Light Weight Concrete”- Asia Publishing House, 1963
6. Aitcin P.C. “High performance concrete”-E and FN, Spon London 1998
7. Rixom.R. and Mailvaganam.N., “Chemical admixtures in concrete”- E and FN, Spon London 1999
8. Rudnai.G., “Light Wiehgt concrete”- Akademiaikiado, Budapest, 1963.

ELECTIVE – I
REPAIR AND REHABILITATION OF STRUCTURES
Subject Code : 14CSE153

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Objectives:
The objectives of this course is to make students to investigate the cause of deterioration of concrete structures, To strategise different repair and rehabilitation of structures. To evaluate the performance of the materials for repair.

Course Outcomes: On completion of this course, students are able to
· Achieve Knowledge of design and development of problem solving skills.
· Understand the cause of deterioration of concrete structures.
· Design and develop analytical skills.
· Summarize the principles of repair and rehabilitation of structures
· Understands the concept of Serviceability and Durability.

1. General: Introduction, Cause of deterioration of concrete structures, Diagnostic methods & analysis, preliminary investigations, experimental investigations using NDT, load testing, corrosion mapping, core drilling and other instrumental methods Quality assurance for concrete construction as built concrete properties strength, permeability, thermal properties and cracking.

2. Influence on Serviceability and Durability: Effects due to climate, temperature, chemicals, wear and erosion, Design and construction errors, corrosion mechanism, Effects of cover thickness and cracking, methods of corrosion protection, corrosion inhibitors, corrosion resistant steels, coatings, cathodic protection.

3. Maintenance and Repair Strategies: Definitions: Maintenance, repair and rehabilitation, Facets of Maintenance importance of Maintenance Preventive measures on various aspects.Inspection, Assessment procedure for evaluating a damaged structure causes of deterioration – testing techniques.

4. Materials for Repair: Special concretes and mortars, concrete chemicals, special elements for accelerated strength gain, Expansive cement, polymer concrete, sulphur infiltrated concrete, Ferro cement, Fiber reinforced concrete. Techniques for Repair: Rust eliminators and polymers coating for rebar during repair foamed concrete, mortar and dry pack, vacuum concrete, Gunite and Shot Crete Epoxy injection, Mortar repair for cracks, shoring and underpinning.

5. Examples of Repair to Structures: Repairs to overcome low member strength, Deflection, Cracking, Chemical disruption,
weathering wear, fire, leakage, marine exposure, engineered demolition techniques for dilapidated structures – case studies

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Sidney, M. Johnson “Deterioration, Maintenance and Repair of Structures”.
2. Denison Campbell, Allen & Harold Roper, “Concrete Structures – Materials, Maintenance and Repair”- Longman Scientific and Technical
3. R.T.Allen and S.C. Edwards, “Repair of Concrete Structures”-Blakie and Sons
4. Raiker R.N., “Learning for failure from Deficiencies in Design, Construction and Service”- R&D Center (SDCPL)

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
Subject Code : 14CSE11

IA Marks : 50
No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 50 Exam Marks : 100

Objectives:
The objectives of this course is to make students to learn principles of Structural Analysis, To implement these principles through different methods and to analyse various types of structures. To evaluate the force and displacement parameters of the structures.
Course Outcomes: On completion of this course, students are able to
· Achieve Knowledge of design and development of problem solving skills.
· Understand the principles of Structural Analysis
· Design and develop analytical skills.
· Summarize the Solution techniques
· Understand the concepts of structural behaviour.

1. Fundamental concepts: Static and Kinematic indeterminacy, Concepts of stiffness and flexibility. Energy concepts. Principle of minimum potential energy and minimum complementary energy. Development of element flexibility and element stiffness matrices for truss, beam and grid elements.

2. Analysis using Flexibility method: Force-transformation matrix using Flexibility method, Development of global flexibility matrix for continuous beams, plane trusses and rigid plane frames (having not more than six co-ordinates – 6×6 flexibility matrix) Analysis of continuous beams, plane trusses and rigid plane frames by flexibility method (having not more than 3 coordinates – 3×3 flexibility matrix)

3. Analysis using Stiffness Method: Displacement-transformation matrix using Stiffness Method, Development of global stiffness matrix for continuous beams, plane trusses and rigid plane frames (having not more than six co-ordinates – 6×6 stiffness matrix) Analysis of continuous beams, plane trusses and rigid plane frames by stiffness method (having not more than

3 coordinates – 3×3 stiffness matrix)

4. Effects of temperature change and lack of fit: Related numerical problems by flexibility and stiffness method as in Chapters 4 and 6.

5. Solution techniques: Solution techniques including numerical problems for simultaneous equation, Gauss elimination and Cholesky method. Bandwidth consideration.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. S.Rajasekaran, “Computational Structural Mechanics”, PHI, New Dehi 2001.
2. F.W.Beaufait et al., “Computer methods of Structural Analysis”, Prentice Hall, 1970.
3. W.Weaver and J.H.Gere, “Matrix Analysis of Framed Structures”, Van Nastran, 1980.
4. H.Karde Stuncer, “Elementary Matrix Analysis of Structures”, McGraw Hill 1974.
5. A.K.Jain “Advanced Structural Analysis with Computer Application” Nemchand and Brothers, Roorkee, India.
6. M.F.Rubinstein “Matrix Computer Methods of Structural Analysis “Prentice – Hall.

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LAB-1
Subject Code : 14CSE16

IA Marks : 25
No. of Lab Hrs./ Week : 03 Exam Hrs : 03
Total No. of Lab Hrs. : 48 Exam Marks :50

The objectives of this course is to make students to learn principles of design of experiments, To investigate the performance of structural elements . To evaluate the different testing methods and equipments. .

Course Outcomes: On completion of this course, students are able to
· Achieve Knowledge of design and development of experimenting skills.
· Understand the principles of design of experiments
· Design and develop analytical skills.
· Summerize the testing methods and equipments.

1. Testing of beams for deflection, flexure and shear 12 Hrs
2. Experiments on Concrete, including Mix design 12 Hrs
3. Experiments on vibration of multi storey frame models for Natural frequency and modes. 12Hrs
4. Use of Non destructive testing (NDT) equipments – Rebound hammer, Ultra sonic pulse velocity meter and Profometer

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